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J Operations Scheduling

For Operations Management, 9e by


PowerPoint Slides
Krajewski/Ritzman/Malhotra
by Jeff Heyl © 2010 Pearson Education
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J–1
Scheduling Service and
Manufacturing Processes

 The scheduling techniques cut across the


various process types found in services
and manufacturing
 Front-office process with high customer
contact, divergent work flows, customization,
and a complex scheduling environment
 Back-office process has low customer
involvement, uses more line work flows, and
provides standardized services

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Performance Measures

 Flow time is the amount of time a job


spends in the service or manufacturing
system
 Past due (tardiness) is the amount of time
by which a job missed its due date
 Makespan is the total amount of time
required to complete a group of jobs

Time of completion Starting time


Makespan = –
of last job of first job

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Performance Measures

 Total inventory is used to measure the


effectiveness of schedules for
manufacturing processes.
Total Scheduled receipts On-hand inventories
= +
Inventory for all items of all items

 Utilization is the percentage of work time


that is productively spent by an employee
or a machine

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Sequencing Jobs

 Operations schedules are short-term plans


designed to implement the sales and
operations plan
 An operation with divergent flows is often
called a job shop
 Low-to medium-volume production
 Utilizes job or batch processes
 The front office would be the equivalent for a
service provider
 Difficult to schedule because of the variability
in job routings and the continual introduction of
new jobs to be processed

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Sequencing Jobs

 An operation with line flow is often called


a flow shop
 Medium- to high-volume production
 Utilizes line or continuous flow processes
 The back office would be the equivalent for a
service provider
 Tasks are easier to schedule because the jobs
have a common flow pattern through the
system

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Job Shop Sequencing

Shipping Department
Raw Materials

Legend:
Batch of parts
Workstation
Figure J.1 – Diagram of a Manufacturing Job Shop Process
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Priority Sequencing Rules

 First-come, first-served (FCFS)


 Earliest due date (EDD)
 Critical ratio (CR)
(Due date) – (Today’s date)
CR =
Total shop time remaining

 A ratio less than 1.0 implies that the job is behind


schedule
 A ratio greater than 1.0 implies the job is ahead of
schedule
 The job with the lowest CR is scheduled next

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Priority Sequencing Rules

 Shortest processing time (SPT)


 Slack per remaining operations (S/RO)

Due Today’s Total shop


date – date – time remaining
S/RO =
Number of operations remaining

 The job with the lowest S/RO is scheduled next

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Sequencing One Workstation

 Single-dimension rules
 A job’s priority assignment based only on
information waiting for processing at the
individual workstation (e.g., FCFS, EDD,
and SPT)

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules
EXAMPLE J.1
The Taylor Machine Shop rebores engine blocks. Currently, five
engine blocks are waiting for processing. At any time, the
company has only one engine expert on duty who can do this
type of work. The engine problems have been diagnosed, and
the processing times for the jobs have been estimated.
Expected completion times have been agreed upon with the
shop’s customers. The accompanying table shows the current
situation. Because the Taylor Machine Shop is open from 8:00
A.M. until 5:00 P.M. each weekday, plus weekend hours as
needed, the customer pickup times are measured in business
hours from the current time. Determine the schedule for the
engine expert by using (a) the EDD rule and (b) the SPT rule.
For each rule, calculate the average flow time, average hours
early, and average hours past due. If average past due is most
important, which rule should be chosen?

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

Business Hours Processing Time, Business Hours Until


Since Order Including Setup Due Date (customer
Engine Block Arrived (hours) pickup time)

Ranger 12 8 10
Explorer 10 6 12
Bronco 1 15 20
Econoline 150 3 3 18
Thunderbird 0 12 22

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules
SOLUTION
a. The EDD rule states that the first engine block in the
sequence is the one with the closest due date.
Consequently, the Ranger engine block is processed first.
The Thunderbird engine block, with its due date furthest in
the future, is processed last. The sequence is shown in the
following table, along with the flow times, the hours early,
and the hours past due.
Hours Actual
Since Finish Flow Scheduled Customer Hours
Engine Block Order Begin Processing Time Time Customer Pickup Hours Past
Sequence Arrived Work Time, (hr) (hr) (hr) Pickup Time Time Early Due
Ranger 12 0 + 8 = 8 20 10 10 2 —

Explorer 10 8 + 6 = 14 24 12 13 — 2

Econoline 150 3 14 + 15 = 17 20 18 18 1 —

Bronco 1 17 + 3 = 32 33 20 32 — 12

Thunderbird 0 32 + 12 = 44 44 22 44 — 22

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules
The flow time for each job is its finish time, plus the time since
the job arrived.1 For example, the Explorer engine block’s finish
time will be 14 hours from now (8 hours waiting time before the
engine expert started to work on it plus 6 hours processing).
Adding the 10 hours since the order arrived at this workstation
(before the processing of this group of orders began) results in
a flow time of 24 hours. You might think of the sum of flow
times as the total job hours spent by the engine blocks since
their orders arrived at the workstation until they were
processed.

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules
The performance measures for the EDD schedule for the five
engine blocks are

20 + 24 + 20 + 33 + 44
Average flow time = = 28.2 hrs
5

2+0+1+0+0
Average hours early = = 0.6 hrs
5

0 + 2 + 0 + 12 + 22
Average hours past due = = 7.2 hrs
5

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules
b. Under the SPT rule, the sequence starts with the engine
block that has the shortest processing time, the Econoline
150, and it ends with the engine block that has the longest
processing time, the Bronco. The sequence, along with the
flow times, early hours, and past due hours, is contained in
the following table:

Hours Actual
Since Finish Flow Scheduled Customer Hours
Engine Block Order Begin Processing Time Time Customer Pickup Hours Past
Sequence Arrived Work Time, (hr) (hr) (hr) Pickup Time Time Early Due
Econoline 150 3 0 + 3 = 3 6 19 18 15 —

Explorer 10 3 + 6 = 9 19 12 12 3 —

Ranger 12 9 + 8 = 17 29 10 17 — 7

Thunderbird 0 17 + 12 = 29 29 22 29 — 7

Bronco 1 29 + 15 = 44 45 20 44 — 24

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Comparing EDD and SPT Rules

The performance measures are

6 + 19 + 29 + 29 + 45
Average flow time = = 25.6 hrs
5

15 + 3 + 0 + 0 + 0
Average hours early = = 3.6 hrs
5

0 + 0 + 7 + 7 + 24
Average hours past due = = 7.6 hrs
5

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Comparing Sequencing Rules
 EDD rule
 Performs well with respect to the percentage of jobs past due
and the variance of hours past due
 Popular with firms that are sensitive to achieving due dates
 SPT rule
 Tends to minimize the mean flow and maximize shop utilization
 For single-workstations will always provide the lowest mean
finish time
 Could increase total inventory
 Tends to produce a large variance in past due hours
 FCFS rule
 Considered fair
 It performs poorly with respect to all performance measures

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Application J.1
Given the following information, devise an SPT schedule for the
automatic routing machine.

Standard Time,
Including Due Date
Order Setup (hr) (hrs from now)
AZ135 14 14
DM246 8 20
SX435 10 6
PC088 3 18

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Application J.1

Flow
Hours Finish Scheduled Actual Hours
Order Begin Time Hours
Since Order Time Customer Pickup Past
Sequence Work (hr) Early
Arrived (hr) Pickup Time Time Due

1. PC088 2 0 3 5 18 18 15

2. DM246 4 3 11 15 20 20 9

3. SX435 1 11 21 22 6 21 15

4. AZ135 5 21 35 40 14 35 25

Total 82 94 24 40

Average 20.5 23.5 6 10

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Multiple-Dimension Rules

 The priority rules CR and S/RO incorporate


information about the remaining workstations
 S/RO is better than EDD with respect to the
percentage of jobs past due but usually worse
than SPT and EDD with respect to average job flow
times
 CR results in longer job flow times than SPT, but
CR also results in less variance in the distribution
of past due hours
 No choice is clearly best; each rule should be
tested in the environment for which it is intended

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Sequencing with the CR and
S/RO Rules
EXAMPLE J.2
The first five columns of the following table contain information
about a set of four jobs that just arrived (end of hour 0 or
beginning of hour 1) at an engine lathe. They are the only ones
now waiting to be processed. Several operations, including the
one at the engine lathe, remain to be done on each job.
Determine the schedule by using (a) the CR rule and (b) the
S/RO rule. Compare these schedules to those generated by
FCFS, SPT, and EDD.
Processing Time Time Remaining Number of Shop Time
at Engine Lathe Until Due Date Operations Remaining
Job (hours) (days) Remaining (days) CR S/RO
1 2.3 15 10 6.1 2.46 0.89

2 10.5 10 2 7.8 1.28 1.10

3 6.2 20 12 14.5 1.38 0.46

4 15.6 8 5 10.2 0.78 –0.44

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Sequencing with the CR and
S/RO Rules
SOLUTION
a. Using CR to schedule the machine, we divide the time
remaining until the due date by the shop time remaining to
get the priority index for each job. For job 1,

Time remaining until the due date 15


CR = = = 2.46
Shop time remaining 6.1

By arranging the jobs in sequence with the lowest critical


ratio first, we determine that the sequence of jobs to be
processed by the engine lathe is 4, 2, 3, and finally 1,
assuming that no other jobs arrive in the meantime.

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Sequencing with the CR and
S/RO Rules
b. Using S/RO, we divide the difference between the time
remaining until the due date and the shop time remaining by
the number of remaining operations. For job 1,

Time remaining Shop time



15 – 6.1
until the due date remaining
S/RO = = = 0.89
Number of operations remaining 10

Arranging the jobs by starting with the lowest S/RO


yields a 4, 3, 1, 2 sequence of jobs.

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Sequencing with the CR and
S/RO Rules

Priority Rule Summary

FCFS SPT EDD CR S/RO

Average flow time 17.175 16.100 26.175 27.150 24.025

Average early time 3.425 6.050 0 0 0

Average past due 7.350 8.900 12.925 13.900 10.775

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Application J.2
The following four jobs have just arrived at an idle drill process
and must be scheduled.

Processing Time Time Remaining Number of Shop Time


at Drill Press to Due Date Operations Remaining*
Job (wk) (wks) Remaining* (wks)

AA 4 5 3 4
BB 8 11 4 6
CC 13 16 10 9
DD 6 18 3 12
EE 2 7 5 3

* including drill press

Create the sequences for two schedules, one using the Critical
Ratio rule and one using the S/RO rule.

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Application J.2
Processing Time Time Remaining Number of Shop Time
at Drill Press to Due Date Operations Remaining*
Job (wk) (wks) Remaining* (wks)

AA 4 5 3 4
BB 8 11 4 6
CC 13 16 10 9
DD 6 18 3 12
EE 2 7 5 3

Critical Ratio Slack/Remaining Operation


Sequence on Sequence on
Job Priority Index Drill Press Job Priority Index Drill Press
AA 1.25 First AA 0.33 First
BB 1.83 Fourth BB 1.25 Fourth
CC 1.44 Second CC 0.70 Second
DD 1.50 Third DD 2.00 Fifth
EE 2.33 Fifth EE 0.80 Third

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Multiple Workstations

 Identifying the best priority rule to use at


a particular operation in a process is a
complex problem because the output
from one operation becomes the input to
another
 Computer simulation models are effective
tools to determine which priority rules
work best in a given situation

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Scheduling a Two-Station Flow Shop

 In single-workstation scheduling, the makespan is


the same regardless of the priority rule chosen
 In the scheduling of two or more workstations in a
flow shop, the makespan varies according to the
sequence chosen
 Determining a production sequence for a group of
jobs to minimize the makespan has two
advantages
 The group of jobs is completed in minimum time
 The utilization of the two-station flow shop is maximized

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Johnson’s Rule

 Minimizes makespan when scheduling a group of


jobs on two workstations
Step 1: Scan the processing time at each workstation and
find the shortest processing time among the jobs not yet
scheduled. If two or more jobs are tied, choose one job
arbitrarily.
Step 2: If the shortest processing time is on workstation 1,
schedule the corresponding job as early as possible. If the
shortest processing time is on workstation 2, schedule the
corresponding job as late as possible.
Step 3: Eliminate the last job scheduled from further
consideration. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all jobs have been
scheduled.

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Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations
EXAMPLE J.3
The Morris Machine Company just received an order to
refurbish five motors for materials handling equipment that
were damaged in a fire. The motors have been delivered and are
available for processing. The motors will be repaired at two
workstations in the following manner.

Workstation 1: Dismantle the motor and clean the parts.


Workstation 2: Replace the parts as necessary, test the
motor, and make adjustments.

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Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations
The customer’s shop will be inoperable until all the motors
have been repaired, so the plant manager is interested in
developing a schedule that minimizes the makespan and has
authorized around-the-clock operations until the motors have
been repaired. The estimated time to repair each motor is
shown in the following table:

Time (hr)
Motor Workstation 1 Workstation 2
M1 12 22
M2 4 5
M3 6 3
M4 15 16
M5 10 8

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Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations
SOLUTION
The logic for the optimal sequence is shown in the following
table:
Establishing a Job Sequence
Iteration Job Sequence Comments
1 M3 The shortest processing time is 3 hours for M3 at
workstation 2. Therefore, M3 is scheduled as late as
possible.
2 M2 M3 Eliminate M3 from the table of estimated times. The
next shortest processing time is 4 hours for M2 at
workstation 1. M2 is therefore scheduled first.
3 M2 M5 M3 Eliminate M2 from the table. The next shortest
processing time is 8 hours for M5 at workstation 2.
Therefore, M5 is scheduled as late as possible.
4 M2 M1 M5 M3 Eliminate M5 from the table. The next shortest
processing time is 12 hours for M1 at workstation 1.
M1 is scheduled as early as possible.
5 M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 The last motor to be scheduled is M4. It is placed in
the last remaining position, in the middle of the
schedule.

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Scheduling Jobs on Two Workstations

Workstation

1 M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 Idle—available
(4) (12) (15) (10) (5) for further work

2 Idle M2 Idle M1 M4 M5 M3
(5) (22) (16) (8) (3)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Hour

Figure J.2 – Gantt Chart for the Morris Machine Company Repair Schedule

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Application J.3
Use the following data to schedule two workstations arranged
as a flow shop

Time (hr)
Job Workstation 1 Workstation 2
A 4 3
B 10 20
C 2 15
D 8 7
E 14 13

Sequence: C B E D A

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Application J.3

Workstation 1 Workstation 2

Start Finish Start Finish

C 0 2 2 17

B 2 12 17 37

E 12 26 37 50

D 26 34 50 57

A 34 38 57 60

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Labor-Limited Environment
 The resource constraint is the amount of labor
available, not the number of machines or
workstations
 The scheduler must also assign workers to their
next workstations
 Some possible labor assignment rules
 Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that
has been in the system longest
 Assign personnel to the workstation with the most jobs
waiting for processing
 Assign personnel to the workstation with the largest
standard work content
 Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that
has the earliest due date

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Solved Problem 1
The Neptune’s Den Machine Shop specializes in overhauling
outboard marine engines. Some engines require replacement of
broken parts, whereas others need a complete overhaul.
Currently, five engines with varying problems are awaiting
service. The best estimates for the labor times involved and the
promise dates (in number of days from today) are shown in the
following table. Customers usually do not pick up their engines
early.

Processing Time,
Time Since Order Including Setup Promise Date
Engine Arrived (days) (days) (days from now)
50-hp Evinrude 4 5 8
7-hp Johnson 6 4 15
100-hp Mercury 8 10 12
50-hp Honda 1 1 20
75-hp Nautique 15 3 10

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Solved Problem 1
a. Develop separate schedules by using the SPT and EDD rules
b. Compare the two schedules on the basis of average flow
time, percentage of past due jobs, and maximum past due
days for any engine

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Solved Problem 1
SOLUTION
a. Using the SPT rule, we obtain the following schedule:

Days
Since Actual Days
Repair Order Processing Finish Flow Promise Pickup Days Past
Sequence Arrived Time Time Time Date Date Early Due
50-hp Honda 1 1 1 2 20 20 19 —
75-hp Nautique 15 3 4 19 10 10 6 —
7-hp Johnson 6 4 8 14 15 15 7 —
50-hp Evinrude 4 5 13 17 8 13 — 5
100-hp Mercury 8 10 23 31 12 23 — 11
Total 83

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Solved Problem 1
Using the EDD rule we obtain this schedule:

Days
Since Actual Days
Repair Order Processing Finish Flow Promise Pickup Days Past
Sequence Arrived Time Time Time Date Date Early Due
50-hp Evinrude 4 5 5 9 8 8 3 —
75-hp Nautique 15 3 8 23 10 10 2 —
100-hp Mercury 8 10 18 26 12 18 — 6
7-hp Johnson 6 4 22 28 15 22 — 7
50-hp Honda 1 1 23 24 20 23 — 3
Total 110

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Solved Problem 1
b. Performance measures are as follows:
Average flow time is 16.6 (or 83/5) days for SPT and 22.0 (or
110/5) days for EDD. The percentage of past due jobs is 40
percent (2/5) for SPT and 60 percent (3/5) for EDD. For this
set of jobs, the EDD schedule minimizes the maximum days
past due but has a greater flow time and causes more jobs
to be past due.

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Solved Problem 2
The following data were reported by the shop floor control
system for order processing at the edge grinder. The current
date is day 150. The number of remaining operations and the
total work remaining include the operation at the edge grinder.
All orders are available for processing, and none have been
started yet. Assume the jobs were available for processing at
the same time.
Shop Time
Processing Due Date Remaining Remaining
Current Order Time (hr) (day) Operations (days)
A101 10 162 10 9

B272 7 158 9 6

C106 15 152 1 1

D707 4 170 8 18

E555 8 154 5 8

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Solved Problem 2
a. Specify the priorities for each job if the shop floor control
system uses slack per remaining operations (S/RO) or
critical ratio (CR).
b. For each priority rule, calculate the average flow time per job
at the edge grinder.

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Solved Problem 2
SOLUTION
a. We specify the priorities for each job using the two
sequencing rules. The sequence for S/RO is shown in the
brackets.
Due date  Today' s date   Shop time remaining
S/RO 
Number of operations remaining
154  150  8
E555 : S/RO   0.801
5
158  150  6
B272 : S/RO   0.222
9
170  150  18
D707 : S/RO   0.253
8
162  150  9
A101: S/RO   0.304
10
152  150  1
C105 : S/RO   1.005
1
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Solved Problem 2
The sequence of production for CR is shown in the brackets.

Due date  Today' s date


CR 
Shop time remaining

154  150
E555 : CR   0.501
8
170  150
D707 : CR   1.112
18
158  150
B272 : CR   1.333
6
162  150
A101: CR   1.334
9
152  150
C105 : CR   2.005
1
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Solved Problem 2
b. We are sequencing a set of jobs at a single machine, so each
job’s finish time equals the finish time of the job just prior to
it in sequence plus its own processing time. Further, all jobs
were available for processing at the same time, so each job’s
finish time equals its flow time. Consequently, the average
flow times at this single machine are

8  15  19  29  44
S/RO :  23.30 hours
5
8  12  19  29  44
CR :  22.4 hours
5
In this example, the average flow time per job is lower for the
CR rule, which is not always the case. For example, the
critical ratios for B272 and A101 are tied at 1.33. If we
arbitrarily assigned A101 before B272, the average flow time
would increase to (8 + 12 + 22 + 29 + 44)/5 = 23.0 hours.

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Solved Problem 3
The Rocky Mountain Arsenal, formerly a chemical warfare
manufacturing site, is said to be one of the most polluted
locations in the United States. Cleanup of chemical waste
storage basins will involve two operations.
Operation 1: Drain and dredge basin.
Operation 2: Incinerate materials.
Management estimates that each operation will require the
following amounts of time (in days):

Storage Basin
A B C D E F G H I J
Dredge 3 4 3 6 1 3 2 1 8 4
Incinerate 1 4 2 1 2 6 4 1 2 8

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Solved Problem 3
Management’s objective is to minimize the makespan of the
cleanup operations. All storage basins are available for
processing right now. First, find a schedule that minimizes the
makespan. Then calculate the average flow time of a storage
basin through the two operations. What is the total elapsed time
for cleaning all 10 basins? Display the schedule in a Gantt
machine chart.

SOLUTION
We can use Johnson’s rule to find the schedule that minimizes
the total makespan. Four jobs are tied for the shortest process
time: A, D, E, and H. E and H are tied for first place, while A and
D are tied for last place. We arbitrarily choose to start with basin
E, the first on the list for the drain and dredge operation. The 10
steps used to arrive at a sequence are as follows:

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Solved Problem 3

1. Select basin E first (tied with E — — — — — — — — —


basin H); put it at the front.
2. Select basin H next; put it E H — — — — — — — —
toward the front.
3. Select basin A next (tied with E H — — — — — — — A
basin D); put it at the end.
4. Put basin D toward the end. E H — — — — — — D A

5. Put basin G toward the front. E H G — — — — — D A

6. Put basin C toward the end. E H G — — — — C D A

7. Put basin I toward the end. E H G — — — I C D A

8. Put basin F toward the front. E H G F — — I C D A

9. Put basin B toward the front. E H G F B — I C D A

10. Put basin J in the remaining E H G F B J I C D A


space.

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Solved Problem 3
Several optimal solutions are available to this problem because
of the ties at the start of the scheduling procedure. However, all
have the same makespan. The schedule would be as follows:

Operation 1 Operation 2
Basin Start Finish Start Finish
E 0 1 1 3
H 1 2 3 4
G 2 4 4 8
F 4 7 8 14
B 7 11 14 18
J 11 15 18 26
I 15 23 26 28
C 23 26 28 32
D 26 32 32 35
A 32 35 35 36
Total 200

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Solved Problem 3
The makespan is 36 days. The average flow time is the sum of
incineration finish times divided by 10, or 200/10 = 20 days. The
Gantt machine chart for this schedule is given in Figure J.3.

Storage Basin

Dredge E H G F B J I C D A

Incinerate E H G F B J I C D A

Figure J.3

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. J – 53