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製程策略

(Process Strategy)

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
報告綱要
瞭解製程選擇的意義
明瞭自製或採購之決策
明瞭製程選擇所探討的主題

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程選擇的意義

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
產品需求與製程能力的配合
Low-Volume Repetitive High-Volume
(Intermittent) Process (Continuous)
(Modular)

Process focus Mass


High Variety projects, job Customization
One or few units
shops,(machine, (difficult to
per run, high
variety
print, carpentry) achieve, but
huge rewards)
(allows Standard
Changes in Register Dell Computer
customization) Repetitive Co.
modules
Modest runs, (autos, motorcycles)
standardized Harley Davidson
Changes
modules in Poor Product focus
attributes (such strategy (commercial
as grade,
baked goods,
quality, size,
thickness, etc.)
steel, glass)
Long runs only Nucor Steel

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
生產製程流程圖
Custom
er
Purchasing Customer
(order inks, sales
paper, other representati
supplies) ve
Vendo (take order)
Prepress
rs Department
Accounti Receivi (Prepare printing
ng ng plates &
negatives)
Warehousing Printing
(ink, paper, Department
etc.)
Collating Gluing,
Departm binding,
ent stapling,
labeling
Polywrap
Information flow
Departm
Material flow ent
Shippi
ng

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程策略( process strategy )
• 自製或採購
– 企業內部自行製造產品或組件或者將產品或零
組件向外採購或向外發包。
• 資本密集度
– 企業使用機器設備與勞力的組合程度。
• 製程彈性
– 為因應產品或服務的設計、產量或技術變更,
企業能夠調整的幅度。

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
自製或採購之決策
• 自製或採購之決策應考慮因素
– 製造商本身的產能是否足夠。
– 生產技術。
– 品質。
– 自製率。
– 需求特性。
– 成本。

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程選擇所探討的主題
一、製程型態
– 三種分類方法
• 依機器設備使用時間的長短及其重覆性,製程型
態可分為連續性生產與間歇性生產。
• 依顧客訂貨方式,製程型態可分為存貨生產與訂
貨生產。
• 依生產數量大小,製程型態可分為批量生產、零
工生產與專業生產。
Process- Repetitive- Product-
Focused Focused Focused

Continuu
m
生產與作業管理 (Production
Management)
and Operation
製程專注 (Process Focus)

Product
Operati A
on 1 2 3

Product
B

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程專注策略 -Examples

Bank
©

Hospital 1995
Corel
Corp.

Machin
© 1995 Corel Corp. e Shop
© 1995 Corel Corp.

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程專注策略 (cont.)
• 優點 (Advantages)
– Greater product flexibility
– More general purpose equipment
– Lower initial capital investment
• 缺點 (Disadvantages)
– High variable costs
– More highly trained personnel
– More difficult production planning & control
– Low equipment utilization (5% to 25%)

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
重覆專注策略 (Repetitive Focused Strategy)

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
重覆專注策略 -Examples
F
Clothe ast
s Fo
Dryer od
McDonald’s
over 95 billion served

Truc
k
© 1995 Corel Corp.

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

© 1995 Corel Corp.

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
產品專注策略 (Product-Focused
Strategy)
• Facilities are organized by product
• High volume, low variety products

Products A & B

1 2 3
Operation

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
產品專注策略
• 優點
– Lower variable cost per unit
– Lower but more specialized labor skills
– Easier production planning and control
– Higher equipment utilization (70% to 90%)
• 缺點
– Lower product flexibility
– More specialized equipment
– Usually higher capital investment

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
產品專注策略 -Examples
Soft Drinks
(Continuou
s, then
Discrete) Light Bulbs
(Discrete)
© 1995 © 1995 Corel Corp.
Corel Corp.

Mass
Flu Shots
© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.
(Discrete)
Paper © 1995 Corel Corp.
(Continuous)

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程比較 (1/5)
Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass
(Low volume, High (Modular) (High-volume, Customization
variety) low-variety) (High-volume,
high-variety

1. Small quantity, Long runs, Large quantity, Large quantity,


large variety of standardized small variety of large variety of
products product, from products products
modules

2. General purpose Special Special purpose Rapid


equipment equipment aids equipment changeover on
in use of flexible
assembly line equipment

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程比較 (2/5)
Process Focus Repetitive Product focus Mass
Focus Customization

3 Broadly skilled Modestly trained Operators less Flexible operators


operators employees broadly skilled trained for
customization

4 Many Reduced Few work Custom orders


instructions training and orders and job require many
because of number of job instructions instructions
change in jobs instructions

5 Raw material JIT techniques Raw material Raw material low


high relative to used low relative to relative to product
product value product value value

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程比較 (3/5)
Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass
Customization

6 WIP high JIT techniques WIP low relative WIP driven


relative to output used to output down by JIT,
kanban, lean
production
7 Units move Movement Units move Goods move
slowly thru plant measured in swiftly thru swiftly thru
hours & days facility facility
8 Finished goods Finished goods Finished goods Finished goods
made to order, made to frequent made to forecast, made to order
not stored forecasts then stored

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程比較 (4/5)
Process Focus Repetitive Product focus Mass
Focus Customization
9 Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling
complex and based on relatively simple, sophisticated to
concerned with building models concerns accommodate
trade-off from a variety of establishing customization
between forecasts sufficient rate of
inventory, output to meet
capacity, and forecasts
customer service

10 Fixed costs Fixed costs Fixed costs high, Fixed costs high;
low, variable dependent on variable costs variable costs
costs high flexibility of low must be low
facilities

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程比較 (5/5)
Process Focus Repetitive Product focus Mass
Focus Customization
11 Costing, done Costs usually Because of high High fixed costs
by job, is known based on fixed costs, cost and dynamic
estimated prior experience dependent on variable costs
to doing job but utilization of
only known after capacity
doing job

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
製程連續

Process Focused Repetitive Product


(intermittent process) Focus Focused
(assembly (continuous
line) process)

Continuum

High variety, low volume Modular Low variety, high volume


Low utilization (5% - 25%) Flexible High utilization (70% - 90%)
General-purpose equipmentequipment Specialized equipment

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
大量客製化的製程策略
Repetitive Focus
Modular design
Flexible equipment
Modular
techniques
Mass
Customization
Effective Rapid
scheduling throughput
techniques techniques
Process-focused Product-focused
High volume
variety, low Low variety,
volume high
Low utilization High utilization
- 80%) (70%
20%) (5% - Specialized
General purpose equipment
equipment
生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation
Management)
自動化
• 自動化通常可分為三種型態
– 固定自動化
• 採用高成本、專業化的機器設備,用來執行一連
串固定的生產作業。
– 可程式自動化
• 使用由電腦程式所控制的一般用途、高成本的機
器設備從事生產。
– 彈性自動化
• 介於固定自動化與可程式自動化之間,其機器設
備可彈性地遂行生產作業。

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)
電腦輔助製造 (1/2)
• 電腦輔助製造 ( 上 )
數值控制
– 數值控制。
– 電腦化數值控制。
– 直接數值控制。
機器人
– 低等水準的機器人。
– 中等水準的機器人。
– 高等水準的機器人。
– 頂級水準的機器人。
生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation
Management)
電腦輔助製造 (2/2)
• 電腦輔助製造 ( 下 )
自動化裝配系統
– 製造單元。
– 彈性製造系統。
– 電腦整合製造。

生產與作業管理 (Production and Operation


Management)