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# By

## Dr. T Ravi Kiran

Zeroth law: Equilibrium

## Second law: Energy has quality and gives

direction of processes.

## Third Law: Absolute zero temperature

Condition
Thermal equilibrium: no temperature differential
Mechanical equilibrium: no imbalance of forces
Chemical Equilibrium: no change in chemical
composition and reaction
Statement
“If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third
body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each
other.”
Application
 Temperature Measurement

Temperature Scales
 Celsius Scale

 Farenheit Scale

 Kelvin Scale

##  Thermodynamic temperature (R) scale

Thermometer Thermometric
Property
Constant volume gas Pressure
thermometer
Constant pressure gas Volume
thermometer
Electric resistance thermometer Resistance
Thermocouple Voltage
Liquid-in-glass thermometer Capillary rise
Energy : ability to cause changes

Total Energy
 Macroscopic: energy that the system
possesses as a whole w.r.t. some outside
frame. Ex potential, kinetic energy etc.
 Microscopic: molecular structure and
degree of molecular activity. Ex:
molecular translational, rotational, spin,
vibrational energy etc.
System: quantity of matter or region in space
chosen for study
Surrounding: mass or region outside the system
Boundary: real/imaginary surface that
separates system from surrounding
Types of system:
 Open

 Closed

 Isolated
Energy interaction between system and
surrounding is heat if the driving force is
temperature difference. All other types of
energy interaction are termed as work
State: all properties of a system has fixed values
at a given state.
Process: Any change a system undergoes from
one equilibrium state to another
Cycle: when a system returns to its initial state at
the end of the process.
Statement
“The algebraic sum of net heat interactions is equal to
the work interaction between a system and its
surrounding thermodynamic cycle”

Q = W + ∆U

## Joule's apparatus for measuring the mechanical

equivalent of heat in which the "work" of the falling
weight is converted into the "heat" of agitation in the
water.
Application

## Energy Balance in Steady Flow Devices:

Nozzle & diffuser, compressor & turbine,
pump, heat exchanger, throttling valve etc
TER: hypothetical body with a relatively large
thermal capacity that can absorb finite amounts
of heat without undergoing any change in
temperature. Ex ocean, lake, atmospheric air,
furnace etc.
 TER Source: supplies energy in the form of heat

##  TER Sink: absorbs energy

Special devices which convert heat into work are
known as Heat Engines
Refrigerator: maintains a space at a lower temperature than
the surrounding by removing heat from it
Heat Pump: to maintain a space at a elevated temperature
than surrounding.
Kelvin-Planck statement
“It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work
in a complete cycle if it exchanges heat with bodies
at a single fixed temperature.”
Clausius’ statement
“It is impossible to construct a device which, operating
in a cycle, will produce no effect other than the
transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.”
 Entropy: measure of molecular disorder/randomness
 Exergy: available work
 Dead State: when a system comes in equilibrium with
its surrounding

## Second Law Efficiency

Application
 Pressure Cooker

 Heat Pump

##  Critical (374oC, 221.2 bar), super critical (below

600oC, 240 bar) and ultra-super critical (>600oC,
240 bar) pressure boiler
 Kite Turbine
Statement
“ It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how
idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero
of temperature in a finite no of operations”
Application
 Absolute reference for determination of
absolute entropy for thermodynamic analysis
of chemical reactions.
Thanks