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# Introduction to

Antennas

## Dr. Bablu K. Ghosh

What is an antenna?
• An antenna is a passive device

## • . It also acts as a coupling device

• – It is a frequency selective device operate band of frequency.
• When the wire through which HF alternating current approaches one-
half of a wavelength at the frequency of transmission then most energy
Antenna

## • An antenna is a device that:

– Converts RF power applied to its feed point into electromagnetic
• The intensity of the radiation launched by the antenna is
generally not the same in all directions.

## • The radiation pattern is the same whether the antenna is used

• The ratio of the maximum radiation by a given antenna to the
radiation of a reference in the same direction is called the
directivity:
Antenna Overview
• Antennas can be composed of any conductive material,

## • RF currents in a conductor flow only near the conductor’s

surface; thus antennas can be made from hollow tubing,
without compromising performance.

## • Meshed provided that the holes in the mesh are much

smaller (a factor of 10 or more) than the wavelength at
which the antenna will be used.
Antenna Overview
• Two common directivity measures:
– dBi – dB referenced to an isotropic (equal radiation in all directions)
– dBd – dB referenced to a half wavelength dipole (dBd= 2.5 +dBi).

## • The feed point impedance of an antenna is generally complex. The

real component has two components:

– Loss resistance due to the conductivity of the antenna itself and losses
caused by other objects near the antenna (such as the ground)
– Radiation resistance, which represents the transfer of power from the

## • Both directivity and impedance are dependent of the frequency of

the RF
principle
Regardless of antenna type, all
involve the same basic principle

## IL=Qv A-m/sec ; where, I-time

varying current, L –length of current element, Q-
charge and V- time varying velocity of charge or
acceleration of charge
LC basic for
antenna
What is dynamic EM?

## • Accelerated electronic charge oscillates due to force of interaction

as a result generates electromagnetic wave

## • This may termed as electrodynamics where both E and H fields are

available in dynamic stage with same frequency

## • Either time or position variant or vice versa

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Types of antennas (composition)
• Can be divided into two groups

– Wire antennas:
• dipoles, loops, Yagi-Uda…

– Aperture antennas:
• parabolic, horns, panel, microstrip antennas,. …
Wire antennas

Yagi
Wire antennas

Log periodic

## Yagi-Uda with reflector

Antenna Types
Loop Antennas

Helical Antennas
Theory
characteristics are determined by the current
distribution which produces the local magnetic
field.

Yagi-Uda antenna
Helical antenna

13
Aperture antennas

Dipole with
parabolic and
corner reflector
Spherical (main reflector)

Panel antenna
Antenna Types
Horn Antennas

Micro strip
Antennas
Reflector and Pyramidal horn antennas
Theory – aperture antennas
characteristics are determined by the field
distribution across the aperture.

## Horn antenna Parabolic reflector antenna

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Theory – aperture antenna example
The far-field radiation pattern can be found from the Fourier
transform of the near-field pattern.

## Where Sr is the radial component of the

power density, S0 is the maximum value of
Sr, and Fn is the normalized version of the
 4 
D0  0.77  
 x z  y z 
18  
Antenna types -An over view
Types of Antennas(as per directivity)
Antennas used can be:
• Omni-directional-in this case radio power is transmitted
Uniformly in all directions
Such type of antenna are preferred where uniform coverage
is desired such as in cellular systems. Usually monopole antenna support it
• Bi-directional- in this type of antenna energy is radiated only two direction
only. Dipole antenna shows such type of pattern

## • Directional: in case of UHF communication. Point to point communication it is

used. Usually aperture type antenna supports it.

## • Highly directional: in case of microwave communications,

microwave signals are transmitted in very narrow beam. Helical or horn type
antenna supports it.

## Normally 3 M Diameter Antenna at 2 GHz BW has half power

of about 3.4 degrees beam width.
Direction of alignment and how
many poles they have?
Antenna Types (wire)
½ Wave Dipole

E:

H:

¼ Wave Monopole

E: H:
Vertical Antennas
• A “vertical antenna” is an antenna that consists of a single
element mounted perpendicular to the Earth's surface. Most mobile
antennas are verticals.

## • Verticals usually require some sort of counterpoise to work

their best
• Fixed station, a vertical may either be mounted on the ground or on a
mast, and it may also have several radials for counterpoise.
• These radials may be laid out on the ground, as in the next slide, or
mounted just underneath the vertical element, as in an elevated ground
plane.

## • In a mobile installation, the metal body of the car usually

serves as the counterpoise.
Typical Ground-Mounted Vertical

## • This is a rough diagram of a ground-mounted vertical. The orange

radials you see may be laid along the top of the ground or buried just beneath the
surface. Multi-band verticals are sometimes a good compromise between price
and performance for a new ham.
Ground Plane Antenna

## • Here is a ground plane antenna – another type of vertical.

It is designed to be mounted on a mast, and it usually has three or four
radials coming from the base of the antenna.
Vertical Antenna Design
• Many vertical antennas are designed to be equal
in length to one-quarter wavelength of the desired operating
frequency.

## • For a 1/4 wave vertical:

234
• Length (feet) = -----------------
Frequency (MHz)
Sample Problem from the Question

## • For example, suppose you want to know the approximate

length, in inches, of a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 146 MHz.

## • Using the formula in the previous slide:

234
• Length = ------ = 1.6 feet
146

## • To get inches, multiply 1.6 times 12 (since there are 12

inches in a foot) to get 19.2 or about 19 inches.
5/8 Wave Verticals
• Some vertical designs call for a 5/8 wave
rather than a 1/4 wave. The advantage of 5/8
wavelength over 1/4 wavelength vertical antennas is
that their radiation pattern concentrates energy at
lower angles.

signal, and a lower radiation angle usually means
traveling a greater distance – better coverage
Horizontal Antennas
• A “horizontal antenna” is an antenna
that is a simple dipole mounted so the
elements are parallel to the Earth's surface.
So what’s a dipole?
Dipole Antennas
• A dipole antenna is a simple antenna
designed to work best on a single band.
• Two sections that are each approximately one-
quarter of the wavelength of that band,
• The total length is equal to about one-half
wavelength.

## • The transmission line from the radio is connected to

this antenna in the middle of the two sections.
• Looks something like what you’ll see on the next
slide.
Dipole Antenna

## • This is an example of a dipole antenna. Many hams getting on HF

for the first time often start with a dipole. If you have the room for one, the dipole
is cheap and easy to build.
More on Dipoles
• Dipoles may be mounted either
horizontally or vertically, depending on the intended
use.
• May be made from wire or metal tubing, and are
very easy for a new ham to construct.
• Wire dipoles are also fairly inexpensive and simple to
design.
• With an antenna tuner, they can also be made to
work on several bands.
• For these reasons, they are very popular with new
hams on the HF bands.
Dipole Design
• Since dipoles are fairly easy to build, it is important to know
how to determine their total length. The formula for the length of a 1/2
wave dipole is:

468
• Length (feet) = -----------------
Frequency (MHz)

## • When designing a dipole, you should choose the lowest

frequency for the band you want to work!
Dipoles – Frequency Goes Up, Length
Goes Down
• The physical size of half-wave dipole
antenna changes with operating frequency.
• It becomes shorter as the frequency increases.

## • As you might imagine, the opposite is also

true. It becomes longer as the frequency decreases.

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Antenna Impedance
• An antenna is “seen" by the generator as a load with impedance ZA ,
connected to the line.
ZA
Z A  Rr  RL   jX A
• The real part is the radiation resistance plus the ohmic resistance.
– Minimizing impedance differences at each interface will reduce SWR and
maximize power transfer through each part of the antenna system.
– Complex impedance, ZA , of an antenna is related to the electrical length of
the antenna at the wavelength in use.

## • The impedance is adjusted at the load (see below) with an

antenna tuner, a balun, a matching transformer, matching
networks composed of inductors and capacitors, or matching
sections such as the gamma match.
Transmitting antenna equivalent circuit
Antenna

## The transmitter with the transmission line is represented by

an (Thevenin) equivalent generator
jXG jXA The antenna is represented by its input impedance
(which is frequency-dependent and is influenced by
Generator

## objects nearby) as seem from the generator

RG jXA represents energy stored in electric (Ee) and magnetic
Rr (Em) near-field components; if |Ee| = |Em| then XA = 0
(antenna resonance)

## Rr represents energy radiated into space (far-field

components)
VG Rl
Rl represents energy lost, i.e. transformed into heat in the
antenna structure

Thevenin equivalent
Receiving antenna equivalent circuit
Antenna

## The antenna with the transmission line is

represented by an (Thevenin) equivalent
jXA generator

Antenna

## Rr impedance as seen from the antenna terminals

(i.e. transformed by the transmission line)
Rl RL VA is the (induced by the incident wave) voltage at
the antenna terminals determined when the
antenna is open circuited
VA

Thevenin equivalent