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Dr. T Ravi Kiran

Zeroth law: Equilibrium

First Law: Conservation of energy

Second law: Energy has quality and gives

direction of processes.

Third Law: Absolute zero temperature

Thermal equilibrium: no temperature differential
Mechanical equilibrium: no imbalance of forces
Chemical Equilibrium: no change in chemical
composition and reaction
“If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third
body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each
 Temperature Measurement

Temperature Scales
 Celsius Scale

 Farenheit Scale

 Kelvin Scale

 Thermodynamic temperature (R) scale

Thermometer Thermometric
Constant volume gas Pressure
Constant pressure gas Volume
Electric resistance thermometer Resistance
Thermocouple Voltage
Liquid-in-glass thermometer Capillary rise
Energy : ability to cause changes

Total Energy
 Macroscopic: energy that the system
possesses as a whole w.r.t. some outside
frame. Ex potential, kinetic energy etc.
 Microscopic: molecular structure and
degree of molecular activity. Ex:
molecular translational, rotational, spin,
vibrational energy etc.
System: quantity of matter or region in space
chosen for study
Surrounding: mass or region outside the system
Boundary: real/imaginary surface that
separates system from surrounding
Types of system:
 Open

 Closed

 Isolated
Energy interaction between system and
surrounding is heat if the driving force is
temperature difference. All other types of
energy interaction are termed as work
State: all properties of a system has fixed values
at a given state.
Process: Any change a system undergoes from
one equilibrium state to another
Cycle: when a system returns to its initial state at
the end of the process.
“The algebraic sum of net heat interactions is equal to
the work interaction between a system and its
surrounding thermodynamic cycle”

Q = W + ∆U

Joule's apparatus for measuring the mechanical

equivalent of heat in which the "work" of the falling
weight is converted into the "heat" of agitation in the

Energy Balance in Steady Flow Devices:

Nozzle & diffuser, compressor & turbine,
pump, heat exchanger, throttling valve etc
TER: hypothetical body with a relatively large
thermal capacity that can absorb finite amounts
of heat without undergoing any change in
temperature. Ex ocean, lake, atmospheric air,
furnace etc.
 TER Source: supplies energy in the form of heat

 TER Sink: absorbs energy

Special devices which convert heat into work are
known as Heat Engines
Refrigerator: maintains a space at a lower temperature than
the surrounding by removing heat from it
Heat Pump: to maintain a space at a elevated temperature
than surrounding.
Kelvin-Planck statement
“It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work
in a complete cycle if it exchanges heat with bodies
at a single fixed temperature.”
Clausius’ statement
“It is impossible to construct a device which, operating
in a cycle, will produce no effect other than the
transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.”
 Entropy: measure of molecular disorder/randomness
 Exergy: available work
 Dead State: when a system comes in equilibrium with
its surrounding

Second Law Efficiency

 Pressure Cooker

 Heat Pump

 Critical (374oC, 221.2 bar), super critical (below

600oC, 240 bar) and ultra-super critical (>600oC,
240 bar) pressure boiler
 Kite Turbine
“ It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how
idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero
of temperature in a finite no of operations”
 Absolute reference for determination of
absolute entropy for thermodynamic analysis
of chemical reactions.