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Pengenalan Uji Sumur

(Introduction to Well Testing)

Muh. Taufiq Fathaddin


Modul
1. Pendahuluan
2. Pressure Drawdown Test
3. Pressure Build Test
4. Injectivity Test
5. Fall off Test
6. Gas Well Testing
7. Mid Test
8. Multirate Test
9. Multiple Well Test
10.Multiphase Well Test
11.Well Test in Naturrally Fractured Reservoir
12. Presentasi Kelompok 1 – 4
13.Presentasi 5 – 8
14. UAS
WHAT IS A WELL TEST?
• A tool for reservoir evaluation and
characterization.
• Investigates a much larger volume of the
reservoir than cores or logs.
• Provides estimates of
– permeability under in-situ conditions
– near-wellbore conditions
– distances to boundaries
– average pressure
TYPES AND PURPOSES OF WELL TESTS
• Pressure transient tests
To characterize reservoir properties based
on pressure changes with time

• Deliverability tests
To measure the productivity of the well
and reservoir performance based on
pressure changes with flowrate
WELL TEST OBJECTIVES
Pressure Transient Test:
• Reservoir properties (permeability, skin
factor, fracture-matrix Parameter, etc).
• Define drainage area limits
• Estimate average pressure
• Reservoir pore volume (estimated at pseudo
steady state period).
• Communication between two adjacent wells
• Evaluate stimulation treatment effectiveness
WELL TEST OBJECTIVES
Deliverability tests:
• Estimate well productivity
• Characterize reservoir
• Diagnose productivity problems
• Estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) or
movable fluid volumes (estimated using
long-term production performance).
HOW IS A WELL TEST CONDUCTED?
HOW IS A WELL TEST CONDUCTED?
Pressure Transient Test :
Single Production Well Test
• Pressure Buildup (PBU) test
- shut in after controlled production

• Pressure drawdown (PDD)


- Controlled production or flow test

• Drill Stem Test


- Well test after drilling
Pressure Transient Test :
Single Injection Well Test
• Pressure Falloff test
- similar to a pressure buildup test, except it is,
conducted on an injection well

• Injectivity test
- Inject into the well at measured rate and
measure pressure as it increases with time
analogous to pressure drawdown testing.
Pressure Transient Test :
Multi Well Test
• Interference tests
- The active well is produced at a measured,
constant rate throughout the test
- Other wells in the field must be shut in so that
any observed pressure response can be
attributed to the active well only.
-wells which usually can be interpreted
unambiguously (even when other wells in the
field continue to produce)
Pressure Transient Test :
Multi Well Test
• Pulse tests
The active well produces and then, is shut in,
returned to production and shut in again
Repeated but with production or shut-in periods
rarely exceeding more than a few hours
Produces a pressure response in the observation
wells which usually can be interpreted
unambiguously (even when other wells in the
field continue to produce)
DELIVERABILITY TESTS (DT)

production capabilities of a well under


specific reservoir conditions
primarily for gas wells
absolute openflow (AOF) potential
inflow performance relationship (IPR) or
gas backpressure curve
DELIVERABILITY TESTS (DT)

• Flow After Flow Test


- The well is produced to stabilized
pressure at three or four increasing rates,
the different flow periods have the same
duration.
- This testing sequence is also called a
"Flow after flow test". In low permeability
reservoirs, the total production time can
be relatively long.
DELIVERABILITY TESTS (DT)
• Isochronal Test
- With isochronal tests, the well is again
produced at three or four increasing rates
but a shut-in period is introduced between
each flow. The drawdown periods are
stopped during the infinite acting regime
after the same production time tp, and the
intermediate build-ups last until the pressure
is back to initial conditions Pi. The final flow
is extended, sometimes with a reduced flow
rate, to reach the stabilized flowing pressure.
DELIVERABILITY TESTS (DT)
• Modified Isochronal Test
- With the modified isochronal sequence, the
procedure is similar to isochronal tests
except that the intermediate shut-in periods
have the same duration as the drawdown
periods and only the last flow is extended
until the stabilized flowing pressure is
reached.
Kinds of Well Tests

Masalah uji PDD:


 Sukar untuk mencapai
laju produksi yang tetap
sebelum sumur ditutup.
Kinds of Well Tests
Kinds of Well Tests
Kinds of Well Tests
Kinds of Well Tests
Kinds of Well Tests
Periode respon tekanan
• Wellbore Storage Period
• Infinite Acting Period
• Late Time Period
Skema kondisi
infinite acting dan
semi steady state
Extension of Drainage Boundary vs Time
During Transient Period
Constant Pressure at Boundary
Boundary Condition)
Closed Reservoir Boundary Condition
Aquifer
Profile Tekanan Dasar Sumur selama Uji PBU
RADIUS OF INVESTIGATION EQUATIONS

• Radius of investigation for a given time t:

• Time required to reach a given radius of


investigation ri:
Wellbore Storage
Koefisien wellbore storage didefinisikan sebagai laju
perubahan tekanan selama rezim wellbore storage
murni. Untuk fluida satu fasa, wellbore storage
dinyatakan dengan (van Everdingen dan Hurst, 1949):

Dimana:
Co = kompresibilitas cairan
Vw = volume lubang sumur, bbl
Atau oleh Earlougher, 1977:
Wellbore Storage
• Selama rezim aliran murni, wellbore storage
coeficient dapat diperkirakan dari plot p vs t pada
skala linier (van Everdingen dan Hurst, 1949):

(1)

• Wellbore storage koefisien C diperkirakan dari


kemiringan kurva
Jenis Reservoir

Reservoir Homogen: Reservoir yang


memiliki porositas dan ketebalan sama di
seluruh bagian reservoir.
Reservoir Isotropic: Reservoir yang memiliki
permeabilitas sama di seluruh bagian
reservoir.
Reservoir Anisotropic: Reservoir yang tidak
memiliki permeabilitas sama di seluruh
bagian reservoir.
Periode Infinite Acting
 PDE untuk aliran radial

 Batasan-batasan:
 Pada sumur: Jari-jari sumur terbatas, laju injeksi
tetap
 Pada reservoir: Infinite acting, tekanan awal dan
sifat reservoir seragam.
 Jika reservoir satu lapisan, homogen dan isotropic.
 Fluida reservoir slightly compressible.
 Sumur-sumur memproduksi fluida dari seluruh
ketebalan.
Periode Infinite Acting
 Penyelesaian PDE untuk aliran radial

 Dimana:

Persamaan tersebut memberi harga tekanan


dalam reservoir sebagai fungsi waktu dan jarak
dari sumur
Teori Terapan untuk
Penginjeksian dan Falloff
 Penyederhanaan penyelesaian PDE:

 Dimana:
Periode Infinite Acting
• Persamaan di atas dapat ditulis sebagai:

Dimana: P = Pi – Pr,t (produksi)


= Pr,t – Pi (injeksi)
T = transmissibility, kh/m
S = storage, fCt
Periode Infinite Acting
Dalam bentuk parameter tidak berdimensi:

dimana: PD = tekanan tak berdimensi


= k h P / (141.2 q m Bo)
tD = waktu tak berdimensi,
= 2.637x10-4 k t / (f m Ct rw2)
rD = jarak tak berdimensi antara sumur aktif
dan pengamat, = r/rw
• tyuty
u
Type Curve untuk Interference-Test
Theory
Penentuan parameter batuan dan fluida reservoir dengan
biangan tak berdimensi pada type curve matching
Problem # 1
Selama uji interference, air diinjeksi ke
dalam sumur A selama 48 jam. Diketahui
sifat reservoir sbb:
Kedalaman = 2000 ft Bw = 1.0 RB/STB
q = -50 B/D mw = 1.0 cp
h = 45 ft r = 119 ft
pi = 3000 psig ct = 1.0 x 10-6 psi-
1

ti = 48 jam
Tabel 1: Data Interference Test
T (jam) Pw (psig) p = pi-pw
0.0 3000
4.3 3022 -22
21.6 3082 -82
28.2 3095 -95
45.0 3119 -119
48.0 Injection Ends
51.0 3109 -109
69.0 3055 -55
73.0 3047 -47
93.0 3032 -32
142.0 3016 -16
148.0 3015 -15
Type Curve Matching
Analisa type curve matching
PM = 1 ; (PD)M = 0.08 ; tM= 10 ; (tD/rD2)M = 5
menggunakan persamaan (6):

Menggunakan persamaan (7):


Problem # 2 Tekanan Sumur Injeksi
 Contoh: Perkirakan tekanan sumur injeksi
yang terletak dalam reservoir Infinite acting
dengan S=0. Sumur telah diinjeksi 3428.6 b/d
selama 2 hari (=48 jam). Data reservoir lain
adalah:
Pi = 2000 psi h = 50 ft
k = 200 md Bw = 1 rb/stb
rw = 0.4 ft ct = 6 10-6 psi-1
µ = 0.6 cp f = 0.3
Perkiraan Tekanan Sumur Injeksi
 Hitung variabel tak berdimensi rD, tD, dan PD:
rD = r/rw = rw/rw = 1

Maka tekanan pada sumur injeksi adalah:


Uji pada Reservoir Terbatas
• Pada saat awal produksi sumur profil
tekanan berkelakuan seolah-olah berada
pada infinite reservoir

dimana:
Uji pada Reservoir Terbatas
• Setelah sesaat encapai periode pss, laju
penurunan tekanan akan konstan dan
seragam diseluruh daerah pengurasan.

• Volume pori:
Shape Factors untuk berbagai daerah pengurasan sumur