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19th CENTURY PHILIPPINES

AS RIZAL’S CONTEXT
“Man is partly the product of his time. His life and
his message are affected by his environment and
the event that take place in the world he lives in.”
-19TH Century was the era of challenges and
- responses.
-It is the period of major changes that affect
man and society.
- Age of Enlightenment.
FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE

1. POLITICAL CONTEXT

2. ECONOMIC CONTEXT

3. SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT
POLITICAL CONTEXT
The Struggle of Nations for Nationalism

The French Revolution


1779-1789
> liberty,
> equality, and
> fraternity
The American Civil War
(1861 – 1865)
1. CONSERVATISM VS LIBERALISM
In Spain there was the split among the intellectuals
into two irreconcilable camps, the Conservatives and the
Liberals, neither of which advantaged adequate practical
solutions to end all strives.

A seesawed battle between absolutism and liberalism


occurred in Spain. This was a period of confusion and
instability.
2. Frailocracy – rule of the friars
POLITICAL STRUCTURE
DURING SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
ECONOMIC CONTEXT
Industrialization

this generally applied to the extraordinary


transformation in the method of:
production,
transportation, and
communication
through the substitution of manual labor to machine.

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1.ENCOMIENDA TO HACIENDA SYSTEM
2. GALLEON TRADE
3. Indulto de Commercio
– privilege of provincial governors to engage in and
monopolize trade
SOCIO – CULTURAL CONTEXT

SOCIAL PYRAMID
PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM DURING
SPANISH TIME

1855 - the year Spain realized the need of


establishing a system of public
education for the indios.
- this was also the year that Gov. Gen
Crespo organized a Commission and
recommended remedial measures to
improve elementary education
1861 - the year the Commission completed its
report and forwarded it to Spain.
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1863 - the year that the Educational Decree
of 1863 was issued.

Provisions of Educational Decree of 1863

1. Establishments of Teacher Training School.


2. Government supervises the public school
system.
3. Use of Spanish as medium of instruction in
all schools.
4. Establishment of one primary schools for
boys and for girls in each of major town.
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DEFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
DURING SPANISH TIME

1. Emphasis on Religion
>Fear of God was emphasized.
>Obedience to friars was instilled in the
mind of the people.
>Indios were constantly reminded that
they have inferior intelligence and were
fit for manual labor only.
>Will of God was also emphasized.

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2. Absence of Academic Freedom

> Most schools were not opened to the


natives.

> Students were not allowed to express


their opinion.

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4. Racial Discrimination

> prior to educational decree of


1863, the schools were not opened
to the natives.

> Spaniards hesitated to consider


the indios as educable as
themselves.

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5. Limited curriculum

> Education was limited to the 3


Rs, that is, Reading, Writing and
Arithmetic

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Towards the middle of the 19th century,
intellectual disintegration was keenly felt by
the middle class.

This was caused by an inadequate


educational system imposed by the civil
government upon the people.

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The Philippines of Rizal’s Time

During the time of Rizal, the sinister


shadow of Spain’s decadence darkened
the Philippine skies. The Filipino
agonized beneath the yoke of Spanish
misrule, for they were unfortunate
victims of the evils of an unjust, bigoted,
and deteriorating colonial power. Among
these evils were as follows:
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•Instability of the
Colonial Administration

•Corrupt officialdom

•No representation in
the Spanish Cortez

•Denial of Human Rights


for Filipinos 23
•No equality before
the law

•Maladministration of
justice

•Racial discrimination

•Frailocracy
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•Forced labor,
Tribute, and
Bandala

•Guardia Civil

The 19th century when Rizal lived was a


century of ferment caused by the blowing of
winds of history. The above events
significantly affects the lives and fortunes of
mankind as well as the life of Jose Rizal. 25
Paradoxically, the Friars who were
assigned to implement the educational
decrees from Spain were among the
vociferous of the Spanish elements against the
teaching of Spanish language in the
Philippines.

They believed that the knowledge of the


Spanish language would encourage the
people to oppose Spanish rule.

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They contend that “an enlightened
people cannot be kept long in subjugation”.

The Filipinos must therefore be kept in


the dark so that they would remain isolated
from the intellectual ferments of the times;
otherwise they might be inspired by new
ideas of freedom and independence.

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