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EDUP 3073 Culture & Learning

Roles & Implications of Socio-


cultural Diversity to The Education
System In Malaysia
Different socio-cultural practices in school:
An Introduction
Implications of differences in socio-cultural
practices on student mentality in school.
1. Differences in how they communicate with each
other/other students of different cultural
background.
2. Differences in perspectives towards conflicts.
3. Different approaches to problem solving.
4. Different ways in solving problems.
5. Different ways in airing views and opinions.
6. Different approaches to understanding ideas.
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This topic will cover 4 areas

4. 1. Pupils/
Hidden/latent students
curriculum
Implications of
Socio-cultural
Diversity

3. Teacher 2. School

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Student Culture
3 Types of student culture
i. Pro school culture – law/rule abiding students who are
willing to put aside individual interests for the time being.
Focus on academic excellence. Positive school culture.
ii. Anti school culture – not willing to abide by school
regulations. A constant source of problems. Teenage
culture.
iii. Mid way between (i) and (ii) – combination of positive
school culture and teenage culture. Regulation abiding
students and also give importance to academic
performance. Active academically and in co-curriculum
activities.
• QUESTION – How to construct culture (iii) above.

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Types of Learning Environment: The
typical Malaysian Classrooms

a. Mono-ethnic environment – students of only


one ethnic group. Will not be exposed to
other cultures. Will encounter difficulties in
adapting to other cultures.
b. Multi-ethnic environment – students of more
than 1 ethnic group. Will be able to master
other languages. Students will be easily
accepted through this type of interaction.
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Student Culture

• Formation of some (not all) cliques, gangs


are culturally based. Common identity and
aspiration unite certain sections of students.
• Some clubs/organizations are ethnically /
culturally based.
• Ethnocentric elements among students
might crop up. There is a need to curb its
development.
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Language skills

a. Able to converse only in own dialect, mother


tongue only– mono lingual - might face
learning problems.
b. Bilingual or more with wide lexicon – student
will master learning easily.

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Social class

• Social class : upper, middle and lower class


• Social class is a product of socioeconomic and
educational achievement.
• Students from lower class - might have
problems concerning financing education to
higher levels as well as providing learning aids
and media and other supporting T&L aids –
tuition classes etc.
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Social Class
• Some students are not accorded the required
parental support due to poverty and financial
constraints -Cultural Deprivation Theory.
• Not motivated & high school drop out risk.
• Students from the upper and middle class –
less likely to have these kinds of problems.
• Education opportunity – wider compared to
students from low class.
• Thus – education is affected by social class
factor.
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Gender

• Has to do with gender status within the


community.
• Gender roles/responsibilities might differ
among different communities.
• In Malaysia, some communities still cling onto
traditional values.

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Gender

• Boys and girls – treated differently by teachers.


Girls are more attentive than males students. More
regulation abiding.
Girls are more decently dressed.
Academic achievement among girls - generally higher.
Boys – usually problematic.
Boys are usually better in mathematics but weak in
the arts and language subjects compared to girls.

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Thinking &
Learning Styles

Perception Cognitive styles


Learning style

Learning based
on Personality

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Definitions

• Perception – the ability to see, hear or


become aware of something through the
senses.
• Cognitive – a set of mental abilities – thinking,
reasoning, remembering, imagining or
learning words.
• Personality – characteristics of a person –
patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.

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Perception Learning Style
• Individual differences result in different learning
styles
• An effective teacher – able to identify the
different learning styles and able to suit their
method of instruction to these styles.
• Nevertheless – no evidence to suggest any
particular learning style will result in better
learning outcomes.
• Study – Korean & Japanese students are more
inclined towards visual learning style and white
Americans are more comfortable with auditory
learning style.
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Perception Learning Style

• 3 learning styles – Visual, Auditory &


Kinesthetic (VAK) - Neil Fleming)
i. Visual style – learning by listening and
perception.
ii. Auditory style – learning through listening.
iii. Kinesthetic style – learning through t&l
activities (hands on)

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Cognitive Learning Style

• There are a few learning styles based on


cognition.
• 2 groups:
i. Field dependent learners @ Global learners –
learning holistically rather than analitically.
ii. Field independent learners @ analytic
learners – learning analytically rather than
holistically.
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Personality Learning Style

• Learning style based on the personality traits


of the learner.
i. Reflective style – thinking thoroughly on the
issue/ problem before implementing a
solution. Every action is based on the
reflective outcome.
ii. Impulsive style – doing something without
giving serious thoughts on an issue.
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How cultural diversity affects the
school

Affect the school:


i. School type
ii. Locality of the school
iii. Leadership and Administration

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School Type
• The existence of different types of school
result in different school culture.
• National schools – students are mainly from
one particular ethnic group depending on the
locality of the school.
• National type school (Chinese) – pupils are
mainly Chinese.
• National type school (Tamil) – pupils of Indian
descent.
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Locality
• Socio-cultural diversity affects both urban & rural
students.
• Mental outlook / world views and values may differ
among urban and rural students.
• Differences among students – due to different socio-
economic background, socio-emotional level, spending
capacities & attitude towards responsibilities and work.
• Also – due to differences in the capacity to abide by
rules & regulations.
• Urban schools – pupils are from different racial, social
and economic background.
• Rural school s- pupils are usually mono ethnic with
poor economic background.
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Primary Level Secondary Level
National primary schools (Malay) National Secondary schools (Malay)
National Chinese primary schools National Arabic Secondary school
(Agama)
National Tamil primary schools National Type Secondary schools
Residential Secondary Schools
High Performance Schools
Vision Schools
Smart Schools
Technical Secondary Schools
Science Secondary Schools
Vocational Schools
Special Education Schools

School Types in Malaysia

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Source for the characteristics of these
schools

• Vision schools
• Smart schools
• Cluster schools
• Trust Schools

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This topic will cover 4 areas

4. 1. Pupils/
Hidden/latent students
curriculum
Implications of
Socio-cultural
Diversity

3. Teacher 2. School

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Pedagogical And Personal Treatment
towards students
As teachers, be aware that culture also affects YOU!
Affects the teacher in a wide variety of personal &
professional perspectives:
i. Treatment of students – equal favour and treatment
ii. Favoured teaching stratgies – Cooperative Learning
Strategies
iii. Management skills – Classroom & Interaction
Management
iv. Different types of Teacher Aspiration & Expectation
v. Selection of Teaching Resources

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Equal Favour & Treatment

• Teachers – expected to be fair to all students.


• Avoid subjective inclinations – racialism,
acquaintance with parents or the socio-economic
background of students
• Student details to be used for the understanding
of the student only.
• Equal & fair treatment to all students according
to their needs.
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Cooperative Learning Strategies
• Teacher should be able to identify the best
instructional method to suit individual.
• Learning in groups should be encouraged
because it facilitates socialization.
• Cooperative learning strategy – suitable for
both homogeneous and heterogeneous
learning groups.
• Group learning encourages interaction,
cooperation and nurture the feeling of esprit
de corps among students.
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Classroom & Interaction Management
• Teachers’ responsibility to manage classroom
interaction and management.
• Socio-metric studies – show the interactive relationship
among students.
• Sociogram – show the graphic interactive relationship.
 The most popular student – the star
 The student who connects freely with other students
 Student in threesome or foursome who choose friend –
clique.
 Student A choose B. Student B choose C – becomes a
chain.
 The student who is avoided – an outcast
 Student who is not chosen is an self imposed exile.

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Sosiogram

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Teacher Aspiration & Expectation
• Some teachers give lackadaisical responses to children
from minority groups or from lower
• Teacher expectation has been formed even before
these pupils enter school.
• Prejudice – lower income/class children do not have
the potential to develop academically.
• Teachers should be aware of the fact that student
potential is not determined by social class, gender or
race.
• ‘Streaming’ – is s reflection student economic/social
background. Those in the good classes – middle class
income group. Those in the poor classes – lower
income group.
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Selection of Teaching Resources

• One of the prerequisite of good t&l session is


the use of suitable t&l resources – teaching
aids, learning aids.
• Teachers should be able to make the correct
choice when selecting teaching aids
• Do not use offending aids – either racially or
religiously.

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Leadership & Administration

• Effective leadership and good administrative skills


determine the success of a particular school.
• Good administration – will provide suitable
learning environment.
• Cooperation between the school and Parent
Teacher Association – an avenue towards smart
partnership.
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Latent/Hidden Curriculum

• Latent/hidden curriculum refers to how culture &


attitude is constructed & learned through t&l
processes and through management practices of
the school.
• Includes respecting authority, school regulations,
punctuality, postponing rewards, cooperation,
respectful of each other, give-and-take attitude.
• Internalization of these practices - through
practicing the prevailing school culture.
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Latent/Hidden Curriculum

• Co-curricular activities.
• School activities – RIMUP
• Objective of latent curriculum – provide
avenue to nurture students so that they can
interact with other students from outside
their cultural group.

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