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Introduction to

WWII

Adapted from McIntyre at

http://worldhistory.pppst.com
Key Concept: What were the four main
causes of WWII? Give an example of each.
1. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany’s borders were changed, and
its economy was bankrupted by
reparations payments.

•Treaty
•of
•Versailles
4. Appeasement and
2. Economic Factors: Isolationism:
All countries suffered England and France were still
the effects of the Great recovering from WWI and
Depression, and people unsuccessfully tried to use
blamed their diplomacy to stop Hitler. Some
governments and sought countries, such as the United States,
change. isolated themselves to try to avoid
being drawn into other nations’
wars.

3. Nationalism:
Extreme nationalism gave rise to
Fascism in Italy and Nazism in
2 Germany and caused Japan to colonize
Asia.
Quick Facts
A. War Costs
1. US Debt 1940 - $9 billion
US Debt 1945 - $98 billion
• The war cost $330 billion -- 10 times
the cost of WWI & as much as all
previous federal spending since 1776

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Quick Facts:
B. Human Costs
1. 50 million people died (compared
to 15 million in WWI)
• 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians)

• 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST


(6 million Jews + 5 million others)

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When?
•1939-1945
•US involvement 1941-1945

1939 1941 1945

Sept.1 - Sept. 3 - Dec. 7 – May - Sept. -


Germany Britain & Japan bombs Germans Atomic
invades France Pearl Harbor; Surrender Bombing
Poland declare US enters the of
(official war on War Hiroshima
start to the Germany &
war) Nagasaki,
5 Japanese
Surrender
Who?

Allies Axis
(major powers) (major powers)
Great Britain Germany
Russia Ital
y
United States Japan
France
(note: France surrendered
to Germany in 1940 (after 6
weeks of fighting)

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Major Leaders
Adolf Hitler
Nazi Germany

Benito Mussolini
Italy

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Major Leaders
Hideki Tojo
Japanese Prime Minister

Winston Churchill
8 British Prime Minister
Major Leaders
Joseph
Stalin
Russian Leader

Franklin Delano Roosevelt


9 US President
Why? (underlying causes of WWII)
1. Failure of Treaty of
Versailles
A. Germany lost land to surrounding
nations and wanted them back.

B. War Guilt Clause


1) Germany forced pay $57 trillion
(modern equivalent). These
payments bankrupted the
German economy and left
them hopeless and
embarrassed.
Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow
Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles C. The U.S. Congress rejected the
treaty. embarrassed Germans

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Why?
2. Economic Factors
A. The Depression made Germany’s
debt even worse.

B. Desperate people turn to leaders


who make them feel better about
themselves and put the blame on
1923 - Wallpapering with
others. In this case, Hitler blamed
German Deutschmarks the former government, Jews,
foreigners, communists, Roma
(Gypsies), the mentally ill, and
homosexuals.

C. Similar situations existed in other


countries such as Italy.

1938- Evidence of Kristallnacht, or the Night of


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the Broken Glass
Why?
3. Nationalism
A. Extreme nationalism gave rise to
Fascism in Italy and Nazism in
Germany and caused Japan to
colonize Asia.

B. It is an extreme form of having


pride in one’s country. It creates
a situation in which people think,
“My country and people are the
best, we deserve the best, and
we’re going to take it from you.”

C. To support nationalism, countries


increase their military strength to
get what they want.

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Why? 4. Appeasement and Isolationism
A. Why was the U.S. isolationist?
1. The Great Depression
caused economic problems
in the U.S.
2. Perceptions of WWI:
a. WWI did not seem to
solve much and cost too
much in money and
lives.
3. People thought that the U.S.
got into WWI for the wrong
reasons (greedy
businessmen!).
B. This led to “Appeasement.”
1. Appeasement: give dictators
what they want and hope
that they won’t want
anything else.
2. Appeasements included
allowing the Japanese
invasion of Manchuria, the
Italian invasion of Ethiopia,
and Germany’s invasion of
taking of part of
13 Czechoslovakia called the
Sudetenland.
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed
as important as the needs of the nation. The government
controls every aspect of public and private life.

Communist Fascist Dictatorship


Dictatorship (USSR) (Germany, Italy)

Fascism: military
Totalitarianism government with
based on racism &
nationalism with
strong support from
the business
community
Military
Dictatorship
(Japan)

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• Hitler peacefully
What else did Hitler annexed (took over)
get? Austria in 1938.
• Hitler signed a
nonaggression pact
with the USSR.
• They agreed not to
fight each other
and split Poland
between them
• Hitler would later
break the pact and
attack the USSR.
Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939
• The USSR then
became one of the
Allies fighting
Germany.
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How Did Hitler Make War?
Blitzkrieg = “Lightning War”
In the next year,
Hitler invades:

• Denmark
• Norway
• The Netherlands
• France

16 Hitler in Paris
US Assistance
Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies:
Lend-Lease - 1939
• US “lent” war materials
to cash-strapped Great
Britain

Atlantic Charter
• US secretly meets with
England to commit to
defeating Germany

17 London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze


Meanwhile … in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”
What?
• Surprise attack by the
Japanese on American
forces in Pearl Harbor,
Hawaii

Effect?
• US declares war on Japan
& other Axis powers
USS Arizona sinking in Pearl Harbor

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Key Concept: What were the four long-term
effects of WWII? Give an example of each.
Effect Examples

Power Shifts U.S. and U.S.S.R become world powers,


replacing England and Germany.

Tensions Arms Race and Cold War begin.


Rise
Communism U.S.S.R. sets up satellite nations in Eastern
Spreads Europe.

Hope United Nations and Marshall Plan implemented.


Survives

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