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EEng-4413 Energy Conversion & Rural

Electrification
Lecture 1
Course Introduction

Adama University
School of Engineering & Information Technology
Department of Electrical Engineering
Power Engineering Stream
By Tahaguas Andemariam
2011
1
Course Outline
Course Description:
The course discusses the use of various energy conversion
technologies which are used for harnessing Electrical energy
from various energy resources worldwide. Issues relevant to
Course Objective:
energy efficiency and energy storage are also discussed.
To introduce technologies of conventional and non-
conventional power plants.
To provide an overview of renewable energy resources and
technologies.
To give an insight into planning and design of small scale and
off-grid electrical power systems.
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Cont’d Course Outline

1. Introduction to Energy Conversion


2. Overview of Thermodynamics:
 First and second laws, Carnot cycle.
 Enthalpy and Entropy
3. Thermal Power Plants
 Steam Turbine Cycle
 Gas Turbine Cycle
 Combined Gas Turbine Cycle
 Steam Injected Gas Turbine
4. Hydropower:
 Basic concepts,
 Site and dam selection,
 Types of turbines,
 Small- scale hydropower design.
 Current and future plan of Hydropower in Ethiopia 3
Cont’d Course Outline

5. Solar Energy :
 Introduction,
 Solar radiation,
 Solar Collectors,
 Solar cells and PV systems,
 Solar Thermal Power Plant,
 Applications of Solar Energy.
 Solar PV System Design and Calculation Exercise
 Lab- Solar panel characteristics study.
6. Wind Energy:
 Basic theory,
 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines,
 Wind resource analysis,
 Types of Wind turbines,
 Wind Turbine Applications.
 Calculation Exercise 4
Cont’d Course Outline

7. Biomass Energy:
 Introduction,
 Biomass conversion Methods
 Biomass-fired Power plant
 Other Biomass applications.
8. Geothermal Energy:
 Introduction,
 Geothermal resource types,
 Applications or heating and electricity generation.
9. Nuclear Power Plant:
 Nuclear Fuel,
 Fission, Fusion methods,
 Nuclear power plant
10. Rural Electrification:
 Rural electrification policy and Planning
 Off-grid system Load forecasting,
 Feasibility study and design of small-scale off-grid power systems,
 Techniques of connecting rural villages to national grids.
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Cont’d Course Outline

TEACHING & LEARNING METHODS:


Lecture Supported By Tutorial, Assignment, Project and
Laboratory Exercises.
Evaluation:
Assignment + Project 30%
Mid Semester exam 20%
FinalBooks:
Text Exam 50%
•Archie W. Culp: Principle of Energy Conversion McGraw-Hill
College:1990
References:
1. Keider: Solar Heating and Cooling, 1998
2. Fritz: Small and Mini Hydropower System, 1996
3. Thomas C. Elliott: Standard Handbook of Power Plant
Engineering
(Hardcover), McGraw-Hill Education; 2nd edit. 1989)
4. Renewable Energy, Power for a sustainable future BY Godfrey
6
Boyel
Introduction Outline
Energy Sector of Ethiopia
Energy Issues in Ethiopia
Energy sources and conversion processes
Essentials of an Energy Conversion Process
Classification of Sources of Energy
World Electricity Production Outlook
General Overview of Renewable Energy Resources
Hydropower
Solar Energy
Wind Energy
Biomass
Geothermal Energy
Tidal Energy
Wave Energy
Advantages of Renewable Energy
Problems and Limitations of Renewable Energy 7
biomass energy sources (94%).
Energy Sector of Ethiopia
 Traditional Energy Sources are Fuel wood, Charcoal, dung etc
 Modern Energy is mainly products of petroleum and Electricity
 Petroleum product is a major source for modern energy, mainly
used for transport sector
 Per capita electricity consumption is ~ 41.35 kWh (EEPCo,
2010)
 The major source of electricity is hydropower plants
 Total installed capacity in 2010 is 1967.9 MW (1947.8 MW ICS
and 20.01 MW SCS)
 Ethiopia has potential of more than 45,000 MW from
hydropower
 Geothermal resource potential is estimated to 5,000 MW 8
Cont’d

 Within 5 to 6 years Ethiopia will have additional installed


capacity of 8,791MW from Hydro, 773 MW from Wind, 70 MW
from Geothermal and >104 MW from Biogases Cogeneration.
additional supply from four hydropower generation projects
 Solar and animate energy potential exist at considerable size
and will be incorporated in the future generation expansion plan
 Huge potential on biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel ) (currently 8
million liters of ethanol and huge potential of biodiesel exists)

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Energy Issues in Ethiopia

 Ethiopia has faced serious problems in energy supply and


utilization in the last three to four years
 The new economic policy has created favorable conditions for
the private sector and encourages investment which entails
heavy investment burden in the energy sector
 The need to transform from traditional to modern energy
sources which demand for heavy investment in terms of foreign
currency and domestic resources
 The continued destruction of forestry resources for firewood
has resulted in environmental problems, loss of productivity and
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Cont’d

 Traditional energy consumption in Ethiopia is associated


mainly with environmental problems
 The cost of petroleum imports has brought worsening impact
on Ethiopia’s trade balance and foreign exchange availability
 Low efficiency of energy utilization in all sectors
 The agricultural sector is still at primitive stage and highly
dependent on animate power
 Lack of access and/or unavailability to modern energy
sources in rural areas
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Energy sources and
conversion processes

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Cont’d
 Energy Conversion is the Process by which one energy
form is transformed into a different form of energy. Henceforth
an energy conversion process transforms primary energy into
secondary energy
Transitional Energy:
Energy in motion, e.g. kinetic energy (K.E.);
thermal energy;
electric energy in transmission/distribution systems;
radiated electromagnetic energy (e.g. solar energy, radio
waves, other electromagnetic energies)
 Stored Energy:
Energy sources which exist in the forms of sitting masses
at higher positions or elevations, and commonly referred
to as potential energy (P.E.) 13
Essentials of an energy
Conversion Process
1. An Energy Conversion Process without Storage
facilities on Either Side of the Converter (i.e. on the
input side before conversion and on the output side
after conversion) of the Energy Converter

Secondary
Primary/ Initial Energy Energy e.g.
Energy Converter Electricity &
Heat
Loss

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Cont’d

2. An Energy Conversion Process with Storage facilities on


the Primary Energy (input) side of the Energy Converter

Secondary
Primary/ Initial Energy
Storage Energy e.g.
Energy Converter
Electricity

Loss

15
Cont’d

3. An Energy Conversion Process with Storage facilities on the


Secondary Energy (output) side of the Energy Converter

Secondary
Primary/ Initial Energy
Energy e.g. Storage
Energy Converter
Electricity

Loss

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Classification of Sources of Energy
 Primary (initial) energy sources; e.g. fossil fuels ( coal, oil,
natural gas); Geothermal, biomass fuels (i.e. fuel wood,
branches, leaves, charcoal, agricultural wastes), different forms
of solar energy (e.g. radiant energy, hydropower, wind, waves
and Tidal energy).
Energy Resources are Subdivided into:
 Renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy,
hydropower, biomass sources; geothermal energy are
seasonally and slowly recovered energy sources.
 Non-renewable energy sources: fossil fuels (coal, oil,
natural gas (CH4)

Note: Once combusted, fossil fuels will not be recovered;


instead the resulting washes and ashes are removed as
wastes 17
Cont’d

 Secondary energy: is energy derived after a


conversion
process e.g.
 Electrical Energy (Electricity) coming out from a
generator
 Mechanical Energy or useful work provided by an
electric motor, Turbines or a diesel engine
 Thermal Energy provide as high enthalpy
(potential chemical energy) coming out from a
thermal process.

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Cont’d

Energy sources are categorized in to two basic


parts:
1. Renewable Energy
2. Non Renewable Energy

1. Definition of Renewable Energy Resources

 Renewable energy is the term used to cover


those energy that occur naturally and
Repeatedly in the environment and can be harnessed
for human benefit.
 The ultimate sources of most of these energy 19are
Cont’d

Nonrenewable
2. Definition ofenergy
Non-renewable
is energy obtained from
static stores of energy that remain bound unless
Energy
released by human interaction.
 Nonrenewable energy supplies are also called
finite supplies
 Examples: fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas). The
energy is initially an isolated energy potential and
external action is required to initiate the supply of
energy for practical purposes.

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Cont’d Non-
renewable Energy Resources

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World Electricity
Production Outlook
World Electricity
Poduction,2000

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Cont’d
World Electricity Poduction,2008

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Cont’d
World Electricity Poduction,2000

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General Overview of Renewable Energy R
Why Should we use
Renewable Energy?
 Non-renewable resources are limited (Max
estimation for the next 50 to100 years). For Western
Europe it is estimated to last for 10 years and for North
America about 25 years
 Security of Supply
 Possible vulnerabilities:
Dependence on the resource in question
Supply and demand problems
Vulnerability and exposure of supply
 Variety of sources of disruption
 Increase in the world energy consumption
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Cont’d
The issue for Sustainability-
Energy
Environment
Definition: “Meeting theSociety
needs of the present
Economy the ability of future
generation without compromising
generations to meet their needs”.

The world has finite resources and a finite capacity


to absorb the ecological burdens that humans may put
on it.

Concerns raised from the exponential growth of


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Cont’d
Human effects on the environment
 Stratospheric ozone depletion
 Global warming
 Acid rain
 Unsafe drinking water
 Hazardous/solid waste disposal
 Loss of plant and animal species
 Human health and well-being
 Environmental protection has usually taken the form of
end-of-pipe solutions that often required considerable
money and natural resources affect industry profit

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Cont’d Human effects on the
environment

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Cont’d Human effects on the
environment

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Hydropower
Is one of the prevailing energy-producing
Overview
technologies
 It provides about 20% of the world’s electricity
 In the ”developing world” the proportion rises up
to 40%
 In Ethiopia the proportion is more than 98%

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The amount
Solar Energyof solar energy incident on the earth
Overview
every year is:
 Equivalent to 160 times the energy stored in the
world’s proven reserves of fossil fuels
 Equivalent to more than 15 000 times the
world's
annual use of fossil and nuclear fuels and
hydropower
Types of Solar Energy
i) Photovoltaics (PV)
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Cont’d Photovoltaics (PV)
 Convert directly the solar energy into electricity in
a solid
state device made from silicon.
 It is based on the photovoltaic effect.

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Solar energy can be used directly for different
Cont’d such as:
purposes Solar Thermal
• Space or water heating at relative low
temperatures by
absorption in solar collectors.
• Passive heating in buildings designed to take
advantage
of solar energy.
Generation of electricity by concentrating the solar
energy in parabolic mirrors that heat up the water to
several thousand °C

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Cont’d Solar
Tower
The solar updraft tower is a proposed type of
renewable energy power plant, It combines three
technologies: the chimney effect, the greenhouse
effect, and the wind turbine

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WindWind
energyEnergy Overview
offers the potential to generate
substantial amounts
of electricity without the pollution problems of
most conventional
forms of energy

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Biomass Overview
Biomass is one of the major
world fuel sources, especially in
the third world, where it provides
40% of the requirements.

Biomass is also important in


some of
the forest-rich part of the
industrial
nations.

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Cont’d Biomass-
Conversion

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Geothermal Energy Overview
 Geothermal energy results from heat stored in rock
by the earth’s natural heat flow.
Geothermal energy can be directly used in industrial
processes, space heating, domestic and leisure
applications and electricity production

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Tidal energy Tidal Energy
is the result of the interaction of the
gravitational pull of the moon and the sun, on the seas.
 is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of
tides into electricity
Tidal energy traditionally involves erecting a dam
across the opening to a tidal basin.
The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the
tide to flow into the basin, the sluice is then closed as
the sea level drops.

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Wave Energy
 Kinetic energy (movement) exists in the moving
waves of the
ocean. That energy can be used to power a turbine
 A simple example in figure below shows that when the
wave rises into a chamber. The rising water forces the
air out of the chamber. The moving air spins a turbine
which can turn a generator

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sustainable energy supply
Advantages of Renewable
The use of a broader Energy
range of sources
implies a
greater security of energy supply
Increased employment, mainly in small and
medium-
sized enterprises, and stimulation of
agriculture and
rural employment in case of biomass, e.g. in
cooperation between farmers, industry, and
local
authorities
The cost of energy is mainly determined by
the
investment, implying a higher cost stability
and thus 41
development, particularly in developing
Cont’d
countries
Long life time of energy systems
The modular character of the technologies
allows gradual
implementation, which is easier to finance; it
offers the
possibility of rapid scale-up when required, and
it gives
shorter lead times between investment and
return
Attractive alternative to countries with limited
indigenous
energy resources
Lower overall environmental impact as
compared to
conventional (fossil and nuclear fuels) 42
 Positive effect on regional national
Cont’d
employment and
development Possibility to get rid of a
portion of the
waste materials generated by society
 Dual use of land resources (e.g. agriculture
and wind
mills, energy crops)
 Hydroelectric dams can be used for
regulating
waterways, flood-control
 No fuel cost (except for operation and
maintenance)
 Saving limited fossil/nuclear resources
 Adequate for off-grid remote applications 43
Drawbacks of Renewable Energy
 Many renewable energy sources are
intermittent
(hourly, daily, seasonal, annual
variations)
Supplies are often diffuse and need to
be concentrated
(or processed -e.g. biomass)
. solar < 1000 W/m2
. wind < 400 W/m2
. geothermal, ~ 60 mW/m2

Necessity of back-up power due to


intermittency
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Cont’d
 Need for energy storage (difficult for
wind, solar PV,
easier for hydro and biomass)
 Renewable energy entails a number of
other potential
environmental impacts
 Renewable energy can make large
tracts of land
unusable for competing uses disrupt
marine life, bird
life and flora/fauna
 Produce visual and noise pollution
 Currently longer system payback times,
 More expensive energy price
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