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The Questionnaire’s “Position”
in the Research Process
Survey Respondent’s
Objectives Information





Criteria for a Good
To design a good questionnaire, the following issues
should be considered:
Does it Provide the
Necessary Decision- Does it Consider the
Making Respondent?
Basic Question-Response

 Editing
 Refers to going through the
questionnaire to make certain the
“skip patterns” are followed and
required questions are filled out.
 A skip pattern is the sequence in
which questions are asked.
 Open-Ended Response Format
 An open-ended question is one
that does not contain
prerecorded possible responses:
Basic Question-Response Format
 Closed-Ended Response Format Questions:
 Dichotomous closed-ended questions:
 Yes/No options.

 Multiple category closed-ended questions:

 They are very popular question style.

 Scaled-response Questions:
 Un-labeled scaled-response format:
 Purely numerical or only endpoints are identified.

 Labeled scaled-response format:

 All of the scaled position are identified.
 Unlabeledscaled-responsequestion “On a scale of 1 to
7,howwould you ratethe IBM Thinkpad onease of
 Labeled scaled-response question“Do you disagree
strongly, disagree, agree, or agree strongly with the
statement, ‘IBM laptops are abetter value than
Compaq laptops’?
Considerations in Choosing A
Questions Response Format
 Nature of property being measured:
 Different type of question format must be used.
 Previous research studies:
 Questionnaires may be used with permission.
 Data collection mode:
 Mail, telephone, personal/computer interviews.
 Ability of the respondents:
 Previous research experiences may help.
 Scale level desired:
 3, or 5, or 7 points scales.
Basic Concepts in Measurement
 Objects:
 Consumers, brands, stores, advertisements.
 Properties:
 Demographic characteristics.
 Objective properties:
 Physically verifiable.
 Subjective properties:
 Cannot be directly observed, such as person’s attitude
and intentions.
 Ordinal
With ordinal scales, it is the order of the values is what’s important and
significant, but the differences between each one is not really known. Take a
look at the example below. In each case, we know that a #4 is better than a #3
or #2, but we don’t know–and cannot quantify–how much better it is. For
example, is the difference between “OK” and “Unhappy” the same as the
difference between “Very Happy” and “Happy?” We can’t say.
 Interval scales are numeric scales in which we
know not only the order, but also the exact
differences between the values. The classic
example of an interval scale
is Celsius temperature because the difference
between each value is the same. For example,
the difference between 60 and 50 degrees is a
measurable 10 degrees, as is the difference
between 80 and 70 degrees. Time is another
good example of an interval scale in which
the increments are known, consistent, and
measurable. Here’s the problem with interval
scales: they don’t have a “true zero.”
 Ratio scales are the ultimate nirvana when it comes to
measurement scales because they tell us about the
order, they tell us the exact value between units, AND
they also have an absolute zero–which allows for a
wide range of both descriptive and inferential
statistics to be applied.
Primary Scales of Measurement
Nominal Numbers Finish
Assigned 7 8 3
to Runners

Ordinal Rank Order Finish

of Winners
Third Second First
place place place

Interval Performance
Rating on a 8.2 9.1 9.6
0 to 10 Scale

Ratio Time to 15.2 14.1 13.4

Finish, in
Primary Scales of Measurement
Scale Basic Common Marketing Permissible Statistics
Characteristics Examples Examples Descriptive Inferential
Nominal Numbers identify Social Brand nos., Percentages, Chi-square,
& classify objects Security nos., store types mode binomial test
numbering of
Ordinal Nos. indicate the Quality Preference Percentile, Rank-order
relative positions rankings, rankings, median correlation,
of objects but not rankings of market Friedman
the magnitude of teams in a position, ANOVA
differences tournament social class
between them
Interval Differences Temperature Attitudes, Range, mean, Product-
between objects (Fahrenheit, opinions, standard moment
can be compared, Celsius) index nos. deviation correlation,
zero point is t tests,
arbitrary regression

Ratio Zero point is Length, Age, sales, Geometric Coefficient

fixed, ratios of weight income, mean, of variation
scale values can costs harmonic
be compared mean
A Classification of Scaling Techniques
Scaling Techniques

Comparative Non-comparative
Scales Scales

Paired Rank Constant Q-Sort and Continuous Itemized

Comparison Order Sum Other Rating Scales Rating Scales

Semantic Stapel
Sentence completion test
Attitude Scales
 In COMPARATIVE SCALING, the respondent is asked
to compare one brand or product against another.
A comparative scale is an ordinal or rank
order scalethat can also be referred to as a
nonmetric scale. Respondents evaluate two or more
objects at one time and objects are directly compared
with one another as part of the measuring process.
need only evaluate a single product or brand. Their
evaluation is independent of the other product and/or
brands which the marketing researcher is studying.
 Non-comparative scaling is frequently referred to as
monadic scaling and this is the more widely used type of
scale in commercial marketing research studies.
Different Type of Scales
 Graphic Rating Scale:
 Present respondents with a graphic continuum typically
anchored by two extremes.
 Itemized Rating Scale:
 Itemized rating scales are very similar to graphic rating scales,
except that respondents must select from a limited number of
ordered categories rather than placing a check mark on a
continuous scale.
 Rank-Order Scale:
 Itemized and graphic scales are non-comparative because the
respondent makes a judgment without reference to another
object, concept, or person. Rank-order scales, on the other
hand, are comparative because the respondent is asked to
judge one item against another.
 Word ‘Semantic’ means relating to, or arising from the different
meanings of words or other symbols or it means the meaning and
interpretation of words, signs and sentence structure.
Stapel Scale

 It is a unipolar (one adjective) rating scale designed to measure the

respondent’s attitude towards the object or event. The scale is
comprised of 10 categories ranging from –5 to +5 without any neutral
point (zero).
 The stapel scale got its name after its developer Jan Stapel. The scale is
usually constructed vertically with a single adjective in the middle of
the range of values (-5 to +5). The respondent is asked to select the
appropriate numerical response category that best describes the extent
to which the adjective related to the object is accurate or inaccurate.
The higher the positive score selected by the respondent, the more
accurate the adjective describes the object and vice versa.
 For example, the respondent is asked to rank the quality of food, and
crew member service of an airline on a scale ranging from -5 to +5:

 From this example, the airline
is evaluated as having a high
food quality but somewhat a
poor cabin crew service.
 The stapel scale is like a
semantic differential scale
with little modifications. It is
often used in the situations
when two bi-polar adjectives
are difficult to find out. The
data obtained are the interval
and are analyzed in the same
manner as the semantic
differential data.

Thurstone scale

 In psychology and sociology, the Thurstone

scale was the first formal technique to measure
an attitude. It was developed by Louis Leon
Thurstone in 1928, as a means of measuring
attitudes towards religion. It is made up of
statements about a particular issue, and each
statement has a numerical value indicating how
favorable or unfavorable it is judged to be. People
check each of the statements to which they agree,
and a mean score is computed, indicating their
Thurstone Scale
Basic Non-comparative Scales
Scale Basic Examples Advantages Disadvantages
Continuous Place a mark on a Reaction to TV Easy to construct Scoring can be
Rating continuous line commercials cumbersome
Scale unless
Itemized Rating

Likert Scale Degrees of Measurement Easy to construct, More

agreement on a 1 of attitudes administer, and time-consuming
(strongly disagree) understand
to 5 (strongly
agree) scale

Semantic Seven-point scale Brand, product, Versatile Controversy as

Differential with bipolar labels and company to whether the
images data are interval

Stapel Scale Unipolar ten-point Measurement Easy to construct, Confusing and

scale, -5 to +5, of attitudes and administer over difficult to apply
without a neutral images telephone
point (zero)
Sources of Error in Measurement
Measurement should be precise and unambiguous in an ideal research study.
This objective, however, is often not met with in entirety. As such the
researcher must be aware about the sources of error in measurement. The
following are the possible sources of error in measurement.

1. Respondent: At times the respondent may be reluctant to express strong

negative feelings or it is just possible that he may have very little knowledge
but may not admit his ignorance. All this reluctance is likely to result in an
interview of ‘guesses.’ Transient factors like fatigue, boredom, anxiety, etc.
may limit the ability of the respondent to respond accurately and fully.
2. Situation: Situational factors may also come in the way of correct
measurement. Any condition which places a strain on interview can have
serious effects on the interviewer-respondent rapport. For instance, if
someone else is present, he can distort responses by joining in or merely by
being present. If the respondent feels that anonymity is not assured, he may
be reluctant to express certain feelings.
the final results may not be contaminated.
3.Measurer: The interviewer can distort responses by rewording or
reordering questions. His behaviour, style and looks may encourage
or discourage certain replies from respondents. Careless mechanical
processing may distort the findings. Errors may also creep in because
of incorrect coding, faulty tabulation and/or statistical calculations,
particularly in the data-analysis stage.

4.Instrument: Error may arise because of the defective measuring

instrument. The use of complex words, beyond the comprehension of
the respondent, ambiguous meanings, poor printing, inadequate space
for replies, response choice omissions, etc. are a few things that make
the measuring instrument defective and may result in measurement
errors. Another type of instrument deficiency is the poor sampling of
the universe of items of concern. Researcher must know that correct
measurement depends on successfully meeting all of the problems
listed above. He must, to the extent possible, try to eliminate,
neutralize or otherwise deal with all the possible sources of error.
Reliability of Measurements

Scale Evaluation

Reliability Validity Generalizability

Test/ Alternative Internal

Content Criterion Construct
Retest Forms Consistency

Convergent Discriminant Nomological