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Dr Mohd Haidil Akmal Mahdan

DDS (USM),Ph.D (TMDU,Tokyo)
25th June 2015

• Definitions
• Classification
• Impression plaster
• Impression compound
• Zinc oxide eugenol 
• Impression waxes
• A negative likeness or copy in reverse of the surface of an
object; (an imprint of the teeth and adjacent structures
for use in dentistry)

Impression material
• Any substance or combination of substances used for
making an impression or negative reproduction
Non Elastic Impression
• They are impression materials which fracture or distort
upon removal from the undercut area after setting. They
can’t record the undercut area

• Preferable for edentulous patient

1. Impression Plaster
• Main indication: impression of edentulous ridges
• Old type, not frequently used anymore
• Composition :
CaSO4 . β-hemihydrate
Potassium sulfate – to reduce expansion but accelerates
Borax – a retarder to prolong setting time
quartz, lime - to make the plaster more brittle
Very good surface detail reproduction Requires separating medium

Easy to prepare & handle Very rigid – often need to be fractured

when removed from the mouth

Long shelf life Fractures if undercuts are present

Non toxic Non-toxic but may dry soft tissues -

unpleasant to patients

Setting time can be controlled

Excellent dimensional stability

 Setting reaction:

CaSO4.0.5H2O + 1.5H2O CaSO4.2H2O + heat + expansion

reacts with water to form a hard mass of calcium sulphate dihydrate.

This setting reaction is associated with an expansion of 0.3-0.6%.

When this is within the confines of an impression tray it will lead to a
significant reduction in accuracy.

Mixing the plaster with anti-expansion solution (containing 4%

potassium sulphate and 0.4% borax) will reduce this.

 The potassium sulphate reduces expansion to 0.05%, but this also

accelerates the setting reaction, and borax is added as a retarder,
which gives more time to take the impression.
 Properties :

1.Excellent at recording fine detail

2.Dimensionally stable if anti expansion solution used
3.Fractures if undercuts present
5.Needs to be treated with a separating medium (e.g.
varnish or soap solution) before being cast in stone or
6.Exothermic setting reaction
7.On storage dimensionally stable but a small amount of
shrinkage may occur
8.Non toxic but may be unpleasant due to dryness and heat
evolved during setting
2. Impression compound
• Thermoplastic material (softens when heated to 50oC and hardens
on cooling) for making impressions of edentulous ridge, tooth
impressions in a copper band
• Supplied as sheet, cakes, cone, disc
• Color : red, green, orange, brown

Low fusing High fusing

Soften at 50-60 Soften at 70

•Used for 1ry impression •Used for 2ndry

•Individual tooth impression impression for special
•For peripheral tracing tray
•To check undercuts in inlay
 Composition:
 Rosin 30%
 Copal resin 30%
 Carbuna wax 10%
 Stearic acid 5%
 Talc 25%
 Coloring pigments

Setting reaction :
- Sets by physical reaction (reversible)

Impression compound (Hard) 450C Impression compound (Soft)

 Manipulation:

• As impression compound is of low thermal conductivity, adequate

time should be given for uniform heating to INCREASE flow during
impression taking.

 Soaking in warm water-bath [Sheets or cakes]

 Over a flame.[Sticks]
 Dry kneading with fingers.
 Properties :

• Viscous material, Low flow (Mucocompressive technique)
It can not record the fine details.

2.Dimensional accuracy during setting

• High coefficient of thermal expansion & contraction; due to
weak intermolecular 2ndry bonds
• Contraction during cooling from mouth-to room temperature

3.Flexibility for ease of removal from undercut

4. Rigid material
.·. It is used only in minimum undercut
(Completely edentulous patient)

2.Adhesion to the tray : Self adhesive to the tray

5. Elasticity: Non-elastic on removal from undercut distortion.

6. Disinfection without loosing accuracy

• Can be disinfected by immersion.

7. Dimensional stability during storage

• Not dimensional stable during storage due to release of
.·. Immediate pouring of the model is recommended.

8. Compatible with the model material:

a. The gypsum mix can adapt & fill the impression.
b. No separating medium is required.
c. Being thermoplastic , [ Tray + impression + model] is
immersed in warm water-bath to soften the impression
compound for easy separation from the model.
Cheap, reusable Difficult to record details

No irritation to patient Soft tissues are compressed

during impression taking

Can be modified and Distortion

resoftened again till accurate
impression achieved

Difficult top remove undercut

No pleasant taste
Can be uncomfortable due to
3. Zinc oxide eugenol
• Irreversible rigid impression used as secondary techn used to take
impression for edentulous patient

• Made up of Zinc oxide and eugenol (oils from clove)

• Types :
1. Eugenol free impression material for sensitive patients
Chlorothymol or lauric acid instead of eugenol.

2. Regarding setting time:

(According to ADA spec no.16)
Type 1 : Hard (ST 10 min)
Type II Soft( S.T.15 minutes)
• Chemical Composition :

Component Function
Paste 1 Zinc oxide Reactive ingredient, takes part in
setting reaction

Olive oil Active component used to from a

paste with zinc oxide

Zinc acetate Accelerate setting

water Accelerate setting
Paste 2 Eugenol Takes part in setting reaction

Caolin,talc Inert filler used to form apaste

with eugenol
• Setting reaction
i.Acid base reaction
ii.The formation of chelate compound
iii.Ionic in nature

     Zinc oxide + water Zinc hydroxide

Zinc hydroxide +2 Eugenol Zinc eugenolate (Chelate [Salt]) + H2O

•Manipulation :
Application of impression for 2ndry impr taking
• Properties :

1. Flow
 Low viscosity, High flow => Record the fine details.
[Mucostatic technique]
2. Dimensional accuracy during setting
 Slight contraction during setting (0.1%)
3. Flexibility for ease of removal from undercut
 Rigid use in minimum undercut (completely edentulous patient)
4. Adhesion to the tray: Self adhesive to the tray
5. Elasticity
 Non-elastic , cannot record the undercut area
.·. Distortion on removal
6. Disinfection without loosing accuracy:
 Can be disinfected by immersion.
7. Dimensional stability during storage
Good dimensional stability Burning sensation

Good detail reproduction Messy to work with

Impression surface can Sticks to skin, instruments,

modified by adding into difficult to clean
deficient areas

Easy to manipulate Rigid, tends to break off in

undercut areas
Longer working time
• Other uses :-

 Cement
 Root canal filling material
 Temporary cement
 Surgical pack in perio surgery
 Relining for denture
4. Impression waxes
• Classified into :
i) Corrective impression wax and
ii) Bite registration wax

• Please read previous lecture on dental wax ;)


• Zardiackas.L.D , Dental materials,Dentla clinics of

morthamerica,July 2007,vol 51,pg 629-643 .
• O’Brien.W.J, Dental materials and their selection, 3rd edition,
Quintessence publications.
• Craig.R.G, Dental Materials, 12th edition, Elsevier publications.
• Anusavice, Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials, 11th edition,
Saunders publications. Impression materials.