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IPE 4227

CAM & ROBOTICS


Systems Overview of a ROBOT

Md. Shohel Parvez


Assistant Professor
Dept. of Industrial Engineering and
Management
Khulna University of Engineering & Technology.
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Outline

 Robot Anatomy  Robot Body-Arm-


Configurations
 Manipulator
 Manipulator Joints,  Polar coordinate body-
Types of Joints and-arm assembly
 Joints Notation Scheme  Cylindrical body-and-arm
 Sensory Devices assembly
 Cartesian coordinate
 Controller
body-and-arm assembly
 Power Conversion
 Jointed-arm body-and-
Units arm assembly
2  (SCARA)
What is Robotics?
 Robotics is the art, knowledge base, and the know-how of
designing, applying, and using robots in human endeavors.
 Robotics is an interdisciplinary subject that benefits from
mechanical engineering, electrical and electronic
engineering, computer science, biology, and many other
disciplines.

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Robot Anatomy
Robot anatomy is concerned with the physical
construction of the body, arm & wrist of the machine.
Most of the robots used in industries today are
mounted on a base which is fastened to the floor.
At the end of the arm is the wrist. The wrist is
oriented in a variety of positions
The assembly of body, arm and wrist is called
“Manipulator”
Attached to the robot’s wrist is a hand which is called
“end effector”
The body and arm joints position the end effector
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and wrist joints orient the end effector.
Robot System

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Robot Manipulator
 Manipulator consists of joints and links
 Joints provide relative motion.
 Links are rigid members between joints
 Various joint types: linear and rotary
 Each joint provides a “degree-of-freedom”
 Most robots possess five or six degrees-of-
freedom
 Robot manipulator consists of two sections:
 Body-and-arm – for positioning of objects in the
robot's work volume
 Wrist assembly – for orientation of objects
Robot Motions
 Three joints are associated with the action of arm
and body
 Two or three used to actuate the wrist
 To move body, arm and wrist through a series of
motions and positions
 End effector is used to perform a specific task
 Robot’s movements divided into two categories:
1. Arm and body motions
2. Wrist motions
 Individual joint motions referred as ‘ DOF ’
 Motions are accomplished by powered joints
What is a joint?
 A joint of robot is similar to a joint in the human
body

Joint

 Each joint gives the robot with a degree-of-


freedom(d.o.f)of motion
 In the nearly all cases, only 1 d.o.f is allowed to a
joint
 Joints involve relative motions of the adjoining links
that may be linear or rotational
What is a robot link?

 Links are rigid components that form a chain


connected together by joints

Link

 Each joint has two links, known as an input


link and an output link. Input link is closest
to the base. Output link moves with respect
to the input link
Robots degrees of freedom
 Degrees of Freedom: Number of
independent position variables which would
has to be specified to locate all parts of a
mechanism.
 In most manipulators this is usually the
number of joints.
DOF of a Rigid Body

In a plane

In space
Degrees of Freedom
3 position
3D Space = 6 DOF
3 orientation
In robotics:
DOF = number of independently driven joints
positioning accuracy
As DOF computational complexity
cost
flexibility
power transmission is
more difficult
The Six Possible Lower Pair
Joints
Degrees of Freedom

 Degree of freedom - one joint one degree of freedom


 Simple robots - 3 degrees of freedom in X,Y,Z axis
 Modern robot arms have up to 7 degrees of freedom
 XYZ, Roll, Pitch and Yaw
 The human arm can be used to demonstrate the degrees
of freedom.

 Crust Crawler- 5 degrees of freedom


Robot Manipulator
Link3
Joint3

End of Arm

Link2

Link1

Joint2

Joint1

Link0
Base

Robot manipulator - a series of joint-link combinations


Types of Manipulator Joints
Link3
Joint3
 Translational motion
 Linear joint (Type L)
End of Arm

 Orthogonal joint (Type O)


Link2

 Rotary motion Link1

 Rotational joint (Type R) Joint2


 Twisting joint (Type T)
 Revolving joint (Type V)
Joint1

Link0
Base
Translational Motion Joints
Linear joint (Type L)

The relative movement


between the input link
and the output link is a
linear sliding motion,
with the axes of the two
links being parallel. May
be called ‘Prismatic’ joint
Translational Motion Joints
Orthogonal joint (Type O)

This is also linear sliding


motion, but the input
and output links are
perpendicular to each
other during the
movement
Rotary Motion Joints
Rotational joint (Type R)

This type provides a rotational relative motion of


the joints, with the axis of rotation perpendicular
to the axes of the input and output links
Rotary Motion Joints
Twisting joint (Type T)

This joint also involves a rotary motion, but the


axis of rotation is parallel to the axes of the two
links
Rotary Motion Joints
Revolving joint (Type V)

In this types, the axis of the input link is parallel


to the axis of rotation of the joint, and the axis of
the output link is perpendicular to the axis of
rotation
Joint Notation Scheme
 Physical configuration of the robot can be described by a
joint notation scheme
 Considering the arm and body first
 Starting with the joint closest to the base till the joint
connected to the wrist (Uses the joint symbols (L, O, R, T,
V) to designate joint types used to construct robot
manipulator)
 Examples are LLL, TLL, TRL, TRR, VVR
 Wrist joints can be included for notation
 From joint closest to the arm to the mounting plate for the
end effector have either T or R type
 Examples are TRL : TRT, TRR : RT
 Separates body-and-arm assembly from wrist assembly
using a colon (:)
 Example: TLR : TR
Example

Sketch following manipulator configurations


(a) TRT:R, (b) TVR:TR, (c) RR:T.

Solution:
R
R
T T R
R T
R
R V

T T

(a) TRT:R (b) TVR:TR (c) RR:T


Outline

 Robot Anatomy  Robot Body-Arm-


Configurations
 Manipulator
 Manipulator Joints,  Polar coordinate body-
Types of Joints and-arm assembly
 Joints Notation Scheme  Cylindrical body-and-arm
 Sensory Devices assembly
 Cartesian coordinate
 Controller
body-and-arm assembly
 Power Conversion
 Jointed-arm body-and-
Units arm assembly
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4
 (SCARA)
Robot Body-&-Arm Configurations
 Five common body-and-arm configurations
for industrial robots:
1. Polar coordinate body-and-arm assembly
2. Cylindrical body-and-arm assembly
3. Cartesian coordinate body-and-arm assembly
4. Jointed-arm body-and-arm assembly
5. Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm
(SCARA)
 Function of body-and-arm assembly is to
position an end effectors (e.g., gripper, tool)
in space
Robot Anatomy..
Robot Configurations
 Variety of sizes, shapes and physical
configuration
1. Cartesian Coordinates Configuration
2. Cylindrical Configuration
3. Polar or Spherical Configuration
4. Articulated or Jointed-arm Configuration
5. Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm
(SCARA) Configuration

11 June 2018 26 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
1. Cartesian Coordinate Configuration
 Uses three perpendicular slides to construct
x , y and z axes
 X-axis represents right and left motions,Y-
axis represents forward-backward motions
and Z-axis represents up-down motions
 Kinematic designation is PPP/LLL
 Other names are xyz robot or Rectilinear
robot or Gantry robot
 Operate within a rectangular work volume
 Notation LOO:
11 June 2018 27 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
1. Cartesian Coordinate Configuration..

11 June 2018 28 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
1. Cartesian Coordinate Configuration..
 Advantages
 Linear motion in three dimension
 Simple kinematic model
 Rigid structure
 Higher repeatability and accuracy
 High lift-carrying capacity as it doesn’t vary at
different locations in work volume
 Easily visualize
 Can increase work volume easily
 Inexpensive pneumatic drive can be used for
P&P operation

11 June 2018 29 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
1. Cartesian Coordinate Configuration..
 Disadvantages
 requires a large volume to operate in
 work space is smaller than robot volume
 unable to reach areas under objects
 must be covered from dust

 Applications
 Assembly
 Palletizing and loading-unloading machine tools,
 Handling
 Welding
11 June 2018 30 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
2. Cylindrical Configuration
 Use vertical column which rotates and a slide
that can be moved up or down along the
column
 Arm is attached to slide which can be moved
in and out
 Kinematic designation is RPP
 Notation TLO:
 Operate within a cylinder work volume
 Work volume may be restricted at the back
side
11 June 2018 31 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
2. Cylindrical Configuration..

11 June 2018 32 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
2. Cylindrical Configuration..
 Advantages
 Simple kinematic model
 Rigid structure & high lift-carrying capacity
 Easily visualize
 Very powerful when hydraulic drives used
 Disadvantages
 Restricted work space
 Lower repeatability and accuracy
 Require more sophisticated control
 Applications
 Palletizing, Loading and unloading
11 June 2018  Material transfer, foundry
33 and forging Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
3. Polar or Spherical Configuration
 Earliest machine configuration
 Has one linear motion and two rotary motions
 First motion is a base rotation, Second motion
correspond to an elbow rotation and Third
motion is radial or in-out motion
 Kinematic designation is RRP
 Notation TRL:
 Capability to move its arm within a spherical
space, hence known as ‘Spherical’ robot
 Elbow rotation and arm reach limit the design of
full spherical motion
11 June 2018 34 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
3. Polar or Spherical Configuration..

11 June 2018 35 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
3. Polar or Spherical Configuration..
 Advantages
 Covers a large volume
 Can bend down to pick objects up off the floor
 Higher reach ability
 Disadvantages
 Complex kinematic model
 Difficult to visualize
 Applications
 Palletizing
 Handling of heavy loads e.g. casting, forging

11 June 2018 36 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
4. Jointed Arm Configuration
 Similar to human arm
 Consists of two straight components like
human forearm and upper arm, mounted o a
vertical pedestal
 Components are connected by two rotary
joints corresponding to the shoulder and
elbow
 Kinematic designation is RRR
 Notation TRR:
 Work volume is spherical
11 June 2018 37 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
4. Jointed Arm Configuration..

11 June 2018 38 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
4. Jointed Arm Configuration..

11 June 2018 39 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
4. Jointed Arm Configuration..
 Advantages
 Maximum flexibility
 Cover large space relative to work volume
objects up off the floor
 Suits electric motors
 Higher reach ability
 Disadvantages
 Complex kinematic model
 Difficult to visualize
 Structure not rigid at full reach
 Applications
11 June 2018  Spot welding, Arc welding
40 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
5. SCARA Configuration
 Most common in assembly robot
 Arm consists of two horizontal revolute joints at
the waist and elbow and a final prismatic joint
 Can reach at any point within horizontal planar
defined by two concentric circles
 Kinematic designation is RRP
 Notation VRO:
 Work volume is cylindrical in nature
 Most assembly operations involve building up
assembly by placing parts on top of a partially
complete
11 June 2018
assembly 41 Cont.
Robot Anatomy..
5. SCARA Configuration..

11 June 2018 42 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
5. SCARA Configuration..

11 June 2018 43 Cont.


Robot Anatomy..
5. SCARA Configuration..
 Advantages
 Floor area is small compare to work area
 Compliance
 Disadvantages
 Rectilinear motion requires complex control of
the revolute joints
 Applications
 Assembly operations
 Inspection and measurements
 Transfer or components

11 June 2018 44 Cont.


Wrist Configurations
 Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm
 End effectors is attached to wrist assembly
 Function of wrist assembly is to orient end
effectors
 Body-and-arm determines global position of end
effectors
 Two or three degrees of freedom:
 Roll
 Pitch
 Yaw
 Notation RRT:
Thank you!

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