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Behaviorist Perspective

Behaviorism
(Parlov, Thorndike, Watson & Skinner)

• Focuses on the study of observable and measurable behavior


• Bahavior is mostly learned through conditioning and reinforcement
(rewards and punishment)
BEHAVIORISM

CLASSICAL OPERANT
CONNECTIONISM
CONDITIONING CONDITIONING
(THORNDIKE)
(PARLOV) (SKINNER)

PRIMARY LAWS Reinforcement

Law of Effect
Shaping Behavior
Law of Exercise

Law of Readiness
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
IVAN PARLOV / JOHN WATSON
• STAGE 1
NEUTRAL STIMULUS RESPONSE

• STAGE 2
UNCONDITIONED UNCONDITIONED
NEUTRAL STIMULUS
STIMULUS RESPONSE

• STAGE 3
CONDITIONED CONSITIONED
STIMULUS RESPONSE
Additional findings:
• Stimulus Generalization
• Extinction
• Spontaneous Recovery
• Discrimination
• High-Order Conditioning
CONNECTIONISM
EDWARD THORNDIKE
CONNECTIONISM
• Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and response
• Associations or habits are strengthened of weakened by the nature and
frequency of the S-R pairings
• Learning could be adequately explained without considering any
unobservable internal states
• Learning has taken place when a strong connection or bond between
stimulus and response is formed
Three Primary Laws of Learning
• Law of Effect: Reward and punishment

• Law of Exercise: “Practice makes perfect”

• Law of Readiness: Learning takes time


OPERANT CONDITIONING
BURRHUS FREDERICK SKINNER
OPERANT CONDITIONING
• Learning is a result of change in overt behavior
• Reinforcement: strengthening the desired response, can be positive,
negative
• Punishment
• Non-reinforcement
OPERANT CONDITIONING cont..
• Shaping of behavior
• Behavioral chaining
• Reinforcement Schedules
• Fixed Interval Schedules
• Variable interval schedules
• Fixed Ratio selection
• Variable radio schedule
Implications of Operant Conditioning
• Practice question (stimulus) – answer (response) method to expose students
to the subject in gradual steps
• Require response and immediate feedback
• Arrange the difficulty of the questions
• Reinforce good performance with prizes, praise and good grades
Neo-behaviorism
Tolman & Bandura
NEO-BEHAVIORISM

PURPOSIVE BEHAVIORISM SOCIAL LEARNING


(TOLMAN) THEORY (BANDURA)

GOAL-DIRECTEDNESS PRINCIPLES

MODELING
COGNITIVE MAPS
4 CONDITIONS FOR
LATENT LEARNING EFFECTIVE
MODELING
INTERVENING
VARIABLES
PURPOSIVE BEHAVIORISM
• aka Sign Language Theory
• Learning involves forming beliefs and obtaining knowledge about the
environment and then reveling that knowledge through purposeful and goal-
directed behavior
• Stress the relationship between stimuli rather than stimulus-response
• A new stimulus (sign) becomes associated with already meaningful stimulus
(significate) through series of pairings
• No need for reinforcement
Tolman’s Key Concepts
• Learning is always purposive and goal-directed
• Cognitive maps in rats/ organisms will select the shortest or easiest path to
achieve a goal
• Latent Learning
• The concept of intervening variable
• Reinforcements not essential for learin
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
• Focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context
• People learn from one another (observation, imitation and modeling)
General Principles of SLT
• People can learning by observing the behavior of others and the outcomes
of those behaviors
• Learning can occur without a change in behavior.
• Cognitions plays a role in learning
• SLT can be considered as a bridge or transition between behaviorist learning
theories and cognitive learning tehories.
Cognitive factors in Social Learning
• Learning without performance
• Cognitive processing during learning
• Expectations
• Reciprocal causation
• Modeling
Conditions necessary for effective modeling to
occur:
• Attention
• Retention
• Motor Reproduction
• Motivation
COGNITIVE
PERSPECTIVE
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY AND
INFORMATION PROCESSING
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY

GESTALT PRINCIPLES INSIGHT LEARNING LIFESPACE

Law of Proximity Inner Forces

Law of Closure
Outer Forces
Law of Good
Continuation

Law of Good Praganz

Law of Figure/ Ground


GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
• Forefront of cognitive psychology
• Foundation of the cognitive perspective to learning
• Emphasized the importance of sensory wholes and the dynamic nature of
visual perception
• Learners are not passive but active
• Learners do not just collect information as is but they actively process and
restructure data in order to understand it
GESTALT PRINCIPLES
• Law of Proximity
• Law of Similarity
• Law of Closure
• Law of Good Continuation
• Law of Good Praganz
INFORMATION PROCESSING
• Cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and
is stored in and retrieved from our memory
• One of the most significant cognitive theories in the last century
• Considers learning as an internal process not an external behavior change
• Describes how the learner receives information from the environment
through the senses and what takes place in between determines whether the
information will continue to the sensory register and short and long term
memory
INFORMATION
PROCESSING

EXECUTIVE CONTROL
TYPES OF KNOWLEDE STAGES
PROCESS

GENERAL/SPECIFIC
ENCODING
DECLARATIVE
STORAGE
PROCEDURAL
RETRIEVAL
EPISODIC

CONDITIONAL
TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
• General vs specific
• Declarative – factual knowledge
• Procedural – how to
• Episodic – memories of life events
• Conditional – knowing when and why
STAGES IN IPT
• ENCODING – information is sensed, perceived and attended to
• STORAGE – information is stored for either brief or extended period of
time
• RETRIEVAL - the information is brought back at the approprate time
• Executive Control Processes – involve the processor or what is
referred to as metacognitive skills.

• Forgetting – the inability to retrieve or access information when needed


2 ways: Decay and Interference
Methods for Increasing Retrieval of
Information
• Rehearsal
• Meaningful Learning
• Organization
• Elaboration
• Visual Imagery
• Generation
• Context
• Personalization
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