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Motivating for

OHS

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Topic Objectives

• Identify elements or factors that


motivates workers;
• Develop an action plan on how to
motivate workers to follow safety
rules and standards.

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MOTIVATION

Is an influential power
which drives a person
VOLUNTARILY to act
as influenced by other.

“You cannot teach a person.


You can only help the person
to understand.
- Galileo Galilei
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Example: When motivation should be used but
isn’t
“Why aren’t you wearing your safety gloves?” the
foreman ask a worker.
Worker: I don’t think they’re necessary.
Foreman: They protect your skin from harmful
chemicals.
Worker: I’d rather not wear them, it makes me
uncomfortable.
Foreman: Well, O.K., just be careful.
The foreman risks two kinds of trouble, the
possibility of a health hazard, and the loss of
respect and obedience of his subordinates. 4
Two Ways to Motivate

1. Help them
understand what need
to be done
2. Set good example
for everyone to follow

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What Motivate People?

Satisfaction from
one’s work/value in Self-
the world fulfillment

Self-respect, good
opinion by others Esteem

Sense of belonging,
love and affection Social

Protection against
danger/threats from Safety
environment/people
Basic needs, food,
Physiological
shelter, clothing

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 6


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Example 1: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Executive Frank Prince says, “Peter is one of
my more money-minded subordinates. He let
me know his salary was important to him, and
that he would work hard to win increases. The
trouble was, he always demanded raises six
months before I felt they were deserved, and
he became quite heated in his arguments
when I suggested that his requests were
premature. Once he got a raise, quite
descended, and his performance slacked off
until he started getting up a head of steam for
his next raise.” 8
Discussion 1: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Frank Prince’s experience validates
Maslow’s contention that a need when
gratified, loses its ability to motivate. Note
how Peter goes through a “quiet” period
after getting a raise, which represents his
satisfaction with his earnings. It’s only
when he feels he’s ready for another salary
boost---the money incentive has regained
its strength---that he makes the effort to
deserve, or at least to get his boss to O.K.,
the increase.
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Example 2: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Charles Brent was known in the real estate business
as a hard-driving cut-corners operators, willing to
come close to unethical, even illegal practices to put
over a deal or finish a project profitably. However, his
sixtieth birthday was like a curtain, revealing an Act II
in which Brent changes character. No one knew what
instructions he had given his PR staff, but suddenly he
emerged as a philanthropist, a patron of the arts, a
contributor to to worthy causes. Eventually it had to
happen: He published an “as-told-to” book entitled
Dream Builder, in which, in a combination of personal
history and imaginative fiction, Brent was depicted as
a poet/builder, driven to erect his commercial
structures for the same reason the ancients built
Stonehenge and Aaron Copland wrote his music. 10
Discussion 2: Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs
Maslow would say Brent had achieved
the first three needs, physiological,
safety, and social, and his book was an
effort to satisfy the last two, esteem and
self-fulfillment. His gratification probably
came not from the PR campaign that
launched the poet/builder image, but
from his believing in himself. Self-
delusion is a traditional path to self-
satisfaction. 11
INDIVIDUAL
WORKSHOP

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WORKSHOP
Discovering your own needs
(kindly write your name)
Satisfaction Level
Needs, Wants or Desires (1=completely, 4= more than
enough, 3=average, 2=needs
more, 5=not at all)

1. Basic needs (food,


clothing, shelter)

2. Almost necessities (love


& affection, recreation)

3. Wants and desire (praise,


new car, promotion)
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WORKSHOP
Needs & wants evaluation of
others

• Exchange worksheet with others


• Write your name at the back of the
workshop paper
• Evaluate the needs and wants on the form
by providing few ideas on what they would
do to be motivated and why.

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What Motivates People?

Hygienic Motivation Theory (Frederick Herzberg)

Hygienic factor - company Motivational factor -


policy & administration, achievement, recognition,
supervision, salary, the work itself,
interpersonal relations, and responsibility, and
working conditions advancement

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Example 1: Herzberg’s Concept
James Green, president of a small company,
notices that Tim Mayer, the vice-president of
marketing, is losing enthusiasm and drive.
Green, worried that Mayer might quit, gives him
a large corner office and new furniture.
Nevertheless, Mayer resigns and joins the
competition. On Mayer’s last day, Green asks
him into his office for a friendly chat (exit
interview). As they talk, Mayer reveals his
reason for choosing his new employer. “They
plan to groom me for a higher-level job,” he
says. Green then realizes the problem: Mayer
felt stuck in a dead-end job, and no amount of
fine furniture could cure that. 16
INDIVIDUAL
WORKSHOP

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WORKSHOP
Rate yourself from 1-10, 1 being the lowest and
10 the highest on these two Herzberg’s
Concept which affect employee/s at work.
Hygienic Factor Rating Motivational Factor Rating
1. Considerate supervision 1. Job with important purpose
2. Good pension plan 2. Achievement opportunities
3. High pay 3. Recognition of good work
4. Clear company policy 4. Chances for promotion
5. Agreeable working conditions 5. Job that requires decision
making
6. Job security
6. Responsibility
7. Good relationship with co-
workers 7. Job that encourages growth

Average Average
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What Motivate People?

Skinner’s Behavior Modification (B.F. Skinner)


“Improve performance can result from modifying behavior
rather than manipulating the psyche (mind).”

Positive Reinforcement - Negative Reinforcement -


acts as reward acts as punishment

“The management concept of


carrot and stick.”
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Skinner’s Behavioral Study
on Pigeon and Rat
A pigeon is trained to peck at a dot by
giving it a grain of pellet after each peck.

Warning. The basic question as to whether success


in conditioning animals could be duplicated with
human beings is still unanswered. The human race,
its behavior viewed merely as an intelligent animal.
Human brain and psyche sensitiveness, imagination,
potential for spirituality, ability to create, aspire,
and even its laxities and self-indulgence, represent
forces weaning it away from purely mechanistic
behaviorism. 20
Example 1: Skinner’s Concept
Emery Air-Freight launched a program in
its shipping department. Workers were
encouraged to set a production goal,
which usually turned out to be higher than
the goal the manager would have set, of
the number of pallets they would stack
with packages preparatory to shipping.
Fulfilling or surpassing the goal won
commendation and eventually, material
rewards. Sub-par performance was not
mentioned. Productivity improved
significantly. 21
“People are motivated
by their jobs when the
job is challenging and
provides a sense of
accomplishment.”

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Individual Workshop

List down three (3) elements or


factors that you think motivates
a person in the workplace.
Write these elements or factors
in 1-4 words.

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Group Workshop
Discuss with your group and list
down your priority five (5) elements
or factors that you think motivates a
person in a workplace.
Write each element or factors in one
(1) whole bond paper, i.e., one (1)
element or factor per sheet of bond
paper in landscape format. 24
Group Workshop
Based from the consolidated list of elements or
factors, chose one element or factor and formulate
an action plan that will show how this can be
adopted in your workplace.
Motivational Element/Factor: _________________ Group #: ___
Objective: _______________________________________
Actions Timetable Responsible Resources

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Trainers
Subjects

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TOMIPASTA
T – Title
O – Objectives
M – Materials
I – Introduction
P – Presentation
A – Actual
S – Summary
T – Test
A – Assessment 27
Group Workshop
Discuss with your group and
develop a 5-minute presentation
materials using Manila Papers on a
specific topic about Safety & Health.
Assessment will be performed by
other group.

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