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Chapter 11: Classroom Management


1. Discuss current view of nature and scope of classroom


2. Compare three classroom management approaches

3. Analyze strategies promoting an effective science learning


4. Consider disciplinary interventions to bring about changes

in behavior of student

5. Discuss causes of misbehavior in adolescent students

I. Changing paradigm of classroom management
A. Classroom management is more than disciplining misbehaviors
1. Encompasses all that teachers do to promote student learning
2. Shift from historical paradigm of obedience
3. Promote responsibility of students for self-guidance (p.218)
4. Impetus from expectation of school to address societal issues
a. Violence, irresponsibility, family instability increasing
b. Teacher functions as “authoritative parent”
5. Curriculum reform materials depend on this management shift
a. Small group activities, student interaction
b. Teacher rules and control over whole class doesn’t work well
6. Shift to encouraging appropriate behavior rather than dealing with
problems when they occur

B. Theoretically grounded management decisions

1. Psychology has been applied to develop management systems
a. Present ideas about motivates student behaviors
b. Identify strategies for maintaining successful learning environment
c. “Assertive Discipline”, “Teacher Effectiveness Training”, etc…
2. Three accepted interpretations of child development
a. Children are intrinsically motivated to develop their potential
b. Children are molded by external forces of environment
c. Children develop through interaction of intrinsic and external forces
d. Wolfgang (1995) places management systems into classes based on
which of these models they follow (p. 219)

3. Student-Directed Management (intrinsic motivation)

a. Teacher actions promote minimal authority
b. Promote classroom learning communities
c. Students work and express themselves freely
d. Misbehavior is due to obstacles preventing rational student thinking
e. Remove obstacles and students will behave
f. Nonverbal cues and nondirective statements guide student behavior

4. Collaborative Management (intrinsic/external interaction)

a. Behavioral management is shared student/teacher responsibility
b. Teacher must work with students to manage learning environment
c. Underlying cause exists for misbehavior that can be eliminated
d. Boundaries set with student choices within a range
e. Solutions to problems must be acceptable to other students + teacher
f. Verbal communication includes directive statements guide students
5. Teacher-Directed Management (external motivation)
a. Explicit teacher controlled standards of behavior
b. Teacher’s responsibility to regulate behavior
c. Teacher does not consider student’s motives in misbehavior
d. Positive, negative reinforcement, or punishment used

C. Choosing a management approach

1. Any of the described approaches can be successful
2. System must fit teacher’s beliefs about classroom management
3. Teacher-directed model may not fit new management paradigm
a. Doesn’t teach students to manage their own behavior
b. Students responding only to external stimuli, not reflecting about and
consciously changing their own behavior
4. Student-Directed and Collaborative approaches fit new paradigm
a. Student-directed model difficult in large classes: too much time
b. Both models depend on communication ability of student

II. The Science Learning Environment

A. Brophy’s description of successful learning environment (2000)
1. Classroom arrangement fits activities with materials in easy reach
2. Routing movement of students requires minimal direction by teacher
3. Students engaged in activities know what to do and what to use
4. Class period divided into both teacher and student directed units
5. Students pay attention, ask and answer question
6. Transitions between activities are brief and smooth
7. Group work is collaborative and self-directed

B. Classroom Setting considerations

1. Position of laboratory work stations, student desks, chalkboard,
projector screens
2. Students need to be instructed how to arrange classroom for
transition to lab work
3. Frequently used materials readily available, specialized equipment
stored until needed
4. Use of gas and electricity must be planned for
5. Chemical materials must be safely located and dispensed
6. Emergency exit plan should be considered
C. Classroom Rules
1. Communicate teacher expectations on first day
2. Should be simple, direct, realistic, understandable, and enforced
3. Emmer (1994) suggested starting points
a. Bring all needed materials to class
b. Be in your seat ready to work when bell rings
c. Respect and be polite to everyone
d. Listen and stay seated when someone else is talking
e. Respect other people’s property
f. Obey all school rules
4. Student ownership of rules if they help establish them
5. It will take a few weeks for students to adjust
6. If a rule doesn’t work, make it more realistic and enforceable
7. May want to post rules or send a copy home with parents

D. Procedures and Routines

1. Simple procedures for routine tasks (passing out papers) save time
and prevent student misbehaviors
2. Students should be engaged during administrative tasks (role)
3. Teacher should dismiss students, not the bell
4. Student should know when and how to ask questions, talk to other
students, sharpen pencils, go to the bathroom, etc…
5. Grading policies should be known and in place early
6. Lab dress, disposal, clean-up, notebook procedures in place

E. Instructional Practices
1. Overplan (more than can be done) especially as a new teacher
a. Misbehavior and disinterest result from poor planning
b. Teacher can be confident and prepared
2. Choose appropriate activities for the content
a. Discussion for an STS issue
b. Lab for a visible process (precipitation, germination, etc…)
3. Plan beginnings, endings, and transitions
a. Break into multiple activities
b. Don’t allow talking during transitions
c. Transitions should be short and smooth

F. Curriculum
1. Curriculum is central element and should matches ability/interest
2. Boring or too difficult content results in misbehaviors
3. Interesting and doable content results in good behavior
4. Standard often control curriculum, but even minor changes help

G. Student Socialization
1. Teachers influence areas outside of science content
2. Help develop personal and social skills
3. Enjoy students and accept them as individuals
4. Teacher must be confident, cool in a crisis, and set an example
5. Skills to help socialization of students
a. Develop personal relationship with at least some students
b. Deal with personal problems outside of class time
c. Avoid power struggles during conflicts
d. Help students to accept responsibility for their own actions
e. Develop relationships with parents

III. Reducing Teacher Vulnerability to Student Misbehavior

A. Consider the school calendar
1. Beginning of the year checklist p. 228
2. Extra classroom management time and effort needed at beginning
3. Games, vacations may require adjustment of lessons/activities
B. Get to know the students
1. Learn names as quickly as possible
a. Shows you are interested in students
b. Seating chart is invaluable; assigned seats at least to start year
2. Other things that are helpful to know about students
a. Past academic performance
b. Health problems
c. Family particulars: parent occupations, brother and sisters, divorced?
d. Extracurricular activities
e. Special needs related to hearing or visual impairments
f. Vocational or educational plans
3. Sources of information
a. Student files
b. Individual conferences or parent-teacher conferences
c. Discussion with other teachers, guidance counselors, administrators

C. Dress professionally
1. Avoid being confused with students: no blue jeans, sweats, tee shirt
2. Comfortable, neat, clean, and modest
3. Men: dress pants and shirts, possibly a tie (even on lab days)
4. Women: dresses, business suits, or slacks
D. Become familiar with school routines
1. Students misbehave when you don’t know what to do
2. Examples
a. How to take and keep attendance records
b. How to handle hall passes or permit students out of the room
c. How to deal with tardiness
d. Checking out texts and library books
e. What to do with injured or ill student
f. How to arrange for a field trip
g. When and how to send students to principal, counselor, psychologist
h. Emergencies procedures
3. Usually in a handbook or some other written format
4. Find out before you need to do it

E. Give encouragement and praise

1. Verbally praise students or classes as frequently as possible
2. Should not be reserved for special occasions
3. Reward students as they achieve desirable levels of performance:
go to library, project time, field trips, games, cancel homework, etc...
F. Project personality and enthusiasm
1. Energetic, friendly, humorous teachers have students that behave
2. Enthusiasm for content will result in more interested students
3. Consistent calmness and businesslike manner most important

IV. Dealing with student misbehavior

A. Disciplinary Interventions
1. Action taken by teacher to change nonconforming student behavior
2. Misbehaviors: continual disruptions, cheating, swearing,
disrespect, destroying property, endangering safety
3. Most dealt with by teacher in classroom
4. Some require administrative action

B. Shrigley’s Coping Skills (1979)

1. Ignore behavior: often stops on its own Curbs 40%
2. Signal interference: body language, eye contact of classroom
3. Proximity control: stand near the student
4. Touch control: hand to shoulder, use discretion
5. Active listening: listen to and acknowledge student frustration
6. I message: “I am afraid someone will get burned”
7. Speak to the situation: “Throwing things is dangerous in lab.”
8. Direct appeal: ask student to consider effects of his actions
9. Interrogative: “Will you please stop throwing things?”
10. Glasser’s questions: “What are you doing? What should you be
11. Logical consequences: if they make a mess, make them clean it up
12. Contrived consequences: if they make a mess, give a detention
13. Broken record: “Put down the hamster…put it down…put it down”
14. Compliance or Penalty: “Put down the hamster or go to the office”

C. Conference with student, to find out cause and how to prevent

• Home background, academic ability, other activities, health,
personality problems, school administration, the teacher
• Involve administration only as a last resort
D. School Violence
1. Psychological problems with lack of control: treated as disability
2. External problem prompts violence from student with control
3. Fights: don’t try to stop alone, encourage nonviolent means