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Dr. Ir.

Dedy Kristanto, MT
Petroleum Engineering Department
UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS:
CROSSPLOT METHODS
Objectives

Be able to use Density-Neutron or Neutron-


Sonic Crossplots :
- to estimate the true formation porosity
- to estimate the mineral constituency of the
reservoir rock.

DK - 2 -
Two Measurement Porosity
Crossplots

To measure (determine) of two unknown parameters


- Formations with one lithology
• Lithology
• Porosity
- Formations of two known constituents
• Can determine a more accurate value of porosity
• Can determine the percentage of each mineral
- Complex lithologies
• Can determine a more accurate value of porosity
• Can not determine percentage mineral makeup
Common Porosity Crossplots

 Neutron-Density
 Sonic-Neutron

 Sonic-Density

 All have disturbing effects


- Shaliness
- Hydrocarbons (gas)
- Fractures
Neutron-Density Crossplots

 Most frequently used


 Developed for clean, liquid-saturated
formations
 Boreholes filled with water or water-
based muds
 Several charts, depending on tools
- CP-1’s Schlumberger
- CNT-K-1’s and DSN-II-1’s Halliburton
Neutron-Density 1.9

Crossplots 2.0 Sulfur


Salt

 Axes 2.1

Bulk density (Mg/m3 or g/cc)


Trona

- Neutron limestone 2.2

- Density 2.3
f = 30
 NE-SW litho lines 2.4

- Sandstone 2.5
f = 20
- Limestone 2.6

- Dolomite 2.7
Langbeinite
f = 10
Polyhalite
 NW-SE porosity lines 2.8

- Connect equal 2.9


porosity points 3.0
0 10 20 30 40
- Nearly parallel Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
1.9
Chart based on...
POR-12/13 Neutron 2.0 Sulfur
Salt
POR-10 Density 2.1

Bulk density (Mg/m3 or g/cc)


Trona

2.2
2.3
f = 30
2.4
2.5
f = 20
2.6
2.7
Langbeinite
f = 10
Polyhalite
2.8
2.9
3.0
0 10 20 30 40
Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
Example Log - DN Plot Well “X”
Gas Effect
Well “A”
 Zone
- A: 0 - 20 A
- B: 20 - 55 B

- C: 55 - 335
- D: 335 - 350
• A
– Density = 2.95
– Neutron = -2
C
• B, D
• C
– D-N litho scaling
– GWC @ 295 m.
– D-N near overlay
below
D
Gas
Effect
Well “A”
C

A
Density-Neutron Other Comments
 Density log may be displayed as porosity
- Density-Neutron overlay for water-filled
lithology
- Curve order as with gr/cc scaling
 Shale/Gas effects
- Across litho lines: Lithology most affected
- Along porosity lines: Porosity least affected
 Response lines change with tool type
Sonic-Neutron Crossplots

 Developed for clean, liquid-saturated formations


 Boreholes filled with water or water-base mud
Sonic-Neutron Plots
110
Time average
 Similar layout to Field observation

density-neutron 100

 Two lines - two

t, Sonic transit time (ms/ft)


90
porosity models
80
- Wylie time Syivite
average
70
Trona
- Raymer-Hunt
60
 Charts
- CP-2’s (S) 50

- CNT-K-2’s (H) 40
0 10 20 30 40
Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
Sonic-Neutron Plots
 Shale - NE region 110
Time average
Field observation

• Fracs - South 100

t, Sonic transit time (ms/ft)


90
• Gas - NW
80
Syivite

70
Trona

60

50

40
0 10 20 30 40
Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
Sonic-Neutron (CNL), Fresh Mud
Well “X” Quartz Calcite Dolomite GR < 30 GR > 80

S-N Plot with GR 120

110

• Shaliness 100

• Optimistic porosity

Sonic slowness, ms/ft


• Lithology OK 90

• HC effect slight 80

70

60

50

40
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Neutron, apparent LS pu
Sonic-Density Crossplots
Density-Sonic Response
Field Lines Only
 Poor lithology Qtz Calcite Dolomite
and porosity 2

2.1
 Useful for
2.2

- Vsh 2.3

- Evaporites 2.4

Density
2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3
40 60 80 100
Sonic DT
Well “X” Sonic-Density
Density-Sonic Response
Qtz Calcite Dolomite GR < 30 GR > 90

 Clean points cover


40 60 80 100
all lines 2

 Shale point distinct 2.1

2.2

2.3

Density
2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

Sonic DT
Sonic-Density Vsh
Density-Sonic Response
Qtz Calcite Dolomite GR < 30 GR > 90
 Locate shale and
clean 40 60 80 100
2
 Grid to give Vsh 2.1

2.2 Vsh = 0
2.3

Density
2.4

2.5
Vsh = 1
2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

Sonic DT
Three Measurement Crossplots

 Used when three porosity logging tools have


been run
 For lithology only
 Three types
- Density-Neutron-Sonic (M-N plot)
- Density-Neutron-Sonic (MID plot)
- Density-Neutron-Pe (Umaa - rmaa plot)
MID Plots 1.9
Principle 2.0

2.1
 Litho lines

Bulk density (Mg/m3 or g/cc)


2.2
- Three of many
2.3
- Each line diff litho rb= 2.30, fn = 21
• Line definition 2.4

– Use endpoint 2.5


location
2.6
– Value of rb for f = 0
2.7 rmaa= 2.68
– Called rmaa
• Example 2.8

Logs show rb= 2.30, 2.9


fn = 21
3.0
rmaa = 2.68 0 10 20 30 40
Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
110
MID Plots
Field observation
Principle 100

 Litho lines 90

t, Sonic transit time (ms/ft)


- Similar to D-N
80
Dt = 78, fn = 21
• Line definition Syivite

– Use endpoint 70
Trona
location
– Value of Dt for f = 0 60

– Called Dtmaa
Dtmaa= 53
50
• Example
Logs show Dt = 78,
40
fn = 21 0 10 20 30 40
Dtmaa = 53 Apparent neutron porosity (lspu)
MID Plots
Principle

 Three litho points


• Example
 rmaa = 2.68

rmaa
quartz
 Dtmaa = 53
calcite
– 50% quartz, 50%
calcite
dolomite

Dtmaa
Calculating Δtmaa and rmaa

At each depth: Dt, rb, and fn

1. Obtain fDN and fSN from crossplots

2. Calculate rmaa = (rb - fDNrfl)/(1 - fDN)

3. Calculate Dtmaa = Dt - (fSNDt)/0.7


0.7 factor may vary somewhat