00 mi piace00 non mi piace

50 visualizzazioni53 pagineSuppliment j krajweski 9th ed

Jan 09, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PPT, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Suppliment j krajweski 9th ed

© All Rights Reserved

50 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Suppliment j krajweski 9th ed

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 53

PowerPoint Slides

Krajewski/Ritzman/Malhotra

by Jeff Heyl © 2010 Pearson Education

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J–1

Scheduling Service and

Manufacturing Processes

various process types found in services

and manufacturing

Front-office process with high customer

contact, divergent work flows, customization,

and a complex scheduling environment

Back-office process has low customer

involvement, uses more line work flows, and

provides standardized services

Performance Measures

spends in the service or manufacturing

system

Past due (tardiness) is the amount of time

by which a job missed its due date

Makespan is the total amount of time

required to complete a group of jobs

Makespan = –

of last job of first job

Performance Measures

effectiveness of schedules for

manufacturing processes.

Total Scheduled receipts On-hand inventories

= +

Inventory for all items of all items

that is productively spent by an employee

or a machine

Sequencing Jobs

designed to implement the sales and

operations plan

An operation with divergent flows is often

called a job shop

Low-to medium-volume production

Utilizes job or batch processes

The front office would be the equivalent for a

service provider

Difficult to schedule because of the variability

in job routings and the continual introduction of

new jobs to be processed

Sequencing Jobs

a flow shop

Medium- to high-volume production

Utilizes line or continuous flow processes

The back office would be the equivalent for a

service provider

Tasks are easier to schedule because the jobs

have a common flow pattern through the

system

Job Shop Sequencing

Shipping Department

Raw Materials

Legend:

Batch of parts

Workstation

Figure J.1 – Diagram of a Manufacturing Job Shop Process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J–7

Priority Sequencing Rules

Earliest due date (EDD)

Critical ratio (CR)

(Due date) – (Today’s date)

CR =

Total shop time remaining

schedule

A ratio greater than 1.0 implies the job is ahead of

schedule

The job with the lowest CR is scheduled next

Priority Sequencing Rules

Slack per remaining operations (S/RO)

date – date – time remaining

S/RO =

Number of operations remaining

Sequencing One Workstation

Single-dimension rules

A job’s priority assignment based only on

information waiting for processing at the

individual workstation (e.g., FCFS, EDD,

and SPT)

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

EXAMPLE J.1

The Taylor Machine Shop rebores engine blocks. Currently, five

engine blocks are waiting for processing. At any time, the

company has only one engine expert on duty who can do this

type of work. The engine problems have been diagnosed, and

the processing times for the jobs have been estimated.

Expected completion times have been agreed upon with the

shop’s customers. The accompanying table shows the current

situation. Because the Taylor Machine Shop is open from 8:00

A.M. until 5:00 P.M. each weekday, plus weekend hours as

needed, the customer pickup times are measured in business

hours from the current time. Determine the schedule for the

engine expert by using (a) the EDD rule and (b) the SPT rule.

For each rule, calculate the average flow time, average hours

early, and average hours past due. If average past due is most

important, which rule should be chosen?

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

Since Order Including Setup Due Date (customer

Engine Block Arrived (hours) pickup time)

Ranger 12 8 10

Explorer 10 6 12

Bronco 1 15 20

Econoline 150 3 3 18

Thunderbird 0 12 22

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

SOLUTION

a. The EDD rule states that the first engine block in the

sequence is the one with the closest due date.

Consequently, the Ranger engine block is processed first.

The Thunderbird engine block, with its due date furthest in

the future, is processed last. The sequence is shown in the

following table, along with the flow times, the hours early,

and the hours past due.

Hours Actual

Since Finish Flow Scheduled Customer Hours

Engine Block Order Begin Processing Time Time Customer Pickup Hours Past

Sequence Arrived Work Time, (hr) (hr) (hr) Pickup Time Time Early Due

Ranger 12 0 + 8 = 8 20 10 10 2 —

Explorer 10 8 + 6 = 14 24 12 13 — 2

Econoline 150 3 14 + 15 = 17 20 18 18 1 —

Bronco 1 17 + 3 = 32 33 20 32 — 12

Thunderbird 0 32 + 12 = 44 44 22 44 — 22

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

The flow time for each job is its finish time, plus the time since

the job arrived.1 For example, the Explorer engine block’s finish

time will be 14 hours from now (8 hours waiting time before the

engine expert started to work on it plus 6 hours processing).

Adding the 10 hours since the order arrived at this workstation

(before the processing of this group of orders began) results in

a flow time of 24 hours. You might think of the sum of flow

times as the total job hours spent by the engine blocks since

their orders arrived at the workstation until they were

processed.

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

The performance measures for the EDD schedule for the five

engine blocks are

20 + 24 + 20 + 33 + 44

Average flow time = = 28.2 hrs

5

2+0+1+0+0

Average hours early = = 0.6 hrs

5

0 + 2 + 0 + 12 + 22

Average hours past due = = 7.2 hrs

5

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

b. Under the SPT rule, the sequence starts with the engine

block that has the shortest processing time, the Econoline

150, and it ends with the engine block that has the longest

processing time, the Bronco. The sequence, along with the

flow times, early hours, and past due hours, is contained in

the following table:

Hours Actual

Since Finish Flow Scheduled Customer Hours

Engine Block Order Begin Processing Time Time Customer Pickup Hours Past

Sequence Arrived Work Time, (hr) (hr) (hr) Pickup Time Time Early Due

Econoline 150 3 0 + 3 = 3 6 19 18 15 —

Explorer 10 3 + 6 = 9 19 12 12 3 —

Ranger 12 9 + 8 = 17 29 10 17 — 7

Thunderbird 0 17 + 12 = 29 29 22 29 — 7

Bronco 1 29 + 15 = 44 45 20 44 — 24

Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

6 + 19 + 29 + 29 + 45

Average flow time = = 25.6 hrs

5

15 + 3 + 0 + 0 + 0

Average hours early = = 3.6 hrs

5

0 + 0 + 7 + 7 + 24

Average hours past due = = 7.6 hrs

5

Comparing Sequencing Rules

EDD rule

Performs well with respect to the percentage of jobs past due

and the variance of hours past due

Popular with firms that are sensitive to achieving due dates

SPT rule

Tends to minimize the mean flow and maximize shop utilization

For single-workstations will always provide the lowest mean

finish time

Could increase total inventory

Tends to produce a large variance in past due hours

FCFS rule

Considered fair

It performs poorly with respect to all performance measures

Application J.1

Given the following information, devise an SPT schedule for the

automatic routing machine.

Standard Time,

Including Due Date

Order Setup (hr) (hrs from now)

AZ135 14 14

DM246 8 20

SX435 10 6

PC088 3 18

Application J.1

Flow

Hours Finish Scheduled Actual Hours

Order Begin Time Hours

Since Order Time Customer Pickup Past

Sequence Work (hr) Early

Arrived (hr) Pickup Time Time Due

1. PC088 2 0 3 5 18 18 15

2. DM246 4 3 11 15 20 20 9

3. SX435 1 11 21 22 6 21 15

4. AZ135 5 21 35 40 14 35 25

Total 82 94 24 40

Multiple-Dimension Rules

information about the remaining workstations

S/RO is better than EDD with respect to the

percentage of jobs past due but usually worse

than SPT and EDD with respect to average job flow

times

CR results in longer job flow times than SPT, but

CR also results in less variance in the distribution

of past due hours

No choice is clearly best; each rule should be

tested in the environment for which it is intended

Sequencing with the CR and

S/RO Rules

EXAMPLE J.2

The first five columns of the following table contain information

about a set of four jobs that just arrived (end of hour 0 or

beginning of hour 1) at an engine lathe. They are the only ones

now waiting to be processed. Several operations, including the

one at the engine lathe, remain to be done on each job.

Determine the schedule by using (a) the CR rule and (b) the

S/RO rule. Compare these schedules to those generated by

FCFS, SPT, and EDD.

Processing Time Time Remaining Number of Shop Time

at Engine Lathe Until Due Date Operations Remaining

Job (hours) (days) Remaining (days) CR S/RO

1 2.3 15 10 6.1 2.46 0.89

Sequencing with the CR and

S/RO Rules

SOLUTION

a. Using CR to schedule the machine, we divide the time

remaining until the due date by the shop time remaining to

get the priority index for each job. For job 1,

CR = = = 2.46

Shop time remaining 6.1

ratio first, we determine that the sequence of jobs to be

processed by the engine lathe is 4, 2, 3, and finally 1,

assuming that no other jobs arrive in the meantime.

Sequencing with the CR and

S/RO Rules

b. Using S/RO, we divide the difference between the time

remaining until the due date and the shop time remaining by

the number of remaining operations. For job 1,

–

15 – 6.1

until the due date remaining

S/RO = = = 0.89

Number of operations remaining 10

yields a 4, 3, 1, 2 sequence of jobs.

Sequencing with the CR and

S/RO Rules

Application J.2

The following four jobs have just arrived at an idle drill process

and must be scheduled.

at Drill Press to Due Date Operations Remaining*

Job (wk) (wks) Remaining* (wks)

AA 4 5 3 4

BB 8 11 4 6

CC 13 16 10 9

DD 6 18 3 12

EE 2 7 5 3

Create the sequences for two schedules, one using the Critical

Ratio rule and one using the S/RO rule.

Application J.2

Processing Time Time Remaining Number of Shop Time

at Drill Press to Due Date Operations Remaining*

Job (wk) (wks) Remaining* (wks)

AA 4 5 3 4

BB 8 11 4 6

CC 13 16 10 9

DD 6 18 3 12

EE 2 7 5 3

Sequence on Sequence on

Job Priority Index Drill Press Job Priority Index Drill Press

AA 1.25 First AA 0.33 First

BB 1.83 Fourth BB 1.25 Fourth

CC 1.44 Second CC 0.70 Second

DD 1.50 Third DD 2.00 Fifth

EE 2.33 Fifth EE 0.80 Third

Multiple Workstations

a particular operation in a process is a

complex problem because the output

from one operation becomes the input to

another

Computer simulation models are effective

tools to determine which priority rules

work best in a given situation

Scheduling a Two-Station Flow Shop

the same regardless of the priority rule chosen

In the scheduling of two or more workstations in a

flow shop, the makespan varies according to the

sequence chosen

Determining a production sequence for a group of

jobs to minimize the makespan has two

advantages

The group of jobs is completed in minimum time

The utilization of the two-station flow shop is maximized

Johnson’s Rule

jobs on two workstations

Step 1: Scan the processing time at each workstation and

find the shortest processing time among the jobs not yet

scheduled. If two or more jobs are tied, choose one job

arbitrarily.

Step 2: If the shortest processing time is on workstation 1,

schedule the corresponding job as early as possible. If the

shortest processing time is on workstation 2, schedule the

corresponding job as late as possible.

Step 3: Eliminate the last job scheduled from further

consideration. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all jobs have been

scheduled.

Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations

EXAMPLE J.3

The Morris Machine Company just received an order to

refurbish five motors for materials handling equipment that

were damaged in a fire. The motors have been delivered and are

available for processing. The motors will be repaired at two

workstations in the following manner.

Workstation 2: Replace the parts as necessary, test the

motor, and make adjustments.

Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations

The customer’s shop will be inoperable until all the motors

have been repaired, so the plant manager is interested in

developing a schedule that minimizes the makespan and has

authorized around-the-clock operations until the motors have

been repaired. The estimated time to repair each motor is

shown in the following table:

Time (hr)

Motor Workstation 1 Workstation 2

M1 12 22

M2 4 5

M3 6 3

M4 15 16

M5 10 8

Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations

SOLUTION

The logic for the optimal sequence is shown in the following

table:

Establishing a Job Sequence

Iteration Job Sequence Comments

1 M3 The shortest processing time is 3 hours for M3 at

workstation 2. Therefore, M3 is scheduled as late as

possible.

2 M2 M3 Eliminate M3 from the table of estimated times. The

next shortest processing time is 4 hours for M2 at

workstation 1. M2 is therefore scheduled first.

3 M2 M5 M3 Eliminate M2 from the table. The next shortest

processing time is 8 hours for M5 at workstation 2.

Therefore, M5 is scheduled as late as possible.

4 M2 M1 M5 M3 Eliminate M5 from the table. The next shortest

processing time is 12 hours for M1 at workstation 1.

M1 is scheduled as early as possible.

5 M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 The last motor to be scheduled is M4. It is placed in

the last remaining position, in the middle of the

schedule.

Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations

Workstation

1 M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 Idle—available

(4) (12) (15) (10) (5) for further work

2 Idle M2 Idle M1 M4 M5 M3

(5) (22) (16) (8) (3)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Hour

Figure J.2 – Gantt Chart for the Morris Machine Company Repair Schedule

Application J.3

Use the following data to schedule two workstations arranged

as a flow shop

Time (hr)

Job Workstation 1 Workstation 2

A 4 3

B 10 20

C 2 15

D 8 7

E 14 13

Sequence: C B E D A

Application J.3

Workstation 1 Workstation 2

C 0 2 2 17

B 2 12 17 37

E 12 26 37 50

D 26 34 50 57

A 34 38 57 60

Labor-Limited Environment

The resource constraint is the amount of labor

available, not the number of machines or

workstations

The scheduler must also assign workers to their

next workstations

Some possible labor assignment rules

Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that

has been in the system longest

Assign personnel to the workstation with the most jobs

waiting for processing

Assign personnel to the workstation with the largest

standard work content

Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that

has the earliest due date

Solved Problem 1

The Neptune’s Den Machine Shop specializes in overhauling

outboard marine engines. Some engines require replacement of

broken parts, whereas others need a complete overhaul.

Currently, five engines with varying problems are awaiting

service. The best estimates for the labor times involved and the

promise dates (in number of days from today) are shown in the

following table. Customers usually do not pick up their engines

early.

Processing Time,

Time Since Order Including Setup Promise Date

Engine Arrived (days) (days) (days from now)

50-hp Evinrude 4 5 8

7-hp Johnson 6 4 15

100-hp Mercury 8 10 12

50-hp Honda 1 1 20

75-hp Nautique 15 3 10

Solved Problem 1

a. Develop separate schedules by using the SPT and EDD rules

b. Compare the two schedules on the basis of average flow

time, percentage of past due jobs, and maximum past due

days for any engine

Solved Problem 1

SOLUTION

a. Using the SPT rule, we obtain the following schedule:

Days

Since Actual Days

Repair Order Processing Finish Flow Promise Pickup Days Past

Sequence Arrived Time Time Time Date Date Early Due

50-hp Honda 1 1 1 2 20 20 19 —

75-hp Nautique 15 3 4 19 10 10 6 —

7-hp Johnson 6 4 8 14 15 15 7 —

50-hp Evinrude 4 5 13 17 8 13 — 5

100-hp Mercury 8 10 23 31 12 23 — 11

Total 83

Solved Problem 1

Using the EDD rule we obtain this schedule:

Days

Since Actual Days

Repair Order Processing Finish Flow Promise Pickup Days Past

Sequence Arrived Time Time Time Date Date Early Due

50-hp Evinrude 4 5 5 9 8 8 3 —

75-hp Nautique 15 3 8 23 10 10 2 —

100-hp Mercury 8 10 18 26 12 18 — 6

7-hp Johnson 6 4 22 28 15 22 — 7

50-hp Honda 1 1 23 24 20 23 — 3

Total 110

Solved Problem 1

b. Performance measures are as follows:

Average flow time is 16.6 (or 83/5) days for SPT and 22.0 (or

110/5) days for EDD. The percentage of past due jobs is 40

percent (2/5) for SPT and 60 percent (3/5) for EDD. For this

set of jobs, the EDD schedule minimizes the maximum days

past due but has a greater flow time and causes more jobs

to be past due.

Solved Problem 2

The following data were reported by the shop floor control

system for order processing at the edge grinder. The current

date is day 150. The number of remaining operations and the

total work remaining include the operation at the edge grinder.

All orders are available for processing, and none have been

started yet. Assume the jobs were available for processing at

the same time.

Shop Time

Processing Due Date Remaining Remaining

Current Order Time (hr) (day) Operations (days)

A101 10 162 10 9

B272 7 158 9 6

C106 15 152 1 1

D707 4 170 8 18

E555 8 154 5 8

Solved Problem 2

a. Specify the priorities for each job if the shop floor control

system uses slack per remaining operations (S/RO) or

critical ratio (CR).

b. For each priority rule, calculate the average flow time per job

at the edge grinder.

Solved Problem 2

SOLUTION

a. We specify the priorities for each job using the two

sequencing rules. The sequence for S/RO is shown in the

brackets.

Due date Today' s date Shop time remaining

S/RO

Number of operations remaining

154 150 8

E555 : S/RO 0.801

5

158 150 6

B272 : S/RO 0.222

9

170 150 18

D707 : S/RO 0.253

8

162 150 9

A101: S/RO 0.304

10

152 150 1

C105 : S/RO 1.005

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J – 45

Solved Problem 2

The sequence of production for CR is shown in the brackets.

CR

Shop time remaining

154 150

E555 : CR 0.501

8

170 150

D707 : CR 1.112

18

158 150

B272 : CR 1.333

6

162 150

A101: CR 1.334

9

152 150

C105 : CR 2.005

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J – 46

Solved Problem 2

b. We are sequencing a set of jobs at a single machine, so each

job’s finish time equals the finish time of the job just prior to

it in sequence plus its own processing time. Further, all jobs

were available for processing at the same time, so each job’s

finish time equals its flow time. Consequently, the average

flow times at this single machine are

8 15 19 29 44

S/RO : 23.30 hours

5

8 12 19 29 44

CR : 22.4 hours

5

In this example, the average flow time per job is lower for the

CR rule, which is not always the case. For example, the

critical ratios for B272 and A101 are tied at 1.33. If we

arbitrarily assigned A101 before B272, the average flow time

would increase to (8 + 12 + 22 + 29 + 44)/5 = 23.0 hours.

Solved Problem 3

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal, formerly a chemical warfare

manufacturing site, is said to be one of the most polluted

locations in the United States. Cleanup of chemical waste

storage basins will involve two operations.

Operation 1: Drain and dredge basin.

Operation 2: Incinerate materials.

Management estimates that each operation will require the

following amounts of time (in days):

Storage Basin

A B C D E F G H I J

Dredge 3 4 3 6 1 3 2 1 8 4

Incinerate 1 4 2 1 2 6 4 1 2 8

Solved Problem 3

Management’s objective is to minimize the makespan of the

cleanup operations. All storage basins are available for

processing right now. First, find a schedule that minimizes the

makespan. Then calculate the average flow time of a storage

basin through the two operations. What is the total elapsed time

for cleaning all 10 basins? Display the schedule in a Gantt

machine chart.

SOLUTION

We can use Johnson’s rule to find the schedule that minimizes

the total makespan. Four jobs are tied for the shortest process

time: A, D, E, and H. E and H are tied for first place, while A and

D are tied for last place. We arbitrarily choose to start with basin

E, the first on the list for the drain and dredge operation. The 10

steps used to arrive at a sequence are as follows:

Solved Problem 3

basin H); put it at the front.

2. Select basin H next; put it E H — — — — — — — —

toward the front.

3. Select basin A next (tied with E H — — — — — — — A

basin D); put it at the end.

4. Put basin D toward the end. E H — — — — — — D A

space.

Solved Problem 3

Several optimal solutions are available to this problem because

of the ties at the start of the scheduling procedure. However, all

have the same makespan. The schedule would be as follows:

Operation 1 Operation 2

Basin Start Finish Start Finish

E 0 1 1 3

H 1 2 3 4

G 2 4 4 8

F 4 7 8 14

B 7 11 14 18

J 11 15 18 26

I 15 23 26 28

C 23 26 28 32

D 26 32 32 35

A 32 35 35 36

Total 200

Solved Problem 3

The makespan is 36 days. The average flow time is the sum of

incineration finish times divided by 10, or 200/10 = 20 days. The

Gantt machine chart for this schedule is given in Figure J.3.

Storage Basin

Dredge E H G F B J I C D A

Incinerate E H G F B J I C D A

Figure J.3

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J – 53

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.