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# Rational Algebraic Expressions

SST – 1, DNHS

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Least Mastered Skill
Inside the SIM

Cover page
To carry out operations of rational Least mastered
Skill
algebraic expressions.
Title card
Guide card

Activity Cards

No.1

To recall the skills in factoring. No.3

Assessment Card

Enrichment Card

Reference Card
Title Card
A rational expression (also called an algebraic fraction) is an algebraic expression of
𝑝
the form , where p and q are polynomials and q ≠ 0.
𝑞

## Examples of rational expressions are:

4 7𝑥 𝑥 2 −1 𝑥 2 +3𝑥𝑦+2𝑥 2
,5𝑦 ,𝑥 3−3 , and .
3 𝑥−𝑦

## Examples of non-rational are:

4
because the denominator √𝑥 is not a polynomial
√𝑥

3𝑥−5
a rational expression; it is meaningless expression because division by zero is
0
undefined.

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Guide Card- Multiplication
The rule for multiplying rational expression is: If a, b, c, and d are real expressions,
and b ≠ 0 and d ≠ 0, then
𝑎 𝑐 𝑎⦁𝑐
⦁ =
𝑏 𝑑 𝑏⦁𝑑
The result should always be reduced to lowest terms.
Example:

5𝑥𝑦 3𝑎−9𝑏
Multiply: 4𝑎 −12𝑏 ⦁ .
15𝑥 2
Solution:
5𝑥𝑦 3𝑎−9𝑏 5𝑥𝑦 3(𝑎−3𝑏)
S1: ⦁ = 4(𝑎 −3𝑏) ⦁
4𝑎 −12𝑏 15𝑥 2 15𝑥 2

5𝑥𝑦(3)(𝑎−3𝑏)
S2: = 4(𝑎 −3𝑏)(15𝑥 2) (cancel a-3b) then reduce the

remaining)

𝑦
S3: = 4𝑥

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Guide Card- Division

## Division of rational expressions follows the same rule as in division of arithmetic

fractions. That is if a, b, c, and d are real expressions, and b ≠ 0 and c ≠ 0, and d ≠ 0
then
𝑎 𝑐 𝑎 𝑑 𝑎⦁𝑑
÷ = ⦁ =
𝑏 𝑑 𝑏 𝑐 𝑏⦁𝑐
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE:
10𝑎𝑏 −5𝑎3
Divide: 𝑏𝑦
𝑥−3𝑦 7𝑥−21𝑦
Solution:
10𝑎𝑏 −5𝑎3 10𝑎𝑏 7𝑥−21𝑦
S1: ÷ = 𝑥−3𝑦 ⦁
𝑥−3𝑦 7𝑥−21𝑦 −5𝑎3

10𝑎𝑏 7(𝑥−3𝑦)
S2: = 𝑥−3𝑦 ⦁ −5𝑎3

10𝑎𝑏(7)(𝑥−3𝑦
= (𝑥−3𝑦)(−5𝑎3)

14𝑏 14𝑏
S3: = −𝑎2 or - 𝑎2

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Similar Rationals

## Steps in adding and subtracting rational expressions with like denominator

S1: Add or subtract the numerators
S2: Copy the similar denominator
S3: Simplify if possible.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES:
1. Find .

We add the numerators and keep the denominator the same, which yields

.

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Dissimilar Rationals

## Steps adding and subtracting rational expressions with different

denominators:
1. Completely factor each denominator.
2. Find the least common denominator (LCD) for all the denominators by
multiplying together the different prime factors with the greatest exponent for
each factor.
3. Rewrite each fraction so it has the LCD as its denominator by multiplying
each fraction by the value 1 in an appropriate form.
4. Combine numerators as indicated and keep the LCD as the denominator.
Simplify the resulting rational expression if possible.

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Activity No. 1- Multiplying Rational Algebraic
Expressions

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Activity No. 2- Dividing Rational Algebraic
Expressions

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Activity No. 3- Adding/Subtracting Similar Rational
Algebraic Expressions

## Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)

Strategic Intervention Material (Grade 8 Math-Quarter 1)