Sei sulla pagina 1di 47


 Urban design is an institutionalized control of
spatial manifestations of human activities in a
market economy

 A town must work properly and be

economically sound….but it should also be
pleasant to the observer (fusion of technical
to aesthetics)…function-economy-aesthetics

 City building programs are statements of the

principal tools of urban design
Sustainable Development
 Is urban space an essential dimension of sustainable

……….Sustainability is local...: it needs a place to


……….Although problems aggregate and become

manifest on a global scale (e.g., ozone depletion, global
climate change), offenses to the environment are
produced locally.
 It is a register of development

 It facilitates access, proximity, mobility, security, flexibility,

appropriation, identity, etc…..through articulation of
morphological conditions

 It acts as a generator/localizer of economy

 It works as an integrating device [between conflicting interests,

specialized sectors, etc.]

 becomes a generator of an urban culture & citizenship, aiming

at diversity, inclusion, tolerance, responsibility, involvement,

 Space is almost a non-renewable resource…not recognizing it

as a resource results in a waste of opportunity

 Inappropriate planning/design is a burden to development.

 Space is able to generate economic
…….[at all scale levels, including the localizing of global economies, the
provision of informal economies, etc.]

urban agriculture: livelihood

provision, green lung & edge
to urban expansion

synergies of activities:
mobility & informal economic activites
 Design increases quality of life:
… [by providing qualitative space as collective wealth]

 Design provides multiple life

……..[security, access to facilities, infrastructure, etc.]

 Design proposes means for the spatial

redistribution of wealth:
…. [cross-subsidy, land sharing, density management, etc.]
Land sharing: co-presence of classes, equal accessibility to infrastrcuture
& services.......Aranya Community Housing, Indore, India
[B. V. Doshi, 1982, masterplan]
● Rational use of land
1. natural resources
2. historical resources [patrimony]
3. material resources [material, knowledge, skills & technology]
4. social & cultural resources [including interests and
involvement of civil organizations, community, individuals]

● Development of sustainable design technologies

[energy balances, ecological footprints, material life-cycles, etc. ]

● Integrates aspects of social, economical, ecological

● Expands Brundtland definition

preservation of existing resources + structure growth &
Missing synergetic relations between two........

Confrontation between national park and modern city

(Nakuru, Kenya)
Problem turned into opportunity to stucture
entire city

...........accentuating natural assets, protecting fragile

ecologies & green links (Nakuru kenya)
Urban Park: mediating between two potentially
conflicting urban land uses (Nakuru, Kenya)
sustainability not only aims to protect the
rights of the next generation, but also
requires investment for the next
generation [creating future patrimony]
An urban design definition of sustainability may suggest::

A dense, compact city with a dynamic balance

between community and privacy.

A community of richness in architectural form, public

space, and individual and collective opportunities

A city with a strong sense of itself as a place, a clear

and defined form, and a common destiny (identity)

A human-scaled environment, not one that is over-

scaled and sized to primarily accommodate vehicles,
industries, and faceless institutions

A city with appropriate spaces for modern processes

(metabolic and economic)
Basic Design Principles in Development

 Strengthening
existing spatial

• Dynamic, coherent,
and integrating

• Addressing threats &

creating new
Basic Development Concepts

• Qualifying urban space

• ‘Localizing’ urban development

• Broadening of ‘sustainability’ definition

• Visions / actions / projects

• Co-productive processes

• Governance triangle (Public, civil society, & private sector)

• Innovation based on practice

Development Strategies
• Make apparent urban visions

• Unite and canalize different contested urban forces

• Consider structural impact and leverage effect

• Build capacity to link, mediate, and organize multiple

actions and actors

• Emphasize feasibility, visibility, and innovation

Thematic Areas
1. Urban Design and Safety
• design / policy & disaster prevention
• emergency measures with long-term vision
• condition of destruction creates new opportunities
• threat management

2. Urban Design and Poverty Alleviation

• generation of economic opportunities
• qualitative space as collective wealth
• multiple day life improvements [security, access…]
• rational / economic use of scarce resources
• means for the spatial redistribution of wealth
Thematic Areas (Cont’d)

3. Urban Design and Sustainability

• facilitate appropriate use of available resources

• integrate multiple time frames

• develop technologies of sustainable design

• integrate social, economical, ecological sustainability

Spatial Issues & Challenges
1. New Urban Frontiers

• the ‘rurban’ fringe (residence/agriculture mix)

• the unarticulated appendage (undifferentiated sprawl)

• the ‘garden-city’ simulacrum (the gated satellite)

• Domain ‘jua kali’ (Areas facing informal sector


• The indomitable slum (shanties & squatter settlements)

The ‘rurban’ fringe

(Town/agriculture mix)
The unarticulated appendage
(undifferentiated sprawl)

Unarticulated appendage:
Bujumbura [Burundi]; village expansion [Ethiopia]
The ‘garden-city’ simulacrum (the gated satellite)
The Domain ‘jua kali’

Areas facing informal sector infestation

Toi Market, Kibera, Nairobi
The indomitable slum

shanties & squatter settlements

Mukuru Village, Embakasi, Nairobi
Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d)

2. Transformation/Requalification of Existing
• Destruction of historic neighbourhoods
• Inner-city densification & gentrification
• Peripheral suburbanization
• Urban renewal (slum up-grading,
regularization, etc.)
• Informalization of inner-city areas
Destruction of historic neighbourhoods

Historic patrimonium
Traditional street [Zanzibar]; Gebel Barkal pyramids [Sudan]; Lamu [Kenya]
Informalization of city centre

street markets: Kilifi and Eastleigh[Kenya];

Slum upgrading / Exclusive suburbs

Renewal [Nairobi, Kenya]

Suburb Kigali [Rwanda]

Inner City densification and Urban
Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d)

3. Emerging Ecologies

• Urban agriculture
• The urban nature reserve
• Areas prone to natural disasters (drought,
flood, earthquake, etc)
Urban Agriculture

Kampala [Uganda];

Brick factory [Burundi]

Kampala [Uganda]; Brick factory [Burundi]
Nature Reserve

Highands [Rwanda]; Ngorongo Crater [Tanzania]

Areas Prone to Natural Disasters

Flood [Sudan]; Hafun Tsunami damage [Somalia]

Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d)

4. Infrastructure Development:

• Dilapidated road network & traffic congestion

• Disused infrastructure & underutilized lands
(railway sidings, port, speculative realty, etc)
• Inadequate infrastructural services
• Poor waste disposal & pollution
Dilapidated Road Network

Mwanza [Tanzania]; Kinshasa [RD Congo]

Nairobi [Kenya];
Capacity of existing infrastructures

Mombasa, Kenya Kinshasa, Congo

Poor waste disposal

Uncollected garbage (Nairobi,Kenya; Floating waste, Somali coast

Changing Development Context
• Increased urbanization & urban growth rates
• Impact of HIV/AIDS (depopulation, health care facilities access, etc)


• Structural adjustment programs & Unintended consequences (economic decline &
• Implosion of formal economic sector & explosion of informal sectors
• Public/Private, Global/Local Partnerships & International Investments


• Devolution & re-designation of governance systems
• Growing influence of community & non-governmental organizations
• Grater participation of civil society in governance processes


• Politically instigated spatial displacement; proliferation of refuge camps; make-shift
• Collapse of urban systems
• Degradation of urban environments
Varying Roles at Different Levels
1. National & Regional Scale
- Regional design: determination of significant and
integral physical sections and delineating these
according to their characteristic topography, climate,
and culture
- Recreational Area Design: areas of natural terrain
should be withtin one hour travel time from the
central city
- Developing regions: to encourage flow of
investment capital, maintain development interest,
and create livable places
- Wilderness areas and old preserves: safeguard
the value of those that have acquired a character
that we can look back with pride and admiration
2. Metropolitan Scale
- Metropolitan structure: Plans for entire metropolises
addressing among others land use and transport
- Metropolitan form and pattern: careful design of form and
pattern to address land use, transport, topography, proximity
to open and green spaces e.t.c
- Metropolitan open space system: open space plan to
complement built up areas and also address open space
- Metropolitan Transportation: to increase mobility, while
respecting urban tissue and equity in network distribution and
- Approach to the city: The first sight of should leave a lasting
impression…need for clarity amid increasing complexity
- Metropolitan views and vistas: strong
visual links to embrace the entire city or parts
of it; these need formal recognition and
protection so as to enhance city image

- Metropolitan skyline/ Townscape:

Townscape refers to the (3-dimensional) compositional character of
sequences of urban spaces and buildings.
- To specify sites of special vertical heights as
well as the special low sites such as those
along aviation lines
3. City-wide Scale:
 System of open spaces: design open spaces based on an
intricate classification of size and type to reflect urban vitality

 Pedestrian circulation: a design that interweaves pedestrian

movement to the entire city, connecting to major activity areas
and generators.

 Municipal trees: Planting design that beautify and humanize

public environments, e.g streets

 Electric lighting: designs for city illumination that will clarify

different areas according to distinct type of lighting
- Street Furniture: Design of street level objects that will
enhance pedestrian convenience: benches, advertising kiosks,
pavillions, bus and cab shelters e.t.c

- Street Hardware: design of objects pertaining to utility and

mechanical systems e.gutility posts, parking meters, traffic
signals, bill boards e.t.c

- Civic Design: careful outdoor design for sculpture,

murals, pavements,fountains e.t.c

- Landscape Design: artificial sculpturing of urban

landscape to enhance views, complement landform,
and correct visual errors.
4. Comprehensive Area/District Design
…designing parts of the city

- The Downton/CBD: designing of downtowns to ensure

ease of access, diversity, and attractiveness; development of
residence to keep them alive.
- Renewal of old neighbourhoods: designs to restore
the soundness of old neighbourhoods and correct the effects
of blight while introducing stabilising elements.
- Historic preservation: designs to restore and remodel
historic areas of the city to enhance their relevance and
command regarding the contemporary
- Suburban centres: Designs for outlying centres that will
address issues of circulation for both pedestrians and motor
traffic, parking, landscaping, clustering of shops, location of
recreation areas e.t.c
- New Suburbs and New Towns: Designing new
communities as guided by the need for open space reserves,
major utility services, zoning requirements e.t.c
5. Site Level
 preparation of site plans considering human
needs/function and the environment.
 determination of detailed layout of an area in
relation to natural environment and human
 What should happen on a given area of land?
 Where it should happen?
 An evaluation of the vast range of environmental,
social, and economical factors with a bearing on
decision making.
6. Object level:
- design of individual objects as projects to
complement wider urban objectives

- Calls for specialised professionals with good

appreciation of urban design e.g architects
and engineers who design buildings and
bridges meant to transform urban character.

Examples: Bridges, buildings, sculpture,

monuments, fountains e.t.c