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MINERAL DAN BATUAN

MINERAL
• Adalah zat padat yang terbentuk secara
alami, memiliki komposisi kimia tertentu
dan bentuk (kristal) spesifik
• Dalam perkembangannya, air dan minyak
bumi diklasifikasikan pula sebagai mineral
• Dengan demikian, sumberdaya mineral
mencakup semua bahan tambang baik
padat maupun cair, dan air alami
MINERAL
CRYSTAL SYSTEM
• Regular: halite, diamond, pyrite
• Tetragonal: dolomite
• Trigonal: calcite
• Hexagonal: quartz
• Orthorhombic: ortho pyroxene
• Monoclinic: clyno pyroxene
• Triclinic: plagioclase
Rock Forming Minerals
ROCKS
• Rocks are aggregates of minerals together
with organic debris, glass, and or other
natural materials, they are formed by
geologic processes
BASED ON THEIR ORIGIN
• Igneous Rock
• Sedimentary Rock
• Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rocks
• All igneous rocks are foremd by the colling
and solidification of magma:
- Intrusive igneous rocks
– Extrusive igneous rocks
• Magma is molten rock, together with any
suspended mineral grains and dissolved
gases, that is formed by melting of rocks in
the crust mantle.
• Lava: extruded magma
Texture classifications:
• Phaneric: individual mineral grains are readily
visible to the unaided eye. In common the
mineral grains are at least 2mm
• Aphanetic: not possible to see individual mineral
grains without the help of microscope
• Porphiritic: characterized by a bimodal
distribution in the grainsize of minerals, the large
size called phenocryst in a fine-grained matrix
Plutonic and Volcanic
• Plutonic igneous rocks: coarse grained
texture, intrusive
• Volcanic igneous rocks: fine grained
and glass, shallow intrusive or
extrusive
STRUCTURES OF IGNEOUS
ROCKS
• Massive
• Columnar joint
• Spheroidal wheathering
• Fessicular
• Amygdaloid
• Flow structures: pillow, roppy
• Blocky
Spheroidal Wheathering
BENTUK-BENTUK INTRUSI
Bentuk-bentuk Intrusi
1. Batholith
2. Laccolith
3. Stock
4. Lopholith
5. Phacolith
6. Pipe/neck
7. Sill
8. Dike
Dike
Volcanic Neck
Struktur lava
Intrusi dan batuan yang dihasilkan
Batuan Beku
Granit
Tekstur Batuan Beku
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
• Rocks that is formed by sedimentation
processes.
• Sedimentary rocks, like the sediments
from which they are derived, can be
categorized into:
– Clastic: breccia, conglomerate, sandstone
– Chemical: gypsum, salt
– Biogenic: reef limestone, coal
STRUCTURES OF
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
• Clastic: bedding, graded bedding, cross
bedding, lamination, confolute, etc
• Non clastic
TEXTURE OF CLASTIC
SEDIMENTS

• Fragments: large grains


• Matrix: finer grains
• Cement
Batuan Sedimen
Batuan Sedimen
Batuan Sedimen
Struktur Sedimen
Metemorphic Rocks
• Metamorphic rocs are formed by the
changes in mineral assemblage and rock
texture that take place within the erath’s
crust as the result of temperature and
pressure changes.
• The changes happen in the solid state.
STRUCTURE OF METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
• Most metamorphic rocks form in a
differential stress field, as the result they
develop different textures:
– Foliation: Conspicuous, directional texture
• Scistose
• Gneissic
• Slaty Cleavage
– Non foliation
TEXTURES

• Granoblastic
• Lepidoblastic
• Nematoblastic
• Hornfelsic
Batuan Metamorfik
Slate

Phylite
HOW TO DISTINGUISH ROCKS

• STRUCTURE
• TEXTURE
• MINERAL COMPOSITION