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Special Concrete

Group 5
Pentecostes, Kendrix
Burj Khalifa
Petronas Towers
Millau Viaduct
Special Concrete
• are those with out-of-the ordinary properties or those
produced by unusual techniques. Concrete is by
definition a composite material consisting essentially of a
binding medium and aggregate particles, and it can
take many forms.
• concrete for special purpose for increased strength and
durability for various construction applications.
• Concrete is most vital material in modern construction. •
In addition to normal concrete, other varieties in use are,
high strength and high performance concrete, self-
compacting, light weight, high density, fibre reinforced,
polymer, coloured concrete etc. • The making of
concrete is an art as well as a science.
Uses and Application of Special Concrete
• Special concrete is used in extreme weather.
• HPC has been used in large structures such as the Petronas Towers and the
Troll Platform. Petronas Towers was the tallest concrete building in the world
built in Malaysia in the mid-1990s. In 1998, the deepest offshore platform, the
Troll platform, was built in Norway — a structure taller than the Eiffel Tower.
• Good cohesiveness or sticky in mixes with very high binder content
• Some delay in setting times depending on the compatibility of cement, fly ash
and chemical admixture
• Slightly lower but sufficient early strength for most applications
• Comparable flexural strength and elastic modulus
• Better drying shrinkage and significantly lower creep
• Good protection to steel reinforcement in high chloride environment
• Excellent durability in aggressive sulphate environments
• Lower heat characteristics
• Low resistance to de-icing salt scaling
• PC pipes with good resistance to chemical attack from both acidic and
caustic effluents inside the pipe, and from chemical attack on the outside of
the pipe.
High Performance Concrete
Pangetsu, Anugarah
High Performance
• High Performance concrete works out to be
economical, even though it’s initial cost is higher than
that of conventional concrete because the use of High
Performance concrete in construction enhances the
service life of the structure and the structure suffers less
damage which would reduce overall costs.
• High Performance Concrete can be designed to give
optimized performance characteristics for a given set of
load, usage and exposure conditions consistent with the
requirements of cost, service life and durability. The high
performance concrete does not require special
ingredients or special equipment except careful design
and production. High performance concrete has several
advantages like improved durability characteristics and
much lesser micro cracking than normal strength
Based on Characteristic Strength Based on 28-days characteristic strength of
concrete, the following classification has been suggested:

• Ordinary Concrete : Concrete having 28-days

compressive strength in the range of 10 to 20 MPa.
• (b) Standard/Normal Concrete : Concrete having 28- days
compressive strength in the range of 25 to 55 MPa.
• (c) High-Performance Concrete : Concrete having 28-
days compressive strength in the range of 60 to 100 MPa.
• (d) Very High-Performance Concrete : Concrete having
28-days compressive strength in the range of 100 to 150
• (e) Exceptional Concrete : Concrete having 28-days
compressive strength more than 150 MPa.
Design Mix Procudure
• A mix design procedure for HPC using silica fume
and super plasticizer is formulated by ACI method
of mix
• Design and available literature on HPC.
• As the silica fume content increases the
compressive strength increases up to 15% [HPC4]
and then decreases.
• Hence the optimum replacement is 15%.
• The 7 days and 28 days cube compressive strength
ratio of HPC is 0.84 to 0.9
• The percentage replacement of cement by silica
fume increases, the workability decreases.
Mineral Admixtures used in High-
Performance Concrete (HPC)
Summary HPC Properties
Self Consolidating Concrete
Palileo, Elijah
Self Consolidating
• Self-compacting concrete produces resistance to
segregation by using mineral fillers or fines, and using
special admixtures. Self-consolidating concrete is
required to flow and fill special forms under its own
weight, it shall be flow able enough to pass
through highly reinforced areas, and must be able to
avoid aggregate segregation. This type of concrete
must meet special project requirements in terms of
placement and flow.
• Self-compacting concrete with a similar water
cement or cement binder ratio will usually have a slightly
higher strength compared with traditional vibrated
concrete, due to the lack of vibration giving an
improved interface between the aggregate and
hardened paste.
Self Consolidating
Concrete Design Mix
• 1. A high volume of paste:
• The friction between the aggregate limits the spreading and the filling ability of
SCC. This is the why SCC contains a high volume of paste (cement + additions +
efficient water + air), typically 330 to 400 l/m³, the role of which is to maintain
aggregate separation.
• 2. A high volume of the particles (<80µm):
• In order to ensure sufficient workability while limiting the risk of segregation or
bleeding, SCC contains a large amount of fine particles (around 500 kg/m³).
• 3. A high dosage of super plasticizer: Super plasticizers are introduced in SCC to
obtain the fluidity. Nevertheless a high dosage near the saturation amount can
increases the proneness of the concrete to segregate.
• 4. The possible use of viscosity agent (water retainer): These products are generally
cellulose derivatives, polysaccharides or colloidal suspensions. These products have
the same role as the fine particles, minimizing bleeding and coarse aggregate
segregation by thickening the paste and retaining the water in the skeleton..
• 5. A low volume of coarse aggregate: It is possible to use natural rounded, semi
crushed or crushed aggregate to produce SCC. Nevertheless, as the coarse
aggregate plays an important role on the passing ability of SCC in congested
areas, the volume has to be limited.
Properties of Self Consolidating Concrete

• 1. Compressive strength of Self Compacting Concrete

• In all SCC mixes compressive strengths of standard cube specimens were
comparable to those of traditional vibrated concrete made with similar water -
cement ratios – if anything strengths were higher.
• 2. Tensile strength
• Tensile strength was assessed indirectly by the splitting test on cylinders. For SCC,
both the tensile strengths themselves, and the relationships between tensile and
compressive strengths were of a similar order to those of traditional vibrated
• 3. Bond strength
• The strength of the bond between concrete and reinforcement was assessed by
pullout tests, using deformed reinforcing steel of two different diameters,
embedded in concrete prisms. For both civil engineering and housing categories,
the SCC bond strengths, related to the standard compressive strengths, were
higher than those of the reference concrete were.
• 4. Modulus of elasticity
• Results available indicate that the relationships between static modulus of
elasticity and compressive strengths were similar for SCC and the reference mixes.
A relationship in the form of E/ (fc) 0.5 has been widely reported, and all values of
this ratio were close to the one recommended by ACT for structural calculations for
normal weight traditional vibrated concrete.
Properties of Self Consolidating Concrete

• 5. Freeze/thaw resistance
• This property was assessed by loss of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) after daily
cycles of 18 years at 30C and 66 hours at room temperature. No significant loss of
UPV has been observed after 150 cycles for the SCC or reference higher strength
concrete (t he civil engineering mixtures).
• 6. Shrinkage and creep
• None of the results obtained indicates that the shrinkage and the creep of the SCC
mixes were significantly greater than those of traditional vibrated concrete.

• 7. Durability
• Elements of all types of concrete have been left exposed for future assessment of
durability but some preliminary tests have been carried out. The permeability of
the concrete, a recognized indicator of likely durability, has been examined by
measuring the water absorption of near surface concrete..
• 8. Structural performance
• The structural performance of the concrete was assessed by loading the full-size
reinforced columns and beams to failure. For the columns, the actual failure load
exceeded the calculated failure load for both types of concrete (SCC and
traditional vibrated concrete).
Flow tests of self compacted concrete

U box test
Slump test

L box test
V funnel test
Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Perez, Louie
Fiber Reinforced Concrete
• Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete
containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers
that are uniformly distributed and randomly
oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers,
synthetic fibers and natural fibers. Within these
different fibers that character of fiber reinforced
concrete changes with varying concretes, fiber
materials, geometries, distribution, orientation and
Effect of Fibers in Concrete

• Fibres are usually used in concrete to control plastic

shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage cracking.
They also lower the permeability of concrete and
thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of fibres
produce greater impact, abrasion and shatter
resistance in concrete. Generally fibres do not
increase the flexural strength of concrete, so it
cannot replace moment resisting or structural steel
reinforcement. Some ibres reduce the strength of
Stress - Strain
Typical GFRC Mix (Premixed)
• Chopped AR glass fibers-2 to 3% by weight for
premixed; 4% to 6% for spray-up
• Acrylic polymer emulsion-5% acrylic solids by weight
of cement
• Type I or II cement
• Sand:cement equals approximately 1:1
• Pozzolan (VCAS) at 10 to 25% cement replacement
• Admixtures: superplasticizer (high-range water
reducer, such as a polycarboxylate) for face coat
and pourable (self-consolidating) back coat
• Color-dry or liquid in face coat
Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Lightweight Concrete
Raymundo, Nico
Lightweight Concrete

• Lightweight means concrete and mortar with a low

density. Concrete incorporating either aggregates
with a lower density or artificial voids are created to
reduce the weight. The method used depends
mainly on the lightweight materials available, the
application and the desired concrete properties.

• Reduction in fresh concrete density and in

hardened concrete density
• If lightweight concrete is used as an infill concrete
with low load bearing requirements i.e. for
dimensional stability, highly porous concretes and
mortars are generally produced (aerated
lightweight concrete)
• If lightweight concrete with good mechanical
properties (i.e. compressive strength) is required,
special aggregates are used (naturally very porous
but also dimensionally stable)
Figure. 1. Measured compressive strengths.
Figure 1 shows the average strength gain curve for the girders along with bars showing ± one standard deviation.
A statistical analysis showed that all batches used for each girder, as well as for all the girders, were statistically equivalent within a 95%
confidence interval.
All girders met the specified strength of 10,000 psi (69 MPa) by 56 days.Lightweight Concrete Design Mix
Lightweight Concrete Properties

o Low Water/Cement Ratio Sprayed concretes generally have a lower

water/cement ratio than poured concrete.
o High Strengths with Rapid Strength Gain Sprayed concretes can be
expected to attain high compressive strengths particularly with a low
water/cement ratio and the dense compaction achieved by the high
velocity of application.
o High Density/Low Permeability The high velocity of placement ensures
good compaction and high density coupled with low permeability and
water absorption.
o Enhanced Adhesion and Bond Strength As with so many operations in
construction, good surface preparation is vital.
o High Speed High Output Sprayed concrete can deliver high volumes
quickly and economically. Free formed tunnel linings or retaining walls
can be sprayed immediately after excavation.
Polymer Modified Concrete
Pentecostes, Kendrix
Polymer Modified

• The polymer modified cement concrete is a

composite that is obtained by the incorporation of
a polymeric material into the concrete. This is
carried out during the mixing stage. The polymers
that are incorporated at this stage should in no way
interfere with the hydration process.
Types of Polymer Modified Concrete (PMC)

Based on the type of the modifier used, polymer

modified concrete can be classified into the following

• Latex-Modified Cement Concrete

• Pre-Polymer Modified Cement Concrete

Polymer Modified
Concrete Properties
• Polymers are added to the concrete mixes either in
the form of an aqueous emulsion or in a dispersed
form. This is to improve the following properties of
• The extensibility and the tensile strength of the
concrete structure
• The impact resistance
• The Abrasion resistance
• The durability and the resistance to the aggressive
• The bond between the old and the new concrete
Sprayed Concrete
Pentecostes, Kendrix
Sprayed Concrete
• Sprayed concrete is the method by which concrete is
sprayed into place, rather than the more conventionally
used pouring or placing into formwork. According to the
Sprayed Concrete Association other terms used include
Gunite, Shot Concrete and Shotcrete.
• There are many applications and uses for sprayed
concrete. These include curved structures (including
shell roofs and domes and tunnel linings) and free-
formed structures (such as swimming pools and climbing
walls). Applications also include underground
construction, retailing walls and piled wall facings.
Sprayed concrete is also commonly used to provide fire
protection to steelwork and for strengthening and repair
works to existing structures.
Sprayed Concrete
•Water-Cement Ratio


•Density and Permeability

•Freeze and thaw resistance

•Adhesion and Bond Strength

Compressive Strenght
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