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DNA & RNA STRUCTURE

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells


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The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Replication

protein
DNA mRNA
A
C
UA A G
CA

Transcription G Translation
A
C
G U
U
CA

Phenotype
CENTRAL DOGMA
of Molecular Biology

Transcription Translation

Replication Reverse
Transcription
Roles of Protein:
Enzymes.
Assist in chemical reactions

Defense.
Immune system

Structural roles:
» Keratin
» Muscles
» Cytoskeleton

Chemical messengers.
Hormones
3

1
BASE - SUGAR - PHOSPHATE
NUCLEOSIDE

NUCLEOTIDE
sugar
5' 5'

' ' 4' 1'


' ' 3' 2'
Purine and pyrimidine bases found in DNA and RNA.
NUCLEOSIDE
NUCLEOTIDE

dAMP dADP d ATP


2 Types of Nucleic Acid:
RNA & DNA
• Differ in a few essential ways:
DNA
• Double helix (nucleotide chain)
• Nucleotide purine (adenine = A & guanine = G) pyrimidine
(cytosine = C & thymine =T)
• Sugar: Deoxyribose
• Complementer
A - T  2 hydrogen bonds
G - C  3 hydrogen bonds
DNA

• Anti paralel
• Contains genetic information
• Template for
Replication
Transcription
Watson and Crick
… On Feb. 28,
1953, Francis
Crick walked into
the Eagle pub in
Cambridge,
England, and, as
James Watson
later recalled,
announced that
"we had found the
secret of life."
"The structure was too pretty not
to be true."

-- JAMES D. WATSON, "The Double


Helix"
DNA double
helix
The Three-Dimensional Structure
of DNA
 To fit within a living cell, the DNA double helix
must be extensively compacted into a 3-D
conformation
 This is aided by DNA-binding proteins
 Refer to 9.20

22
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Radial loops
(300 nm in diameter)

Metaphase
chromosome

30 nm fiber

Nucleosomes
(11 nm in diameter)

DNA
(2 nm in diameter)

Histone
protein
DNA wound
around histone
proteins

23
Each chromatid
(700 nm in diameter)

Figure 9.20
Properties of DNA
• Denaturation & Renaturation of DNA

The DNA double helix can unwind to form


single strands when subjected to :

– extremes of pH
– increased temperature
– decreased dielectric constant by alcohols, ketone,
etc.
– exposure to amides or urea
Renaturation of DNA
RNA
• Single chain (A, G, C & U)
• Sugar: Ribose
• 3 RNAs (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
• Involved in protein synthesis
Secondary structure
TERIMA KASIH