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REDUCTION DIVISION

MEIOSIS
Chromosomes consists
of DNA (which makes
up genes) and protein

The number of
chromosomes is
characteristic of an
organism (e.g humans
have 46 chromosomes).

Chromosomes which
are single threads
become double (two
chromatids joined by a
centromere) as a result
of DNA replication
44 autosomes and 2 sex
chromosomes (gonosomes)

Normal Male Normal Female


Where does meiosis occur

WHERE WILL MEIOSIS OCCUR IN PLANTS?


Forms Gametes/sex cells (n-
Haploid) differ from somatic/body
cells (2n-Diploid)

Sperm and Ovum


REVIEW OF MITOSIS
How meiosis takes place

Two stages can be found in the process of meiotic cell division

Meiosis 1 : is a reduction division which results in


two cells being with half the number of
chromosomes (haploid)

Meiosis 2 : is a copying division which involves the two


haploid cells formed each dividing again
by mitosis, to form 4 haploid cells.
PHASES OF MEIOSIS

Note, meiosis is a continuous process and is


divided into phases for convenience.
INTERPHASE
 DNA replication takes place
 Single stranded chromosomes become double-
stranded
 Each chromosome will now consist of two chromatids
joined by a centromere
 DNA replication helps to double the genetic material so
that it can be shared equally by the new cells arising
from cell division
PROPHASE 1
 Centrosome splits into centrioles which move
to opposite poles
 forming spindle threads.
 Nuclear membrane and nucleus start to
disappear.
 Chromosomes become distinct.
 Crossing over takes
Crossing over takes place as
follows
 Homologous chromosomes lie next to each
other
 (non sister) Chromatids of homologous
chromosomes overlap
 Point of overlap is called the chiasmata
 A break occurs at the chiasmata
 Chromatid segments (genetic material) has
now been exchanged
METAPHASE 1

 Chromosomes align at equator in a random


fashion and in homologous pairs,
 attached to the spindle threads.
RANDOM ARRANGEMENT
 Chromosomes are arranged randomly at the
equator. Different combinations of maternal and
paternal chromosomes can occur.
ANAPHASE 1
 Spindle fibres contract.
 Homologous chromosomes move apart
towards the poles.
 The cytoplasm starts to divide (cytokinesis)
TELOPHASE 1
 2 new cells have been formed.
 Each new cell has half of the chromosome
complement of the original cell (it is
haploid).
 The cells are not identical.
(NB Meiosis 2 is similar to
mitosis)
PROPHASE 2

 Same as prophase 1 only no crossing over.


METAPHASE 2

 Chromosomes aligned at the equator singly


 RANDOM ARRANGEMENT OCCURS
ANAPHASE 2

 Spindle fibres contract


 The centromeres separate
 Two chromatids of each chromosome move
to opposite poles ( The separated chromatids
are now called chromosomes)
TELOPHASE 2

 four daughter cells (gametes, in animals),


each with a haploid set of chromosomes are
produced.
Importance/significance of
meiosis
 Production of haploid gametes
 Halving of the chromosome number (diploid
to haploid)-overcomes the doubling effect of
fertilisation, thus maintaining a constant
chromosome number to the next.
 Mechanism to introduce genetic variation
Through:
-Crossing-over and
-the random arrangement of chromosomes at
the equator
Homework questions

1. List similarities between meiosis and mitosis


2. Tabulate 4 differences between meiosis and
mitosis
3. Draw a labelled and annotated diagram
showing the phases of meiosis (on a double
pg)
ABNORMAL MEIOSIS

NON-DISJUNCTION
 When a chromosome/chromatid fails to
separate during anaphase I/II
ABNORMAL MEIOSIS

CONSEQUENCES OF NON-DISJUNCTION
 Some gametes will have extra chromosomes
while others will have less.
Down’s Syndrome

 Non-disjunction in chromosome 21

 Normally occurs in human egg cell

 One or more abnormal eggs formed (n = 24)

 Fertilised by normal sperm (n = 23)

 Formation of abnormal zygote (2n = 47)


Down’s syndrome
• Down's syndrome is
caused by the presence of
three copies of the 21st
chromosome.
• This chromosomal defect
is known as Trisomy-21.
• Down's syndrome almost
always results in mental
retardation, though the
severity of the retardation
varies.
Characteristics of Down syndrome

Epicanthic fold

Small, oblique eyes


Flattened, nasal bridge

Open mouth
Protruding tongue
Broad neck
Small
underdeveloped
ears set low on
head
Wide gap between
first and second toe

Incurved
finger

Single palmar
(“simian”) crease

Short broad
hands