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‡ Done in order to ensure each particle of
aggregate in fresh concrete will be coated
with the cement paste
‡ Also to give a homogenous even coloured
‡ First stage of mixing is called ³BATCHING´.
‡ Batching is process where it involves
weighing out or measuring out all of the
ingredients for a batch of concrete.
‡ The materials that are mixed at any one time
constitute a batch.
‡ Quality of concrete depends on the accuracy
of the batching operation.
‡ However, thorough mixing is essential for
complete blending of the materials that are
required for the production of homogeneous,
uniform concrete.
‡ Inadequate mixing result in lower strength.
‡ There are 2 method for concrete mixing that
a) hand mixing
b) machine mixing
‡ The biggest problem with concrete produced
with construction mixers on site is quality
‡ Uniformity more difficulty to be achieved
‡ Aggregate is spread in a uniform layer on a
hard, clean & non porous basic.
‡ Then cement is spread over the aggregate and
dry material are mixed by turning over from
one end of the heap to another & cutting with
a shovel till the mix appear uniform.
‡ Water is gradually added to the trough formed
by the uniform dry mix.
‡ It involves usage of more labours compared
concrete mixed using machine.
‡ The quality of mix is difficult to be
‡ Hand Mixing
‡ Ensure the concrete mixer is clean and have
no left over concrete before start mixing new
‡ There are many types of machine for concrete
mixing such as Tilting Type Mixer, Non-
Tilting Type Mixer and Pan Mixer.
‡ Machine mixing is efficient & economical
compared to hand mixing.
‡ Optimum length of mixing time depends on
a) type of mixer
b) size / condition of mixer
c) Speed of rotation
d) Quality of blending materials
‡ Uniformity of mix increase together in length of
mixing time.
‡ Long mixing times may cause some breakdown
of the aggregate.
‡ Lean, dry or harsh mixes require longer
mixing times
‡ Concrete made with angular aggregates need
more mixing than those made with rounded
Tilting Type Pan Mixer
‡ Ready mix concrete is concrete that is made
at ready-mixed plant and then transported to
the site in rotating-drum trucks or transit
‡ Proportioning, batching, mixing and delivery
are all done by the concrete supplier.
‡ High quality control
‡ Advantages of using ready mix concrete:
a) better quality concrete due to usage of
trained personnel and automated
b) elimination of material storage on
congested building sites
- no need to allocate place at site for
storage of cement, aggregate, sand
c) save the contractor¶s time and usage of
labour¶s energy to mix the concrete
‡ For ready mix concrete supply, the purchaser
should specify the following:
a) Designated max. size of coarse aggregate
b) Desired / max. slump at the point of
c) Air content (for air entrained concrete)
d) Mix design requirement ± such as cement
content, max. water content & admixtures
or minimum compressive strength at 28
e) Unit weight required (for structural
lightweight concrete.
Ready Mix Concrete Truck
‡ Ready Mix Batching Plant
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