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WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

Many Changes Has Taken Place in :

 Technology – fine finishes with greater accuracy


- better equipment & machines.

 Processes
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

 Primary Process (Primary Forming Process)

 Secondary Process (Secondary Forming Process)

 Physical Process
1). Primary Forming Process

 Casting (Pengecoran)
 Forming (Pembentukan)
 Forging (Penempaan)
 Rolling (Pengerolan)
 Bending
 Shearing (Geseran)
 Drawing (Penarikan)
2). Secondary Forming Processes.

 Machinery Process
eq. Milling, Turning,Boring, etc.

 Joining Process
eq. Welding, Riveting, Soldering, Coupling.

 Surface Finishing Process


eq. Polishing, Lapping, metal spraying,
electroplating.
3). Physical Processes.

Heat Treatment Processes


(Proses Perlakuan Panas)
 Annealing (increase machinability)
 Normalizing
 Tempering (increase toughness)
 Hardening (increase wear resistance)
 Grain refining
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

 Steel Rules (Penggaris Baja)


 Calipers (Jangka Sorong)
 Micrometer (inside, outside & depth) 0.01 mm
 Vernier caliper (Jangk Sorong Vernier) 0.02 mm
 Dial Indicator
BENCH FITTING
Hand Held Tools :
 Hammer (Palu)
 Hack Saw (Gergaji Tangan/Daun)
 Files (Kikir) – (care for files important)
 Vices (Ragum)
 V-Blocks (Blok Siku)
 Try – Square
 Scribers (Penggores)
 Centre Punch (Pahat Titik)
 Scrapers (Pisau Kikis)
 Surface Gauge (Penduga Permukaan)
 Screw Driver (Obeng)
 Drills (Bor)
 Spanners (Kunci Inggris)
 Tap & Dies
HEAT TREATMENT OF FORGINGS

PURPOSE :
 Relieve internal stresses
 Improve mechanical strength eq. Hardness,
thoughness.
 Increase Creep & fatigue limits.
 Homogenize structure of metal.
 Increase wear & tear resistance.
 Annealing : - Soften metal, relieve internal stresses,
(Furnace cooled) improve machineability.
 Normalizing : - Quicker process than Annealing, obtain
(Air cooled) fine grain structure, increased tensile
strength & ductility.
 Hardening : - Increases hardness & wear resistance.
( Oil,water or brine quenched)
 Tempering : - Carried out at lower critical temp.
higher the tempering temp, lower is the
hardness of forging.
Cracks develop during forging is left
alone sometime.
WORKSHOP MAINTENANCE

“RIGHT PEOPLE FOR THE RIGHT JOB”


1). Draw up skill matrix. (Acuan Menyusun Kehilan)
2). Organisation Chart. (Pemetaan Organisasi)
3). Tools & Equipments. (Peralatan & Perlengkapan)
4). Ownership of Designated Station.
(Penganggung Jawab Stasiun)
5). Workshop Cleanliness. (Kebersihan Workshop)
6). Work site cleanliness. (Kebersihan Daerah Kerja)
UPKEEP & CARE FOR EQUIPMENTS

 LATHE MACHINE (Mesin Bubut)

 HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT (Peralatan Hidrolik)

 ELECTRIC ARE WELDING SET


(Las Busur Listrik)
 OXY – ACETYLENE CYLINDERS
(Tabung Oxy-Acetylene)