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Engineering Drawing

Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University

1
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Engineering_drawings_with_Machinery%27s_Handbook.jpg
01 Overview

2
Course aims

3
Learning objectives

After finished the course, students will be able to

o Perform a spatial visualization and manipulation.


o Apply a drawing standard.
o Construct a geometrical shape by freehand sketch, drawing tools,
and CAD software.
o Create a detailed drawing.
o Create an assembly drawing.
o Interpret a drawing.

4
Detailed drawing

5
Assembly drawing

6
Way to create engineering drawing
1. Freehand sketch
2. Use drawing instruments
3. Use computer-aided-drafting (CAD) software

7
Interrelationship

8
Self-preparation
1. Register to a course website (i.e. Courseville).
2. Download a PowerPoint slide and workbook
3. Print the workbook with a laser printer.
4. Buy the following drawing instrument.
1. Pencil : HB, 4H, 6H (Do not use 2B in any cases)
2. Sharpener
3. Triangle set
4. Pencil eraser
5. Compass
6. Circle template

9
02 Graphic language

10
Necessity
o Word language is ineffective for describing the shape and features
of an object.

o Graphic language can transfer a multi-dimensional information.


o Examples are graph, flowchart, schematic diagram, engineering (or
technical) drawing, etc.

11
Graph

12
Flowchart
Identification
of need

Definition of
problem

Synthesis

Analysis and
optimization

Evaluation

Presentation

13
Schematic diagram 1/2
o A representation of a system using abstract, graphic symbol rather
than realistic pictures.

14
Schematic diagram 2/2
o A representation of a system using abstract, graphic symbol rather
than realistic pictures.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schematic
15 [2] http://www.equipmentsexporters.com/images/product/1498367772FreeandForcedConvection.jpg
[3] http://discoverarmfield.com/data/ht10xc/images/ht19-schematic.jpg
Engineering drawing
o Use graphic language for describe geometry.
o Use word language for describe size and location.

16
03 Application of a graphical
language

17
Engineering books

A pair of 80-N forces is applied to the handles


of the small eyelet squeezer. The block at A
slides with negligible friction in a slot machined
in the lower part of the tool. Neglect the small
force of the light return spring AE and
determine the compressive force P applied to
the eyelet.

Calculate the support reactions at A and B


for the beam subjected to the two linearly
varying load distributions.

18 J.L. Meriam, and L.G. Kraige Engineering mechanics: Statics, 7th eds., Wiley, 2012.
Technical article/report
The pneumatic cylinder used in
the tests is shown schematically.
The rod (1) is connected to the
piston (2). The piston seals (3)
prevent compressed air leakage
between the chambers. The
cylinder bore (4) is secured
between the cylinder front (5)
and rear head (6)…

19 A. Manuello Bertetto, L. Mazza, and P.F. Orru Contact Pressure Distribution in Guide Bearings for Pneumatic
Actuators”. Experimental Techniques, 2013, p. 2.
Product catalog
Swing Check Valve

20 http://www.kcbkk.com/upload/images/product/170/170/170.pdf
Product installation manual

21 http://www.precisiondoors.com/aseries.htm
Patent

22 Shoe testing apparatus and method of use, Patent No.: US 6,289,743 B1


04 Drawing standards

23
Definition
o A set of rules and styles for guiding us to present a technical
information
that is understandable in the engineering community.
o Minor details in standards are vary from country to country.

o Example

Thailand (มอก / TIS, Thailand Industrial


Standard)
Japan (JIS, Japan Industrial Standard)
USA (ANSI, American National Standard Institute)
UK (BS, British Standard)
Germany (DIN, Deutsches Institut für
Normung)
International (ISO, International Standards Organization)

24
TIS drawing standard
Code Title

มอก. 210 2520 ่


วิธเี ขียนแบบทัวไป ่
: ทางเครืองกล
มอก. 440 ล.1 2541 ่
การเขียนแบบก่อสร ้างเล่ม 1 ทัวไป
มอก. 446 ล.4 2532 ข้อแนะนาสาหร ับการเขียน
แผนภาพวงจรไฟฟ้า
มอก. 1473 2540 การเขียนแบบเทคนิ ค การ
ติดตง้ั
สัญลักษณ์สาหร ับระบบท่อ
ของเหลว
...

ระบบทาความร ้อน การระบาย


อากาศ
และระบบท่ออากาศ
25 http://library.tisi.go.th/data/lib_resources/pdf/catalog-online49/tis/02_ICS.pdf
JIS drawing standard
Code Title
JIS Z 8310:2010 General code of drafting practices
JIS Z 8311:1998 Sizes and layout of drawing sheets
JIS Z 8312:1999 Basic convention for lines
JIS Z 8313:1998 (10 parts) Lettering, Part 0 : General requirement
JIS Z 8314:1998 Scales
JIS Z 8315:1999 (4 parts) Projection methods
JIS Z 8316:1999 General principles of presentation
JIS Z 8317-1:2008 Indications of dimensions and tolerances :
Part 1
General principle
JIS Z 8318:2013 Tolerancing of linear and angular dimension
JIS B 0001:2010 Technical drawings for mechanical engineering
JIS B 0002:1998 Screw threads and threaded parts
…..
“Z” designation means “miscellaneous division” .
“B” designation means “mechanical engineering division”

26 http://www.jsa.or.jp/default_english/default_english.html
Drawing sheet
o Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4.
o Orientation

1. Type X 2. Type Y
(A0~A4) (only A4)

Drawing space Drawing


space

o Basic items on the sheet


1. Border
2. Center marks
3. Title block : Always placed at the bottom right.
27
Scale 1/2
o A ratio between the linear dimension in the represented view and
the corresponding linear dimension of the object.

o Designation is
A:B
linear dimension of an object
linear dimension in drawing

1:X (X > 1) for a reduction scales


1:1 for full scale
X:1 (X > 1) for an enlargement scales

o Recommended scale
Reduction scales 1:2 (1:3) (1:4) 1:5 (1:6) 1:10 1:20 1:50
Enlargement scales 50:1 20:1 10:1 (6:1) 5:1 (4:1) (3:1), 2:1
28
Scale 2/2
o Designation of scale is usually inscribed in the title block.

o In the case that a represented view is not shown in a correct


proportion, a note “Not to scale” is written instead.

29 http://www.flight-mechanic.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/2-8.gif
05 Freehand sketch

30
Tools & Preparation
1. Pencil
o Sharpen the lead.
o Use different lead grades pencils for each required line weight.
- HB for object line and hidden line
- 4H for center line
- 6H for construction line

2. Paper

o With or without a grid (rectangular or isometric.)

3. Pencil eraser
o Make sure it is clean.

31
Quality

o Appropriate line weight.


- able to differentiate between object line and construction line.
o A single stroke line (or curve)
o Maintain proportion of the object.

32
Holding a Pencil

33
Horizontal and vertical lines
1. Hold the pencil naturally.
2. Draw the line firmly with a free and easy wrist motion.
3. In case of a long line, break down to a series of connected short lines.

Horizontal lines : sketch from left to right. Vertical lines : sketch from top to bottom.

Note To draw a long lines with arm motion, mark the start and end points then keep eye
on the end point while sketching.
34
Inclined lines

35
Small circle
1. Sketch 2 intersecting lines
pass through a center of the
circle.
2. Lightly sketch a square.
3. Sketch a diagonal and mark
an estimated radius.
4. Finish a circle through the
points.

36
Large circle
1. Place one pencil’s tip at the center as a pivot, and set another
pencil’s tip at the radius-distance from the center.
2. Hold the hand in this position and rotate the paper.

37
Practice

Workbook : SKH 01 - 08

38
06 Projection

39
Meaning
o A method for transferring information of a 3-D object to a 2-D media.
Acrylic plate
Object (3-D space) View (2-D media)

o A projection (or view) depends on a relative orientation between an


object and a projection plane.

40
Basic element
o Line of sight (LOS) is an imaginary ray of light between an
observer’s eye and an object.
o Projection plane is an imaginary flat plane upon which the image
created by the LOS is projected.

LOS

Object

Projection plane
(transparent)
Observer
41
Parts of an object
Edge

Vertex
(or corner) View from
A-direction

Face
(or plane)
A-direction

Vertex  Point
Edge  Line
Face  Closed area
Surface  Closed area
42
07 Line types

43
Line types 1/4
Name Weight Appearance Name according to
according to (or thickness) application
style
Thick o Visible (or object) line
o Extension line
1. Continuous o Dimension line
Thin o Leader line
o Section line
o Break line
2. Dashed Thin o Hidden line
o Center line
3. Chain Thin
o Cutting-plane line

4. Chain double
Thin o Phantom line
dashed

44
Line types 2/4
1. Visible line (or object line)
For indicate the form of a visible part
of an object.

2. Hidden line
For indicate the from of an invisible
part
of an object.

3. Center line
For indicate the center and axis of short break line
a cylindrical object.

4. Break line Long


break line
For express the boundary of a part
broken off for clarity.
45
Line types 3/4
5. Extension line
For lead out from the view to inscribe
dimensions.

6. Dimension line
For inscribe dimensions.

7. Leader line
For lead out from the view to indicate
a description.

8. Cutting-plane line
For express the cutting position to show a
cross-section.

9. Section line (or hatching)


Use to show the area of a part that has
been
cut away
46 in a section view.
Line types 4/4

10. Phantom line (or imaginary line)


For indicate moving portion at special
position
in motion or its limit position of moving.

47
Practice

Workbook : ALN 01 - 03

48
08 Multiview
orthographic projection

49
Orthographic projection
o All projection lines are parallel to each other and perpendicular to
the projection plane.
o Size of the view is independence of a distance between projection
plane and object

50
Multiview
o A set of related orthographic views that come from viewing the
object from a different direction.
3

Height

1 Width Depth 2

View 1 View 2 View 3


Height

Depth
Width Depth
51
Why necessary?
o A single view can not completely convey major dimensions of an
object.
o A single view can not represent a unique shape of an object.

can be

etc.
52
Views Arrangement
o Views must be arrange according to a standard practice.
o A glass box analogy can provide a specific location of each view.

1. Cover the object with a glass box


2. Open the box
and view.

Top view

Front view Right side view


53
Six principal views

Rear Left side


view view

Bottom
view

54
Dimensional relationship

Height

Width Depth

55
Transfer a depth dimension

Miter line

45o 45o

56
Projection of a curve surface
o Surface limit (or limiting element) is the boundary of the projection
of an object.

o The curve surface that tangent to another plane or curve will not
produce a line in orthographic projection view.
o The curved surface that intersect with another plane or curve will
appear as a line in multiview drawing.
57
Examples 1/4
1 2

58
Examples 2/4
3 4

59
Examples 3/4
5 6

60
Examples 3/4
5 6

61
Examples 4/4
7 8

62
Examples 4/4
7 8

63
Alternate position of size view
o A practice for efficiently using a drawing space.
o Good for an object with its height is relatively small its depth.
o The side view is placed nearby a top view instead of a front view.
T
T

RS 
F
F RS

Alternate
position

RS
Typical position B
64
Precedence of line
o When the line of different types coincides with each other, the
more important lines cover up the other lines.
o Order of importance (highest to lowest)
visible line > hidden line > center line > construction line.

Visible line covers Visible line covers Hidden line covers


hidden line center line center line

65
Practice

Workbook : PLN 01
SPV 01 - 20

66
09 Detailed drawing
writing steps

67
Steps
1. Select a necessary view.
2. Layout the selected views on a sheet and choose an appropriate
scale.
3. Complete each selected views.
4. Complete the dimensions and notes.

Top

Front Right

68
Example

30
50

30

15
60

60
60
15 30

Front view

69
Example :
Draw a front view

30
50

30

15
60

60
60
15 30

Front view

70
Example :
Draw a top view

30
50

30

15
60

60
60
15 30

Front view

71
Example :
Draw a right side view

30
50

30

15
60

60
60
15 30

Front view

72
Example :
Dimensioning

30
50

30

15
60

60
60
15 30

73
10 Recommended line practice

74
Hidden Line 1/2
o Join a visible line, except it forms a continuation with a visible line.

join
join space space

space space

75
Hidden Line 2/2
o Intersection between hidden lines should represent an intersection
point.

76
Center line recommended practice 1/2
o Start and end with long dash.
o A short dash should cross at the center of circle or arc.
o Do not extend the line across views.

Leave space Leave space

77
Center line recommended practice 2/2
o For a small hole, a center line is drawn as a thin continuous line.
o Leave a gap when centerline forms a continuation with a visible line.

Leave space Leave space Leave space

78
Practice

Workbook : HLP 01-04


CLP 01-06

79
11 View selection

80
Notes
o Six principal views are always unnecessary.
o Three (properly selected) principal views can describes most
shapes.
o For practical purpose, representation of views more than necessary
should be avoided.
o In many cases, clarity of the views should be improved by adding a
special views such as section view, auxiliary view etc.

81
View selection steps
1. Appropriately orient the object relative to a glass box.
2. Select the front view.
Necessary view
3. Select adjacent views.

82
1. Select orientation

o Object should be in their natural position.


o The projected views should represent as much as possible a true
size and shape of an object.

Good Poor

83
2. Select front view 1/2
o The longest dimension of an object should be presented as a width
in the front view.
o The selected front view should bring about the adjacent views that
are shown in a natural position.

Good

84
2. Select front view 2/2
o Minimize the number of avoidable hidden lines.

Good

85
3. Select adjacent view(s) 1/3
o Minimize the number of avoidable hidden lines.

86
3. Select adjacent view(s) 2/3
o Use minimum number of views to represent the major features
of the object.

87
3. Select adjacent view(s) 3/3
o The selected views should provide enough space for dimensions
and notes.

Change
adjacent view

Change
orientation of
the selected view

88
Object that required 1 View 1/2
o Flat (thin) part having a uniform thickness such as a gasket, sheet
metal etc.

1 Thick

Note : Adjacent views are omitted because they provide only thickness of a part.
89
Object that required 1 View 2/2
o Cylindrical-shaped part.

Note : Adjacent views are omitted because they repeat an information.


90
Object that required 2 Views 1/2
o Identical adjacent view exists.

91
Object that required 2 Views 2/2
o The 3rd view does not present significant contours of the object.

92
Examples 1/2
1 3

93
Examples 2/2
4 5

94
Practice

Workbook : NCV 01 - 26

95
12 Projection Systems

96
Type
o First-angle system : ISO and European standards
o Third-angle system : Japan, Thailand, USA, Canada etc.

First quadrant
(Opaque planes)

Third quadrant
(Transparent planes)

97
Views 1/3
1st angle system (Opaque planes) 3rd angle system
(transparent planes/glass box)

98
Views 2/3
1st angle system 3rd angle system

99
Views 3/3

1st angle 3rd angle

Right side Front Top

Top
Front Right side

100
Projection symbol

1st angle 3rd angle

101
Practice

Workbook : PRS 01 - 02

102
13 Primary Auxiliary View

103
Necessity
o A principal view can not represent a true size of an inclined plane.

True shape does not present


In these principal views.

104
Types

1. Front auxiliary (adjacent to front view)


2. Top auxiliary (adjacent to top view)
3. Side auxiliary (adjacent to side view)

105
Front auxiliary
o Use when an inclined plane appears as a line in the front view.

Auxiliary Auxiliary
plane Top view
Front

Aux.
Front

Edge view of
an auxiliary plane
106
Top auxiliary
o Use when an inclined plane appears as a line in the top view.
Edge view of
an auxiliary plane

Top
Aux.

Top
Front
Auxiliary
view
Auxiliary
plane

107
Side auxiliary
o Use when an inclined plane appears as a line in the side view.

Edge view of
Auxiliary Auxiliary an auxiliary plane
plane view
Aux.
Side

Front Side

108
Partial View
o A view that presents only part of the object that is needed to clarify
and some nearby.
o Partial view can save drafting effort and improve clarity.

Partial Partial (or


1 auxiliary view 2 local)
Completed auxiliary view
auxiliary view Completed
auxiliary view

109
Example 1
Hidden lines representation
of the holes are removed
for clarity.

110
Example 1

D B

C A
Top
Front

Aux.
Front
Prefer
distance
111
Example 2

112
Example 2

Aux.
Side

C
B
Prefer
A
distance

Side Front

A
B
C

113
Practice

Workbook : AUX 01 - 04

114
14 Using drawing tools

115
Using a compass
1. Locate a center of the circle by drawing two intersecting lines.
2. Adjust the compass to be a radius of the circle.
3. Set the needle point at the circle’s center.
4. Start circle by applying enough pressure to the needle, holding the
compass handle between thumb and index fingers.
5. Complete circle by revolving the handle clockwise.

116
Using a circle template
1. Draw two perpendicular construction lines that pass through center
of a circle to be drawn.
2. Align all markings on template with the construction lines.
3. Tracing a circle.

117
Draw a line through a given point
Steps
Given
1. Place the pencil tip at one of the
given points.
A 2. Place the triangle against the
pencil tip.

B 3. Swing the triangle around the


pencil tip until its edge aligns with
the second point.
4. Draw a line.

Play

118
Draw a horizontal line 1/3
1. Press the T-square head against the left edge of the
table.
2. Smooth the blade to the right.

119
Draw a horizontal line 2/3
3. Lean the pencil at an angle about 60o with the paper in the
direction
of the line
4. Rotate the and slightly
pencil slowly“toed in”.
while moving the pencil from left to right.

120
Draw a horizontal line 3/3
5. Move T-square up or down to draw another horizontal line.

121
Draw a vertical line 1/2
1. Set T-square as before.
2. Place any triangle on T-square edge.
3. Use your left hand to hold both T-square and triangle in position.

122
Draw a vertical line 2/2
3. Lean the pencil to the triangle.

4. Draw the line upward while rotating the pencil slowly.

123
Draw a line at 30o with horizontal
1. Place 30o-60o triangle on the T-square edge and press them firmly
against the paper.
2. Draw the line in the direction as shown below.

124
Draw a line at 60o with horizontal
1. Place 30o-60o triangle on the T-square edge and press them firmly
against the paper.
2. Draw the line in the direction as shown below.

125
Draw a line at 45o with horizontal
1. Place 45o triangle on the T-square edge and press them firmly
against
2. the
Drawpaper.
the line in the direction as shown below.

126
Draw a line at 15o with horizontal
1 2

-30o + 45o = 15o CCW 60o + (-45o) = 15o CCW

127
Draw a line at 75o with horizontal
1 2

30o + 45o = 75o CCW 45o + 30o = 75o CCW

128
Draw a line at 105o with horizontal
1 2

60o + 45o = 105o CCW 45o + 60o = 105o CCW

129
15 Applied geometry

130
Contents
Bisecting

Perpendicular Inclined line


Parallel line
line

Tangent line Tangent arc

131
Bisect a line
Steps
Given
1. Swing two arcs having a radius
A greater than half-length of the
line with the centers at the
r1 ends of the line.
r1
2. Join the intersection points of
the arcs with a line.
B
3. Locate the midpoint.
Play

132
Bisect an angle

Given Steps
A
1. Swing an arc of any radius
whose centers at the vertex.

2. Swing the arcs of any radius


r1 r2 from the intersection points
B
between the previous arc and
r2 the lines.

C 3. Draw the line.


Play

133
Parallel line through a given point

Given Steps

+C 1. Line an edge of a triangle up


to a given line.
2. Support the triangle with
another one.
3. Slide the first triangle until its
edge passes through the
given point.

4. Draw a line.

Play

134
Parallel line at a given distance

Given Steps

1. Choose a convenient point on


a given line.
r
2. Use that point as center of an
r
arc with a radius equal to a
given distance.

3. Draw a line parallel to a given


line and tangent to the arc.

Play

135
Perpendicular line through a point
Revolve method
Steps
Given
1. Line an opposite edge of a 45o
triangle up to a given line.
2. Support the triangle with another
one.
+C
3. Rotate the first triangle and
slide
until its edge passes through
the given point.
4. Draw a line.

Play
136
Perpendicular line through a point
Adjacent-sides method
Steps
Given
1. Line an adjacent edge of a 45o
triangle up to a given line.
2. Support the triangle with another
+C one.
3. Slide the first triangle until
another adjacent edge passes
through the given point.

4. Draw a line.

Play

137
Perpendicular line through a point
Compass method
Steps
Given r2 > r1
1. Use a given point as center,
draw the arc with any radius.
r2
D
2. Bisect the distance between the
intersection points between an
r1 arc and a given line.
A
3. Draw a line.

+
C
B

Play
138
Perpendicular line through a point
Adjacent-sides method
Steps
Given
1. Line an adjacent edge of a 45o
+C
triangle up to a given line.
2. Support the triangle with another
one.
3. Slide the first triangle until
another adjacent edge passes
through the given point.

4. Draw a line.

Play

139
Perpendicular line through a point
Compass method
Steps
Given
+C 1. Use a given point as a center,
r2
D draw the arc with any radius that
intersect the given line.
r2
2. Bisect the distance between the
intersection points between an
A arc and a given line.
r1
3. Draw a line.

Play B

140
Line making 15o with a given line
through a given point
15o CCW 15o CW

Given Given

C C
+ +

Play Play

141
Line making 30o with a given line
through a given point
30o CCW 30o CW

Given Given

C C
+ +

Play Play

142
Line making 75o with a given line
through a given point
75o CCW 75o CW

Given Given

C
+
+C

Play Play

143
Tangent line to a given point on arc
Given Steps

1. Line an adjacent edge of a 45o


O triangle up to the center of an
arc and a given given.
C 2. Support the triangle with another
one.
3. Slide the first triangle until
another adjacent edge passes
through the given point.

4. Draw a line.
Play

144
Tangent line to an arc from a given point
1) Simplified method 2) Accurate method

Given Given

O O

T B T

C C

Play Play

145
Concept
To draw a tangent arc (of a specified radius, R), it is necessary to locate

1. Center, C.

The intersection between two parallel lines


at a distance equal to arc’s radius. R
R

2. Start and end points


(or tangent points) of the arc. R

The intersection between a given line and a


line passing through the center of an arc and
perpendicular to a given line.

146
Tangent arc to given lines 1/2
Given 1. Locate the center of an arc

R
R

Play Continue

147
Tangent arc to given lines 2/2
2. Locate the tangent points

TP.1
TP.2

Back

148
Concept
Tangent point lies on the line passes through the centers of each arc
(or circle).

R3

R2

R1

149
Tangent arc to given arcs
To draw a tangent arc (of a specified radius, R), it is necessary to locate

1. its center, C.
2. the start and end points (or tangent points) of the arc.

External tangent Internal tangent

C
R R
R2
R2 R1
R1
C1 C2
C1 C2
R-R1 R-R2
C
150
External tangent arc

Given
R + R2
R + R1 C R2
R
R1

+ C2
C1 +

Play

151
Internal tangent arc
Given
R

R2
R1

+ +
C1 C2

C R – R2
R – R1

Play

152
Mixed tangent arc

Given

R2
R1
C2
C1+ +
R

R – R1
C
Play R + R2

153
Practice

Workbook : GEO 01 - 31

154
16 Isometric Sketch

155
Axonometric projection
o A parallel projection technique used to
a
create a pictorial drawing of an object 1. Trimetric
b c None of the angles
by rotating the object on axis relative to
are equal.
a projection plane.

a 2. Dimetric
B
Two angles
A
b c are equal.
D
B C
A
3. Isometric
a All angles are
D
C
Parallel & normal to equal.
b c (a = b = c = 120o)
Line of sight a projection plane

156
Angle and distance in isometric sketch
o Actual distance can be measured only along the isometric axis.
o No actual angles appear in an isometric sketch.

90o appears as 120o. Nonisometric line


90o appears as 60o.
2

1 2 1 2
1
3 3 3

157
Reading an orthographic view :
Isometric sketch

158
Meaning & Notes
o A process of recognizing an information of object, i.e. shape and
dimension, by interpreting the meaning of line and area that appear in
an orthographic multiview.

Notes
o This is a reverse process of orthographic writing.
o We usually represent the interpreted shape as a pictorial view.
o This section is concern one type of a pictorial view, namely an isometric
view.
o Typically, hidden an center lines are omitted from a pictorial view.

159
Steps
Examples
1. Analyze an arrangement of
a given orthographic views T F R T

F R B L F
2. Select a suitable orientation
of isometric axes. Front

3. Interpret each line and area Front Front


in orthographic views as a
plane or surface.

4. Sketch your interpreting


result in an isometric-grid
paper.
Front

160
Type of planes
1. Normal plane
The plane appears as true size and shape on the on a principal plane
and as a horizontal or vertical line in the adjacent views.

2. Inclined plane
The plane appears as an edge in the view where it is perpendicular to
and as a foreshortened surface in the adjacent views.

3. Oblique plane
The plane is not parallel to all the principal planes. The plane appears
as a foreshortened surface in the principal views.

161
Example

162
Sketching a normal plane
1. Given 2. Given
Front Front
Right Right
Top Bottom

Front

Front

163
Sketching an inclined plane

Given Front-Right-Top

Front

164
Sketching circle & arc 1/3
o Circle becomes isometric ellipse in an isometric view.

165
Sketching circle & arc 2/3

1. Locate the center of an ellipse by


two
isometric lines.
2. Sketch an isometric square.
3. Sketch diagonal lines.
4. Mark each diagonal line at a 2/3

position 2/3

70% or  2/3 of the half-length of 2/3

the 2/3

line. (denoted by solid circle in the figure)


5. Draw the arcs pass through the
marked and tangent points.
166
Sketching circle & arc 3/3
Given Front-Bottom-Right

Front

167
Common mistake

Wrong Correct

168
Sketching irregular curve
o Use the idea of plotting a curve.
o Steps are
1. In orthographic views, choose a finite number of points along the curve.
2. Plot these points in the isometric axes.
3. Sketch a smooth curve passes through plotted points.

169
Practice

Workbook : ISO 13 - 15

170
17 Oblique Sketch

171
Oblique projection

1. Cavalier
Parallel & oblique to
a projection plane Full scale

A 45o
A
B B
C
C
Line of sight 2. Cabinet
D
D
Half scale

Parallel to
a projection plane 45o

172
Advantage
o One face appears as true size and shape.
o Reduce effort especially sketching a circular features.

173
Disadvantage
o They tend to be distorted because they are not a “true projection”.

(Cavalier) (Cabinet)

174
Guidance
1. The frontal plane should contain most of object’s features;
especially,
a circular features.
2. The longest length dimension of object should be placed parallel to
the frontal plane.

175
Examples
Good

Poor

176
Oblique circles
o Circles parallel to the frontal plane are circles; on other planes, ellipse.

o Steps:
1. Locate the center of an ellipse by two
oblique lines.
2. Sketch an oblique square.
3. Sketch diagonal lines.
4. Mark each diagonal line at a position
70% or  2/3 of the half-length of the
line. (denoted by solid circle in the figure)
5. Draw the arcs pass through the
marked and tangent points.

177
Reading an orthographic view :
Oblique sketch

178
Meaning & Notes
o A process of recognizing an information of object, i.e. shape and
dimension, by interpreting the meaning of line and area that appear in
an orthographic multiview.

Notes
o This is a reverse process of orthographic writing.
o We usually represent the interpreted shape as a pictorial view.
o This section is concern one type of a pictorial view,
namely an oblique view.

179
Angle and distance in oblique view
o Angle and distance appears as true size on the frontal plane.

2
1 2
1
3 3 1
3

(Cavalier)

180
Sketching steps
1. Sketch a true size and shape of a selected face on a square grid paper.

2. Extrude that surface to a required depth in a prefer inclined direction,


e.g. 45o.

Note Repeat the above process until all features are sketched.

Example

181
Example 1

Cavalier

182
Example 2

Cabinet

183
Example 3

E
D
D

B
A
A

Cabinet
184
Self study 1/2
1 2 3 4

185
Self study 2/2
5 6

186
Practice

Workbook : OBL 01 - 05

187
18 Object rotation & cutting

188
Rotate 2-D shape in 2-D space
o The point on the shape that coincide with a pivot point will stay at
the same position.
o Each line on the shape is rotated by the same angular displacement
about a pivot point.

y y
Example

90 CCW
about z-axis

x x
Pivot point Pivot point

90 CCW
189
Rotate 2-D shape in 3-D space
o The previous concepts still applicable, but the 2-D shape is appeared
in an isometric plane.

Example y y

90 CCW
about z-axis

Pivot Pivot
z x z x
point point

190
Rotate 3-D shape in 3-D space
o The edge of the object originally in contact with the axis of rotation
remains in contact after the rotation. This edge is called the pivot edge.
o Each point, edge, and surface on the object is rotated by exactly
the same amount.

y y

Pivot edge

90 CCW
about y-axis
z

z x x

191
Guidance
1. Select one surface of an object.
2. Focus on the selected surface, then rotate it about the pivot axis.
3. Sketch an adjacent surface from the rotated surface.

Example y y
y

z z
x x
3
1
2 y y
z x

90 CW
about x-axis z z
x x

192
Object cutting
o Line of intersection between a cutting plane and object’s surface
is a part of an edge of newly created surfaces.
o Visualize the sectioned area created by each cutting plane,
one at a time. Represent the boundary of each sectional area
with hidden lines.
o Expose the hidden area and replace hidden lines with visible lines.

193
Practice

Workbook : ORT 01 – 07
OCT 01

194
19 Reading an Orthographic View :
Additional guidance

195
Guidance
1. The parallel lines always parallel to each other in any of viewing
direction.
2. A complex-shaped objects can be modified from a simple-shaped object.
3. A complex-shaped objects can be a combination of simple-shaped
objects, i.e. analysis by solid.

196
Usefulness of parallel lines

197
Modify a simple object 1/3

198
Modify a simple object 2/3

199
Modify a simple object 3/3

Front Front Front


200
Combine simple objects 1/2

Visualize Move objects Merge objects


simple-shape object to a correct position together

201
Combine simple objects 2/2
Area 1 Area 2

= +

202
Guidance
4. Complex-shaped objects can be visualized as a combination of
surfaces, i.e. analysis by surface.
5. Adjacent areas in orthographic view that are separated by the lines
means those areas are not lie in the same plane.
6. Areas of a similar shape on the different views that obey the
orthographic projection rule is the projection of the same surface.

Adjacent area

203
Example 1
3

5 2 1
1 2 3
3

3 3 3

5
1 4
2 5
2

4
1 5
4

204
Example 2
2

3
1

2
2 3 3

4 1 1
4

1 2 3 4

205
Example 3
8

6
7
3 1 4
5

5 7 6 5 7 6

8
3
8
1 1
2 2 4
3
4

206
Practice

Workbook : ISO 01 - 12

207
Summary
1. Graphical language improve an effectiveness in a technical communication.
2. The orthographic projection concept and a drawing standard are the underlying
components in engineering drawing.
3. An orthographic multiview, both principal and auxiliary views, is a standard
graphical format for transferring an object information to a reader.
4. A pictorial view, i.e. isometric or oblique, is used as a supplementary view in an
engineering drawing.
5. The course contents appeared to students till now, i.e. parts 01-19, concentrate
on development of a students’ spatial ability with a little concern about a drawing
standard.
6. From now on, the contents in the remaining parts, i.e. parts 20-37, will shift
to the recommended practices that appear in a drawing standard.

208
20 Dimensioning :
Basic concepts

209
Definition
o A process of specifying part’s information by using of lines,
number, symbols and notes.

o In this course, we consider only the following information


1. Sizes and location of the object’s features. (this chapter)
2. Type of material
3. Number of piece required to assemble into a single unit
of a product.

210
Dimension components
1. Extension lines
To indicate the position on the 20 f10

object’s features that are dimensioned. R16

2. Dimension lines (included arrowheads)


To indicate the direction and extent of
a dimension, and inscribe dimension

13
numbers.

3. Dimension numbers
4. Leader lines
o Lines to be used in dimensioning
To indicate details of the feature
are always a thin continuous line.
with a local note.
o Detail of a local note depends
5. General notes on the type of features.

211
Dimension style
Style 1 : Use an extension line, dimension line and dimension
number.
27

Style 2 : Use a leader line and (local) note.

f10

Style 3 : Use a general note.

Remove all sharp edges.

212
Dimensioning steps
1. Visualize a rough shape of an object from a given orthographic
multiview of an object.

2. Repeat asking yourself the following questions in a sequence.

Q1 : What is the feature and type of its information to be


dimensioned?

Q2 : How to present that information with an appropriate style?

Q3 : Where to place the selected dimension style?

213
Example
Given

Feature /
Information Style Placement
1. Obj. / Height Style 1 F.V.; Right side
2. Obj. / Width Style 1 F.V.; Bottom
3. Obj. / Depth Style 1 S.V.; Bottom
4. Hole / diameter Style 2 F.V.

5. Hole / depth ---- omit -----


6. Hole / position Style 1 F.V.
214
21 Dimensioning :
Recommended practice on
dimension components

215
Extension line 1/2
1. Space out the beginning of an extension line from a view or center
line 0.5-1 mm.
2. Draw the extension lines beyond the (last) dimension line 1-3 mm.

Good Poor Wrong


2.1 2.2

1.1 1.2

1.3 1.4

216
Extension line 2/2
3. Do not break the extension lines as they cross any line types,
i.e. extension line always a continuous line.

Good Wrong

3.1

3.2
3.3

217
Dimension line
4. Appropriately space the dimension lines apart from each other and
the view.
22
4.5

Good Poor 8
4.4

4.3

4.1
4.2
34

34
30
30

25

25
4.6
8-10 mm
5-8 mm
30

218
Dimension numbers 1/4
5. Size of dimension numbers and notes is about 2.5-3 mm.
6. Place the numbers above the dimension line about 0.5-1 mm and if
possible place the number at the mid-length of a dimension line.
5.2
Good Poor
22
5.1
8

6.1

6.2
34
30

30
25

25
6.3

34
6.4
30
219
Dimension numbers 2/4
7. Length dimension is expressed in millimeters without a unit symbol
“mm”.
8. Angular dimension is expressed in degree with a symbol “o”
places behind the number.
(The minutes “” and seconds “” may be used together.)

7.1
Good Wrong
8.1
2.3 cm

7.2

25 mm
25

220
Dimension numbers 3/4
9. If the dimension number or arrow head can not be placed between
the extension line, put it outside either of the extension lines.

Good Poor Wrong

16.25 16.25
Not enough space
for number

1 1 1 1
Not enough space or
for arrows

221
Dimension numbers 4/4
10. For an aligned system, the dimension
2nd
figures choice
are placed so that they are readable from the
bottom (1st choice) or right side (2nd choice) of 1st
choice
the drawing.
Linear dimension Angular dimension
30
45o
30

30

45o

45o
30 45o

222
Local note
11. Place a local note near a feature that they apply, but outside the view.
12. Write horizontally above the bent portion of a leader line.

Good Poor Wrong


10-12 mm
12 Drill

12 Drill
12 Drill
12 Drill

223
22 Dimensioning :
Recommended practice on
placement of dimension

224
Recommended practice 1/9
1. Extension and leader lines should not cross dimension lines.

Good Poor

1.1
1.2

225
Recommended practice 2/9
2. Extension lines should be drawn from the nearest points to be
dimensioned.

Good Poor

2.1

226
Recommended practice 3/9
3. Extension and leader lines can cross any line types without leaving a
gap at the intersection point.

Good Wrong

3.1

3.2

227
Recommended practice 4/9
4. Do not use visible, center, and dimension lines as an extension lines.

Good Poor Wrong

4.2
4.1

4.3

228
Recommended practice 5/9
5. Avoid dimensioning hidden lines.

Good Poor

5.1

229
Recommended practice 6/9
6. Apply the dimension to the view that clearly represents the contour or
shape of a feature.

Good Poor
6.1

6.2

230
Recommended practice 7/9
7. Place dimensions outside the view, unless placing them inside improve
the clarity.

Good Poor

231
Recommended practice 8/9
8. Dimension lines should be lined up and grouped together as much as
possible.

Good Poor

232
Recommended practice 9/9
9. Avoid repeat a dimension (superfluous dimensions).

Good Poor

233
23 Dimensioning :
A simple geometry

234
Basic dimension symbols

 Degree (angular dimension)


f Diameter
R Radius

235
Length and distance
Information Dimension style

1. Length of an edge Style 1


2. Distance between features

60

30
7

40 10 15

236
Thickness
In the case of single view drawing
o Inscribe the symbol “t” before a dimension number that indicating
the
thickness and place at an easily visible position near or inside the
view.
o Note that, thickness of a part may be inscribed in a title block.

t5
t5

237
Angle
Information Dimension
style
1. Angle between edges. Style 1

Note A circular dimension line must has its center at the intersection of the
extension lines.

Good Poor

238
Arc
Information Dimension style
1. Radius Style 2
2. Center’s location Style 1

Recommended practice
1. Write the letter “R” ahead of a dimension number.
2. Leader line must be aligned with a radial line.
3. Leader line should incline 30o-60o to the horizontal.
4. The note and the arrowhead should be placed in a concave side of an arc,
whenever there is a sufficient space. However, this is not a strict practice.
5. In the case where the radius of an arc is large and it is required to indicate
the position of its center, and also the restriction of paper exists, use
foreshortened radial dimension line.

239
Example
R200
Enough space
for leader line & note

R62.5
R62.5 R62.5
Enough space only
for arrowhead

R6.5
Not enough space
for both

240
Example

(Actual) center point

Foreshortened Convenient location


radial dimension line

o The part of dimension line attached with arrow head will be in the direction
toward the correct position of center.

241
Common mistakes

R6.5 R6.5 R6.5

R6.5

R6.5

R62.5
62.5

242
Curve
Information Dimension style
1. Center’s position Style 1
2. Radius Style 2

Good Poor
Leader line points to the tangent
point of a curve.
R20
R40

243
Practice

Workbook : DIM 01 – 04, 20

244
24 Dimensioning :
Object’s features

245
Additional dimension symbols
Counterbore or Spotface
Countersink
Depth
C Center line
□ Square
Slope
(orientation and direction of a symbol depends on details of the part)
Taper

Counterbore hole Countersink hole Taper


246
Cylinder
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Length Style 1 Longitudinal
2. Diameter Style 2 view

o The symbol “f” is written ahead of a dimension number that specify a


diameter.

150

f70
247
Small hole
Information Dimension Placement
1. Center position, center
style
Style 1
distance Circular view
2. Diameter Style 2
3. Depth
4. Number of holes 2f10
f10 f10, Depth 12
or
f10, 12
20

Depth

20 40
Blind hole

Through-thickness
hole
248
Large hole

Use extension and Use diametral Use leader line


dimension lines dimension line and note
f50

f50

249
Common mistakes
f xx f xx
f xx Rxx

f xx

f xx

250
Straight slot 1/2
Information Dimension Placement
1. Length
style
A view that can
2. Width Style 1
see shape of the
3. Position slot.

1) Close-ended slot 2) Open-ended slot


15

15
20 40 50
251
Straight slot 2/2
Drawing Machining process

1) Close-ended
slot

15
40
Play
Distance from
center to center

2) Open-ended
slot
15

50

Play
Tool cutting distance
252
Keyway of shaft 1/3
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Width
2. Depth See
Style
3. Length examples
1
4. Position on the next Key
2 slides
5. End part
Keyway of
shaft
(or keyseat)

Keyway of
hole

253
Keyway of shaft 2/3

254 Ref. https://www.maritool.com/p13435/Large-Diameter-HSS-Keyseat-Cutter-1.625-X-.500/product_info.html


Keyway of shaft 3/3

A-A

255
Keyway of the hole
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Width
Style 1 Circular view
2. Depth

Keyway of hole

256
Fillet and round
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Radius Style 2 or 3 A view that can see shape of
a fillet or round.

1. Use general note if all 2. If the most of fillets and rounds


fillets have an equal radius, except
and rounds have an equal for
radius. some places use both styles.
R9

NOTE:
NOTE: All fillets and round are R6.5
All fillets and round are R6 unless otherwise specified.

257
External chamfer
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Linear distance A view that can see shape of
Style 1 or 2 a chamfer.
2. Angle

45o chamfer
S CS or S45 or SS
Sq

Case of 45 degrees
S
Sq CS or S45 or SS

258
Internal chamfer
Information Dimension Placement
style
1. Entrance A view that can see shape of
Style 1 or 2 a chamfer.
diameter
2. Angle
Example 45 chamfer
90
f40 f40

259
Counterbore hole 1/2
o A hole with a cylindrical enlargement at the entrance to a certain depth.

Information Dimension Placement


style
1. Hole diameter
If possible place on
2. Hole depth Style 2
a circular view
3. Counterboring diameter
4. Counterboring depth
5. Number of hole
260
Counterbore hole 2/2
Local note
a) no. of holes  hole diameter drill,
depth hole depth
fcounterboring diameter counterboring depth counterboring depth
b) no. of holes  hole diameter drill, x hole depth
fcounterboring diameter counterboring depth

6 drill, 6 drill, depth 20,


f11 counterboring depth 6 f11 counterboring depth 6
or
or
6 drill, 20, f11, 6
6 drill, f11, 6

261
Spot face 1/2
o A process to finish a round spot on the rough surface of a casting
at a drilled hole for providing a smooth seat for a fastener head.

spot facing

Information Dimension Placement


style
1. Hole diameter
If possible place on
2. Hole depth Style 2
a circular view
3. Spot face diameter
4. Number of spot face

262
Spot face 2/2
Local note
a) no. of spot face  hole diameter drill, depth hole depth
fspot face diameter spot facings

b) no. of spot face  hole diameter drill, x hole depth


fspot face diameter

5 drill, f10 spot facings

or
5 drill, f10

263
Countersink hole 1/2
o A hole with a conical enlargement at the entrance.

Information Dimension Placement


1. Hole diameter style
2. Hole depth If possible place on
Style 2
3. Countersink a circular view
diameter
4. Number of hole

264
Countersink hole 2/2
Local note
a) no. of holes  hole diameter drill,
depth hole depth
fcountersink diameter countersink
b) no. of holes  hole diameter drill, xhole depth
fcountersink diameter

6 drill, f11 countersink 6 drill, depth 20, f11 countersink


or or
6 drill, f11 6 drill, 20 wf11

265
Slope
o Use a leader line point to the sloped face.
o A symbol is used to represent the slope direction.
o Slope is indicated as 1:slope
H1

1:25
H2

Slope = (H1-H2)/L

266
Taper
o Use a leader line point to the sloped face.
o A symbol is used to represent the taper direction.
o Slope is indicated as 1:taper rate

1:5

H2
H1

Taper rate = (H1-H2)/L

267
Sphere
o The letter “S” is added before a radius or diameter symbol to
indicate a spherical surface.

Sf50

268
Square
o Add the symbol “□” before the dimension number that indicates
width of the square.

□10
10

10

269
Practice

Workbook : DIM 05 – 19, 21-24

270
25 Dimensioning :
Additional technique

271
Coordinate dimensioning

x y f
E F
A 20 20 13.5
D B 140 20 13.5
C 200 20 13.5
A B C D 60 60 13.5
y
E 100 90 26
F 180 90 26
x

272
Symbolic dimensioning
f195

f195
B A

f360
f230
f360

A B

45 45

L1 (370) L2

4370 B A

A = f12
Product
1 2 3 B = f10
number
Symbol
L1 1915 2500 3115
L2 2085 1500 885

273
26 Sectional View:
Concepts

274
Purposes
o Improve clarity of interior features.

o Facilitate dimensioning.

Regular
view

Sectional
view

275
When the section view is needed?
o Inconvenient in dimensioning of internal features.
o Hidden lines of different features overlap or come close to each other.

276
Concepts 1/5
1. A sectional view is created by supposing an imaginary cutting plane
to be used and everything in front of the plane removed to show the
cut surface and the interior details.
2. Section lines or hatching are added to a section view to indicate the
cut surface.
Imaginary cutting plane

Regular
view
(front & top)

Section
view

277
Concepts 2/5
3. The word “imaginary cutting plane” is used because the object is
not really cut by a real plane into 2 pieces.

Correct Wrong
Right or Wrong?

278
Concepts 3/5
4. All visible lines beyond the section have to be shown on section view.

Correct

Wrong

279
Concepts 4/5
5. Show the edge of the cutting plane by a cutting plane line.
6. A cutting plane line is presented by a chain line with a thick-visible line
at both ends and anywhere the line changes direction. (JIS B0001)
7. A viewing direction of a sectional view is presented by a line with
arrowhead pointed toward and normal to the end of a cutting plane
line.

Offset
cutting plane line

280
Examples
1 Notes
1. Cutting plane line shows
a place where the object
is cut.
2. Section view appears
adjacent to a view that
cutting plane line is
shown.

281
Concepts 5/5
8. For a multiple cut, treat each cut independently.

Example

A A

B
Section B-B

Section A-A
282
Example

B C D

A A

B C D
B-B (1:1) C-C (1:1) D-D (1:1)

283
Concepts 6/6
9. A place to be cut depends on internal features need to be clarified.

Example : Clarify the front view.

284
Example
Clarify the right side view.

285
Example
Clarify the top view.

286
Common mistake
o Show a cutting plane instead of a cutting plane line.

Wrong Correct

287
27 Section view :
Recommended Practice

288
Recommended practice 1/4
1. Use thin continuous inclined line for section lines.
(An inclined angle of 45 (or 135) is usually used as the first option.)

2. A sectioned area should contain a sufficient number of section lines


within, in order to distinguish from other areas, but not too dense.

Good Poor practices

Too dense Too coarse Uneven Uneven


spacing orientation

289
Recommended practice 2/4
3. Section lines for large area could be applied along the visible outline.
This type of section is called “outline section”.

290
Recommended practice 3/4
4. Section lines should not run parallel or perpendicular to contour of
the view.
5. Section lining of the same part must have the same pattern.

Good Poor

291
Recommended practice 4/4
6. Hidden lines should not be drawn on sectional views except when
needed for dimensioning or for clearly describing the shape.

Good
(Omit hidden lines)

Poor
(show hidden lines)

292
Example

Regular view

Sectional view
Good

Poor

293
28 Section view :
Kind of Sections

294
Kind of sections

1. Full section

2. Offset section

3. Half section

4. Broken-out section

5. Revolved section (or aligned section)

6. Removed section (or detailed section)

7. Auxiliary section

295
1. Full section
o A section view is made by passing the straight cutting plane
completely through the part.

296
2. Offset section
o A section view is made by passing the bended cutting plane completely
through the part.
o Omit edge view of the cutting plane in a sectional view.
o Suitable when object’s features are not located in-line among each
other.

297
3. Half section 1/2
o Use to advantage with symmetrical parts to show both the interior and
the exterior in one view.
o A section view is made by passing two cutting planes at right angles
through the part and remove a quarter of it.

298
3. Half section 2/2
o Use center line to separate the sectioned half from the unsectioned
half of the view.
o Omit hidden lines in unsectioned half of the view.

299
4. Broken-out section
o A convenient means of showing some interior detail without drawing
a full or half section.
o A section view is made by passing the cutting plane through the
desired detail and broken-out the portion of an object in front of it.
o Use thin continuous line as a break line to separate sectioned and
unsectioned portions.
o Omit cutting plane line.

300
5. Revolved section
o A convenient means of showing the cross-sectional shape in one view
drawing of an object.
o A section view is made by cutting a section perpendicular to the length
and then revolving the section through 90o parallel to the plane of view.
o Revolved section view can be superimposed or break a regular view.
o Omit cutting plane line.

superimposed

break

301
Examples
1 2 Hook

Arm (or spoke)

Rim

Handle

302
Example
3
Given Application of revolved section

1. Reveal of a hidden part


2. Transfer a sectioned area

3. Revolve

4. View

303
6. Removed section 1/3
o Create with the same concept as a revolved section.
o Used to avoid interruption between section and regular views.

Poor (Revolved section) Good (Removed section)

Confuse Clear

Easy to add
dimensions

304
6. Removed section 2/3
o The removed sectional view or views should be placed in a position
corresponds to the cutting plane line.

1 2

305
Example

306
6. Removed section 3/3
o If a removed section view is not align with the cutting plane line,
it must be labeled with the name of the cutting plane line.

1
A–A B–B
A B

307
7. Auxiliary section
o A section view is made by passing the straight and inclined cutting
plane through the part.

308
Example
2

309
Dimensioning 1/2
1. Previous rules of dimensioning are applicable.
2. Avoid placing dimension number or notes within the hatched area.

10

f50

310
Dimensioning 2/2
3. For a half-section view, dimension line has a single arrowhead and
points to the position inside the sectioned portion.

f50

311
Practice

Workbook : SEC 01 - 32

312
29 Conventional Practice

313
Meaning
o A commonly accepted practices which disregard some strict rules of
orthographic projection.

Multiview More readable


Object
drawing multiview drawing

Disregard
Projection’ s some rules Conventional
rules practices

314
Purposes

o To improve the clarity of a drawing.


o To facilitate the dimensioning.
o To reduce the drafting effort.
o To save or efficiently use a drawing space.

315
Convention practices in use
1. Partial view
2. Incomplete view
3. Half view
4 Local view
5. Enlarged view
6. Conventional break
7. Repetitive features
8. Intersection : Hole on a cylinder
9. Non-existing intersection line
10. Indication of plane part
11. Section view of special features
12. Aligned view & aligned section

316
1. Partial view
Partial
auxiliary view

Partial
front view

317
2. Incompleted view
o A view that eliminates interfering features to the selected viewing
direction.

Poor
(Fully project)

Good
(Partially
project)

318
Example

Poor
(Fully project)

Good
(Partially
project)

319
3. Half view
o A view that is appeared only half of a symmetrical part.
o Symmetric condition can be identified by
a) Use center line as a line of symmetry and add a symmetry symbol
at the end of the line.
b) Half view can be made by drawing the views slightly beyond the
line of symmetry and close the area with a break line.

Break
line
(a) (b)

320
Examples

1 2

321
Examples
3 A quarter view 4 A half-view
full-section

5 A half-view
half-section

322
4. Local view
o A view of a specific feature projects from the main
view.
1 2

12

R4

323
5. Enlarged view
o A view that is partly selected from a main view and is drawn with an
enlarged scale.

Enlarged view

A
o Frame a selected area
with a thin continuous line.
A (3:1)
o Name of a selected area

o Identify the name


and scale
324
6. Conventional break
o A technique for omitting a part of an object that can be inferred from
nearby or remaining part.

Poo
r
800

Good
(improve clarity)

800

o Number is underlined
to indicate this is a “not
to scale dimensions”.
325
Example

326
7. Repetitive features
o A technique that replace the actual shape of repeated features with a
graphic symbol at the intersecting point of pitch line and center line.

327
Example

3 4

328
8. Intersection between cylinders 1/2
o A practice that approximate the intersect of small hole, narrow slot or
small cylinder to the a large cylinder in a longitudinal view with a
straight line.

Small hole vs. large Narrow slot vs. large Small cylinder vs. large
cylinder cylinder cylinder

329
8. Intersection between cylinders 2/2
o Whenever the previous condition is not satisfied, the intersection line
has to be drawn by a true projection.
Hole’s size is comparable to diameter Slot width is comparable to diameter
of a cylinder of a cylinder

330
Example
Intersection line at outer surface Intersection line at inner surface

331
9. Nonexisting line of intersection
o A practice that treat a smoothly tangent edge in an object as a sharp
edge.

Poor Good
(True projection) (Adding nonexisting line of intersection)

Nonexisting line
of intersection

332
Examples

333
10. Indication of plane part
o Inscribe the diagonal line with thin continuous line to represent
a portion of the part that is a plane.

334
11. Section view of special features 1/3
o Web is a thin and flat feature acts as a structural support.
o Rib is a thin and flat feature acts as a structural reinforcement.
o Spoke is the rod radiating from the hub to connect the rim of a wheel.
o Lug is an ear which is built as portion of an object for attachment.

Spoke

Lug

Web
Rib

335
11. Section view of special features 2/3
Conventional practices are
o Omit section lines if rib and web are flatwise cut.
o Omit section lines if spoke is longwise cut.
o Omit section lines in a section view of a lug.

336
Example 1/4
Poor Good

Mislead shape

337
Example 2/4

Good

Good

338
Example 3/4

Mislead shape

Poor

Good

339
Example 4/4

340
12. Aligned view & aligned section view
o A practice that imaginary rotates the features that do not show a true
size, true shape or true radial position from the symmetry axis.
o This practice improves a clarity and reduce drafting effort.

True Aligned Aligned


projection view section
341
Example 1/6
Given

Poor Aligned view Aligned section view

342
Example 2/6

Poor Good Poor Good


Show a true radial distance Show a true radial distance

343
Example 3/6
Poor Good Show a true shape

Aligned view Aligned section view

344
Example 4/6
Poor Good Show true shape and radial distance

Aligned view Aligned section view

345
Example 5/6
Good Good
Show a true shape and true radial distance Show a true shape and true radial distance

Aligned view Aligned section view Aligned view Aligned section view

346
Example 6/6
Good Good
Show a true shape and true radial distance Show a true shape and true radial distance

Aligned view Aligned section view Aligned view Aligned section view

347
Intersection between fillet and round

Runout
Intersection between fillet and round
Practice

Workbook : COR 01 – 08
CSE 01 – 15

350
30 Thread terminology

351
Terminology 1/5
1. External thread (male) is a thread cut on the outside of a cylindrical
body.
2. Internal thread (female) is a thread cut on the inside of a cylindrical
body.

External thread Internal thread

352
Terminology 2/5
3. Thread form is a profile shape of the thread.

American Unified Whitworth


national national

Sharp V Square ACME

Buttress Knuckle

353
Terminology 3/5
4. Right-hand thread is a thread that will assemble when turned
clockwise.
5. Left-hand thread is a thread that will assemble when turned
counterclockwise

Turnbuckle use RH and LH thread


at each end to double displacement.

354
Terminology 4/5
6. Crest is the peak edge of a thread.
7. Root is the bottom of the thread cut into a cylindrical body.
8. Thread angle is the angle between threads faces.
9. Major diameter is the largest diameter on an internal or external thread.
10. Minor diameter is the smallest diameter on an internal or external
thread.
11.Thread depth is the distance between the crest and the root.
Thread angle

External Internal
thread thread

Minor dia.
Major dia.
Major dia.
Minor dia.

Crest

Root

Root Crest
355
Terminology 5/5
12. Pitch is the distance between crests of threads.
13. Lead is the distance a screw will advance when turned 360o.

External thread Internal thread Note :


Pitch Pitch
Thread engagement occurs
if and only if nominal size (or
major diameter) and pitch of
thread pair are equal.

356
31 Thread cutting

357
External thread cutting
Tools

1. Die 2. Die stock

Major Dia.
Major Dia. Minor Dia.

Operation

358
Internal thread cutting
Tools

1) Twist drill 2) Tap 3) Tap wrench

Operation

Major Dia.
Minor Dia. Minor Dia.

359
32 Thread drawing

360
Thread representation
Detailed Schematic Simplified
Thread Almost the same as Straight line Straight line
profile actual shape

Crest & Slanted line Line normal to Line parallel to


root cylinder (or hole) axis cylinder (or hole) axis

External
thread

Internal
thread

361
Simplified thread symbol
o Thick continuous line is used for crest and the end of a full depth
thread.
o Thin continuous line is used for root and runout.
o Runout make 30o with thread axis.
External thread Internal thread
Through hole Blinded hole

Full depth Complete Thread


thread thread runout
Major dia.
Minor dia.

Thread Root Crest Pitch/2


runout
362
Standard metric thread size
o Thread size can be divided into inch thread and metric thread.
o This course adopts a metric thread.
o Divided into 1) coarse-thread series and 2) Fine-thread series

Coarse-thread series Fine-thread series


(JIS B-0205) (JIS B-0207)
Nominal Major Pitch Minor Nominal Major Pitch Minor
size diameter Diameter size diameter diameter
… … … … … … … …
M10 10.00 1.5 8.376 1.25 8.647
… … … … M10 10.00 1.00 8.917
0.75 9.188
… … … …

o The letter “M” denote a metric (SI) thread.


o Minor diameter ≈ Major diameter – Pitch
363
Table for metric screw thread
Coarse Fine
thread thread
series series

364
External thread :
Drawing steps
1. Identify thread specifications 2.1
2.3
1.1 major diameter(or nominal size)
1.2 pitch
2.2 2.2
1.3 thread length

2. Layout a construction line 2.4

2.1 thread axis


2.2 thread begin and thread end
2.3 crest (major diameter)
2.4 root (minor diameter) 2.5 2.5
2.5 chamfer and thread runout

3. Apply a correct lineweight.


Use a continuous thick line for all 4.1 4.2
except for root and runout.

4. Draw an end view (if required)


4.1 Crest appears as a circle with a thick line.
4.2 Root appears as a 270o arc with a thin line.

365
External thread :
Dimensioning
1. Use local note for
1.1 thread form
“M” for “metric”
“Tr” for “trapezoidal”
M101.25
1.2 nominal size (or major diameter)
1.3 pitch (omit for coarse thread)
Designation
Mnominal size  pitch
Ex. M101.25 20

M10
M121
2. Use extension line, dimension line
and number for thread length.

366
Internal thread
Internal Threaddrawing steps :
Through hole
1. Identify thread specifications 2.2 2.3
1.1 major diameter
1.2 pitch
2.1

2. Layout a construction line


2.1 thread axis
2.2 crest (drilled hole or minor diameter)
2.3 root (major diameter)

3. Apply a correct lineweight.


- For a regular view, all lines appear as hidden lines
4.2
- For a sectional view, use a continuous thick line 4.1
for crest and thin line for root.

4. Draw an end view (if required).


4.1 Crest appears as a circle with a thick line.
4.2 Root appears as a 270o arc with a thin line.

367
Internal thread
Internal Thread drawing :
Blinded hole
2.2
1. Identify thread specifications
1.1 diameter and depth of a drilled hole 2.1
1.2 major diameter
1.3 pitch
1.4 thread depth
2.3
2.4
2. Layout a construction line 2.5

2.1 thread axis


2.2 drill hole diameter and depth (minor diameter)
2.3 thread depth
2.4 major diameter
2.5 thread runout

3. Apply a correct lineweight.


- For a regular view, all lines appear as hidden lines.
- For a sectional view, use a continuous thick line
for all except thread root and runout.

4. Draw an end view (if required).


4.1 Crest appears as a circle with a thick line.
4.2 Root appears as a 270o arc with a thin line.
368
Internal Thread
Internal thread dimensioning
1. Use local note for
1.1 thread form (M for “metric”, Tr for “trapezoidal”)
1.2 pitch (omit for coarse thread)
1.3 thread depth (for blind hole)
1.4 hole diameter
1.5 hole depth

Designation Mnominal sizepitchthread depth/fhole diameterxhole depth

Ex. (Blinded hole) M101.2520/f8.9x25


M1020/f8.4x25
Ex. (Through hole) M101.25/f8.9
Ex. (multiple holes) 4M101.2520/f8.9x25

M101.2520/f8.9x25
369
33 Threaded fastener

370
Types
1. Stud
2. Hexagonal head bolt
(or Hex. head cap screw)
3. Hexagonal socket head bolt
(or Hex. socket head cap screw)
4. Set screw

Accessories
1. Washer
1.1 Plain washer
1.2 Spring washer
2. Hexagon nut

371
Drawing & terminology
Thread length Thread length Hex. Socket Head Cap Screw
Stud

Length

Hex. Bolt Thread length


Set screw

Length
Width across flat, B Head thickness, H

Hex. Nut Plain Washer

Nut thickness, H
372
Tables for Hex. Bolt, Nut, Washer
Hexagonal Head Bolt and Nut Unit : mm. Plain Washer Unit : mm.

Thread Width Bolt head Nut


size across flat thickness thickness Thread Inner Outer Thickness
M3 5.5 2 2.4 size diameter diameter
M4 7 2.8 3.2 M6 6.6 12.5 1.6
M5 8 3.5 4 M8 9 17 1.6
M6 10 4 5 M10 11 21 2
M8 13 5.5 6.5 M12 14 24 2.3
M10 17 7 8 M16 18 30 3.2
M12 19 8 10 M20 22 37 3.2
M16 24 10 13 M24 26 44 4.5
M20 30 13 16
M24 36 15 19

Width
across flat, B Head thickness, H
Nut thickness, H
373
Bolt drawing steps
1. Identify bolt specifications B
1.1 thread size (major diameter and pitch)
1.2 thread length, S
1.3 length of the bolt, L
1.4 width across flat, B
1.5 bolt head thickness, H

2. Layout for
2.1 bolt axis
2.2 circle of diameter B with a circumscribed hexagon
2.3 start and end of bolt head, body and thread
2.4 major and minor diameters, chamfer and runout
2.5 arc of radius B/2 at intersection between bolt axis
and
starting position of bolt head
2.6 second arc of radius B/2 at intersection between the
first arc and bolt axis
2.7 draw tangent arc from three intersection points
2.8 draw (head) chamfer
2.9 finish the outlines at the bolt head
2.10 apply suitable lineweight for bolt body and thread
374
Bolt head (Enlarge scale)

30o

375
Nut drawing

376
Hexagonal socket head bolt

377
Set screw
Flat point

Full dog point Cup point Cone point (slotted) Cone point
Other
(hexagonal socket )
forms

378
Practice

Workbook : THD 01 – 02

379
34 Assembly Drawing :
Introduction

380
Purpose
o To show how each part of a product is put together.

Notes
A complete set of working drawings for manufacturing a product includes:
1. Detail drawing of each nonstandard part.
2. Assembly drawing showing all standard and nonstandard parts
in a single drawing

381
Type
1. Exploded assembly drawings
The parts are separately display, but they are aligned according to their
assembly positions and sequences.

2. General assembly drawings (This course)


All parts are drawn in their working position.

3. Detail assembly drawings (Working drawing assembly)


All parts are drawn in their working position with a completed dimensions.

382
Example

383
Example

384
Components in
a general assembly drawing
1. View(s) that shows all parts are assembled in their working position.
2. Parts identification using leader lines with balloons around part
numbers
3. Bill of materials, BOM
- part number
- Descriptive name of a part
- Material
- Quantity required for assembling a unit of product
4. General notes
Fabrication processes and critical dimensions related to operation of
the product.

385
Example

386
35 Assembly Drawing :
Recommended practice

387
Part identification
o Use a leader line starts from inside of the part with a filled circle and
ends with a balloon having a number inside.
o A line should be oriented in an oblique direction.

1 2

388
Bill of material (BOM)
o The information in this table are
1. Part number
2. Part name (a descriptive name)
3. Quantity
4. Type of material and notes about specification
o Place the table above the title block and fill it from the bottom.

3 Set screw 1 SS304, M3 Hex. Socket Cup point


2 Shaft 1 SS304
1 Support 2 Cast steel
NO. Part Name Quantity Material & Note

389
View 1/3
1. The view(s) must represent
- all (or most) of the parts assembled in a working position.
- function of a product.
2. The number of views can be one or two or more as needed,
but it should be minimum.

General 3-view drawing A necessary view

1 2

390
View 2/3
3. Omit a hidden lines unless they are absolutely necessary to illustrate
some important feature that the reader might otherwise miss.
4. Use section technique to clarify assembled portion. Use different
section line styles for the adjacent areas.

After inserted After inserted After inserted


Drill jig bushing (Hidden lines shown) (Omit hidden lines) (Apply section technique)

Best

391
View 3/3
5. Omit the section lines on the longitudinal section view of threaded
fastener, pin, key, shaft.

392
36 Assembly drawing :
Threaded fastener application

393
Stud 1/3
o Use where bolts would be impractical and for parts that must be
removed frequently (cylinder heads, pumps, etc.)

394
Stud 2/3

Drill a hole Tap Screw Insert Screw


a thread a stud a washer a nut

Note : At the beginning, section line is omitted for clarity

395
Stud 3/3

396
Bolt and nut

397
Cap screw 1/3

398
Cap screw 2/3

399
Cap screw 3/3

400
Set screw

401
Practice

Workbook : THD 03 – 05

402
37 Assembly drawing :
Examples

403
Problem solving steps
1. Determine assemble positions and assemble steps by interpreting
shape and dimension of the given parts or by experiences.
2. Select a suitable viewing direction based on the shape of the
product.
3. Draw an individual part according to the assemble steps at a working
position.
4. Apply a section technique if assemble details have to be clarified.
5. Add dimensions.
6. Identify the parts by adding balloons and notes.
7. Create a BOM.

8. Create part list (or BOM).


404
Example 1 :
Parts visualization

Given

405
Example 1 :
Assemble steps, View selection and Draw

Physical domain Orthographic domain

Keep hidden lines

Omit hidden
lines

406
Example 1 :
View improvement

Yes Select a suitable


section view?
section technique

No
1 2
1. Full section

1 2 2. broken-out section

3. Half section

407
Example 1 :
Dimensioning & BOM

Yes Select important


Dimension?
location

No
1 2 1 2

Create
BOM

2 Sleeve 1 MC Nylon (blue)


1 Stepped-end rod 1 MC Nylon (blue)
NO. Part name Quantity Material & Note

408
Example 2 :
Parts visualization
Given : A chuck wrench
1. Handle

2. Body

409
Example 2 :
Assemble steps, View selection and draw

Physical domain Orthographic domain

View 2 (Good)

View 1 (Poor)
410
Example 3 :
Parts visualization
Given : Hand wheel
1. Wheel

2. Handle

411
Example 3 :
Assemble steps, View selection, and Draw

412
Example 4
Given : Hammer
1. Head 2. Cap

3. Handle

413
Example 4 :
Part visualization, Assemble steps, and View selection
1. Head

View 2 (Good)

2. Cap

View 1 (Poor)

3. Handle

414
Example 4 :
Draw an assembly view 1/3

1) Assemble a cap to a handle

415
Example 4 :
Draw an assemble view 2/3

2) Assemble a handle to a head

416
Example 4 :
Draw an assemble view 3/3

417
Self practice
Sketch an assembly view.

1 Knob 2 Vibration test specimen

418
Self practice
Sketch an assembly view.

3 Shoulder bolt

419
Practice

Workbook : ASM 01 – 27

420
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เจ ้าหน้าทีทุ ่ ยนรู ้ (Learning
Technology Service)
คณะวิศวกรรมศาสตร ์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย

1. ว่าทีร่ ้อยตรีสข ่ ขสันต ์)


ุ สันต ์ เชิดสูงเนิ น (พีสุ
2. นางสาวภูสยิ า พลอยเลียง ้ (ภู)
3. นางสาวนิ ภาร ัตน์ การะคุณ (นุ่ น)
4. นางสาวอิศรา เคาวฤก (แจ๋ว)
5. นายวิศษ ิ ฐ ์ บัตรพันธนะ (แบงค ์)
6. นางสาวอนุ ชต ิ า จูลประยูร (โบว ์)

421