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IMPRESSION

MATERIALS
DEFINITION

“Impression is defined as negative likeness or


copy in reverse of surface of an object, an
imprint of teeth and adjacent structures for
use in dentistry.”

9th Edition G.P.T


IDEAL REQUIREMENTS
 Fluid enough
 Viscous enough to be contained in tray
 Transform (set) while in mouth
 Setting time less than 5 min
 Impression should not distort or tear when removed
 Dimensional accuracy
 Dimensional stability
 Dimensional stability after removal of cast for repouring
 Adequate shelf life
 Compatible with die and cast materials
 Biocompatible
 Cost effective
CLASSIFICATIONS ARE BASED ON

 Mode of setting - Irreversible / Chemical Reaction


- Reversible / Thermally induced
physical reaction
 Mechanical properties
- Rigid / Non elastic / Inelastic
- Non rigid / Elastic
 Uses
CLASSIFICATION
IMPRESSION MATERIALS

Non - elastic Elastic


materials materials
1. Impression plaster
2. Zinc oxide Eugenol
Impn paste Elastomers Hydrocolloids
3. Impression compound 1. Polysulphides 1. Irreversible
4. Impression waxes 2. Polyether 2. Reversible
3. Silicones

Addition Condensation
According to the use of the materials in dentistry

A) Materials used for obtaining impression of dentulous


mouth

 Alginate
 Agar
 Non-aqueous Elastomers

B) Materials used for obtaining Impression of edentulous


mouth:

• Impression Compound
• Impression Plaster
• Zinc Oxide eugenol
• Wax
Classification of Impressions
• Preliminary impressions
– Taken either by the dentist or an
expanded-function dental assistant.
– Used to make a reproduction of the teeth
and surrounding tissues.
– Used to make (1) diagnostic models, (2)
custom trays, (3) provisional coverage, (4)
orthodontic appliances, and
(5) pretreatment and post-treatment
records.
Classification of Impressions-
cont’d
• Final impressions
– Taken by the dentist.
– Used to make the most accurate
reproduction of the teeth and surrounding
tissues.
– Used to make indirect restorations, partial
or full dentures, and implants.
Example of a final impression.
5. According to the viscosity or tissue displacement:

Mucostatic Mucocompressive

- Impression plaster - Impression


- Agar Compound
- Alginate - Putty elastomers
Plaster

Compound
Non-elastic
Waxes

ZnO - Eugenol
Impressio

Materials

Agar
Aqueous
n

(reversible)
Hydrocolloid
s Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether
Impression compound
Zinc oxide eugenol impression
paste
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Agar Hydrocolloid
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Irreversible Hydrocolloid
(Alginate)
Irreversible Hydrocolloid
(Alginate)
Irreversible Hydrocolloid
(Alginate)
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Elastomeric Impression
Materials
Polysulfide
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Non-aqueous Condensation
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Condensation Silicone
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Addition Silicones
Agar
Aqueous (reversible)
Hydrocolloids
Alginate (irreversible)

Elastic
Polysulfide
Condensati
Non-aqueous on
Silicones
Elastomers
Addition
Polyether

O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection


Polyether
Impression trays
Impression trays
An impression tray is defined as, "a receptacle
into which a suitable material is placed to make
an impression“.
"A device which is used to carry, confine
and control an impression material while making
an impression" - GPT.

Trays used for primary impression making are


called stock trays.

They are factory prepared and are available in


standard sizes. They are made of metal or plastic.
Disposable stock trays are also available.
Types of stock trays
• Perforated
• Nonperforated
• Water cooled
• Edentulous rim lock tray
• McGowan Winkler trays
• Sto-k trays (square, round, or tapering shapes
of ridges)
Impression Trays
• Must be sufficiently rigid to:
– Carry the impression material into the oral
cavity.
– Hold the material in close proximity to the
teeth.
– Avoid breaking during removal.
– Prevent warping of the completed
impression.
Characteristics of Impression
Trays
• Quadrant tray
– Covers one half of the arch.
• Section tray
– Covers the anterior portion of the arch.
• Full arch tray
– Covers the entire arch.
• Perforated tray
– Holes in the tray create a mechanical lock to hold the
material in place.
• Smooth tray
– Interior of the tray is painted or sprayed with an
adhesive to hold the impression material.
Types of
Stock
Trays
Examples of quadrant, section, and full-arch
impression trays.
Tray Adhesives
RIM LOCK TRAYS
PERFORATED METAL AND PLASTIC TRAYS
SPECIAL TRAY

Definition

A special tray is defined as, "A custom made


device prepared for a particular patient
which is used to carry, confine and control
an impression material while making an
impression".
IMPRESSION
COMPOUND
Classification
According to ADA specification no. 3 it is
classified into two types:

• Type I – Impression compound


• Type II – Tray compound
• Type I used for making edentulous
impressions.
• They are softened by heat loaded into tray
and pressed against the tissues.
• They are also used for making single tooth
impressions – tube impressions.
• Type II – tray compound and it is used for
preparing a tray for making an impression,
another impression material is taken into it for
making an impression of the oral tissues.
• In contrast it is more viscous when it is softened
and more hard when it is hardened.
• It is generally stiffer and have less flow.
Mode of supply
• It can be supplied as sheets,
sticks,
cakes & cones
Applications
• For making of primary impressions
• For individual tooth impression
• Peripheral tracing or border moulding
• To check undercuts in inlay preparation
Requirements of ideal impression compound
1. Pleasant taste, odor and esthetic colour
2. Not contain any toxic or irritating ingredients
3. Have adequate shelf life for storage and distribution
4. Be economical
5. Be easy to use with the minimum equipments
6. Material should not change or distort during or after
removal from the mouth.
7. Exhibit dimensional stability

8. It should harden uniformally when cooled without


warpage or distortion.
9. When softened it should have the consistency which
will allow it to reproduce fine details and retain such
details after solidification.

10. It should be cohesive and not adhesive.

11. It should exhibit a smooth glossy surface after flaming.

12. After hardening it should withstand trimming with


sharp knife without flaking or chipping.
Composition
A mixture of waxes, thermoplastic resins, organic acids,
fillers, colors

Ingredients Parts
30
Rosin
30
Copal resin
10
Carnauba wax
5
Stearic acid
25
Talc
Appropriate
Colouring agents amount
Composition

Stiffness Bees Wax

Plasticizers Shellac, Stearic Acid, Gutta percha

Fillers French chalk, diatomaceous earth,


soapstone, talc
Fusion temperature
• The temperature at which the crystalline fatty
acids solidify.
• It indicates a definite reduction in the plasticity
during cooling.
• Above this temperature the fatty acids are
liquid and probably plasticize or lubricate the
softened material to form a smooth plastic mass.
• It is approx. 43.50 C
• All the manipulations should be done above this
temperature & impression tray seated & held
firmly until fusion temperature is reached.
Glass transition temperature

• The temperature at which the material


forms a rigid mass upon cooling or looses
hardness or brittleness upon heating.

• It is approximately 390 C
Thermal properties
• Thermal conductivity is very low.
• Outside softens first – long time in waterbath
• Cool thoroughly before removal
• Linear contraction from mouth temperature
to room temperature is 0.3%.
• Ways to reduce it
- passing through flame & 2nd impression
- spraying cold water on metal tray
before impression making
Flow
• Type I – Lesser than 6% at 370C
– 80% to 85% at 450 C
• Type II – Lesser than 2% at 370 C
– 70% to 85% at 450 C
Distortion
• Release of strains – Pour the cast immediately

• Removal of impression before complete


cooling

• Co-efficient of thermal expansion is high.


Therefore contraction during cooling is high =
0.3%
ADVANTAGES

1. Non irritant and non toxic


2. Reusable (but with re-use the
constituents are leached out)
3. Can be reheated and readapted
4. Can support other materials for wash
impressions
5. Mucocompressive
DISADVANTAGES
1. Distortion - Poor dimensional stability
2. Poor surface detail
3. Expansion coefficient
4. Will distort if removed from undercuts
MANIPULATION
• DIRECT FLAME – plasticizers are volatilized
• TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED WATER
BATH

Precautions
1. Overheating – becomes brittle & grainy
2. Over kneading – changes in composition &
flow properties