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Supply Chain Management

(3rd Edition)
Chapter 5
Network Design in the Supply
Chain

© 2007 Pearson Education 5-1


Outline
 A strategic framework for facility location
 Multi-echelon networks
 Gravity methods for location
 Plant location models

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Network Design Decisions
 Facility role
 Facility location
 Capacity allocation
 Market and supply allocation

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Factors Influencing
Network Design Decisions
 Strategic
 Technological
 Macroeconomic
 Political
 Infrastructure
 Competitive
 Logistics and facility costs

© 2007 Pearson Education 5-4


The Cost-Response Time Frontier

Hi Local FG
Mix
Regional FG

Local WIP
Cost Central FG

Central WIP

Central Raw Material and Custom production

Custom production with raw material at suppliers


Low
Low Response Time Hi

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Service and Number of Facilities
Response
Time

Number of Facilities

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Where inventory needs to be for a one week order
response time - typical results --> 1 DC

Customer
DC

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Where inventory needs to be for a 5 day order
response time - typical results --> 2 DCs

Customer
DC

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Where inventory needs to be for a 3 day order
response time - typical results --> 5 DCs

Customer
DC

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Where inventory needs to be for a next day order
response time - typical results --> 13 DCs

Customer
DC

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Where inventory needs to be for a same day / next
day order response time - typical results --> 26 DCs

Customer
DC

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Costs and Number of Facilities

Inventory

Costs Facility costs

Transportation

Number of facilities

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Cost Buildup as a Function of Facilities
Total Costs
Cost of Operations

Percent Service
Level Within
Promised Time
Facilities
Inventory
Transportation
Labor

Number of Facilities
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A Framework for
Global Site Location
Competitive STRATEGY GLOBAL COMPETITION
PHASE I
Supply Chain
INTERNAL CONSTRAINTS Strategy
Capital, growth strategy, TARIFFS AND TAX
existing network INCENTIVES

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES REGIONAL DEMAND


Cost, Scale/Scope impact, support PHASE II Size, growth, homogeneity,
required, flexibility
Regional Facility local specifications
Configuration
COMPETITIVE
ENVIRONMENT POLITICAL, EXCHANGE
RATE AND DEMAND RISK

PHASE III
Desirable Sites AVAILABLE
INFRASTRUCTURE
PRODUCTION METHODS
Skill needs, response time

FACTOR COSTS PHASE IV LOGISTICS COSTS


Labor, materials, site specific Location Choices Transport, inventory, coordination

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Conventional Network

Materials Customer
Vendor Finished Customer
DC Store
DC Goods DC DC

Customer
Component Store
Vendor Manufacturing
DC Plant Customer Customer
Warehouse DC Store
Components
DC Customer
Vendor Store
DC Finished
Customer
Goods DC
Final DC Customer
Assembly Store

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Tailored Network: Multi-Echelon
Finished Goods Network
Local DC
Cross-Dock Store 1
Regional Customer 1
Finished DC
Goods DC Store 1
Local DC
Cross-Dock
National Store 2
Customer 2
Finished
DC
Goods DC
Local DC Store 2
Cross-Dock
Regional
Finished Store 3
Goods DC

Store 3

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Gravity Methods for Location
 Ton Mile-Center Solution
( x  x n)  ( y  y n)
2
– x,y: Warehouse Coordinates 2
d n

– xn, yn : Coordinates of delivery
D nx F
k
location n  d
n n

– dn : Distance to delivery x n 1 n

D nF
k
location n
 d
n

– Fn : Annual tonnage to delivery n 1 n

location n D ny F
k

 d
n n

y n 1 n

D nF
k

Min  d n Dn F n  dn 1
n

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Network Optimization Models
 Allocating demand to production facilities
 Locating facilities and allocating capacity

Key Costs:

• Fixed facility cost


• Transportation cost
• Production cost
• Inventory cost
• Coordination cost

Which plants to establish? How to configure the network?

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Demand Allocation Model
 Which market is served n m

by which plant? Min cij xij


i 1 j 1

 Which supply sources s.t.


are used by a plant? n

x  D , j  1,..., m
ij j

xij = Quantity shipped from i 1


m

plant site i to customer j x  K


j 1
ij i
, i  1,..., n

x ij
0

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Plant Location with Multiple Sourcing
 yi = 1 if plant is located n n m

at site i, 0 otherwise Min f y   c x ij ij


i i
i 1 i 1 j 1
 xij = Quantity shipped s.t.
from plant site i to n

customer j  x  D , j  1,..., m
i 1
ij j

 x  K y , i  1,..., n
j 1
ij i i

 y  k ; y {0,1}
i 1
i i

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Plant Location with Single Sourcing
 yi = 1 if plant is located n n m
Min f y   D j c x
at site i, 0 otherwise i 1
i i
i 1 j 1
ij ij

 xij = 1 if market j is s.t.


n
supplied by factory i, 0 x  1, j  1,..., m
ij
otherwise i 1
n

 D j x  K y , i  1,..., n
j 1
ij i i

xij , y {0,1}i

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Summary of Learning Objectives
 What is the role of network design decisions in
the supply chain?
 What are the factors influencing supply chain
network design decisions?
 Describe a strategic framework for facility
location.
 How are the following optimization methods used
for facility location and capacity allocation
decisions?
– Gravity methods for location
– Network optimization models
© 2007 Pearson Education 5-22