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PRAKTIKUM MINERAL OPTIK

TEMU KE 4

Prosedur identifikasi mineral

ASISTEN PRAKTIKUM MINERAL OPTIK 2016


1) Light passes through the lower polarizer

west
(left)

Unpolarized light Plane polarized light “PPL”

east
(right)

Only the component of light vibrating in E-W


direction can pass through lower polarizer – light
intensity decreases
© Jane Selverstone, University of New Mexico, 2003
Now insert a thin section of a rock in XPL

west (left) north

Unpolarized light south


east (right)

Light and colors


Light vibrating E-W reach eye!
Light vibrating in
many planes and
with many
wavelengths

How does this work??

© Jane Selverstone, University of New Mexico, 2003


PRAKTIKUM MINERAL OPTIK
IDENTIFIKASI MINERAL

PPL XPL

• Warna • Birefringence
• Bentuk • Pemadaman
• Belahan • Orientasi
• Pleokroisme • Kembaran
• Relief
• Index Bias
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BENTUK / HABIT
Crystals may also have different proportions, even if they have the same crystal faces
developed. That means they differ in the relative size of crystal faces to each other.
Euhedral, Subhedral, Anhedral

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BELAHAN / CLEAVAGE

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Mechanical force imposed on mineral grains, during a rock’s geological history or during thin
section preparation, can generate crystallographically defined planar fractures (i.e., cleavage).
Abundance and quality of cleavage are mineral-specific, but are also dependent on the level of
stress to which minerals were exposed.
Cleavage is an important morphological property for mineral identification and, at the same time,
a criterion for the orientation of a mineral in thin section
Cleavage Fracture

Hornblende: Section orthogonal to c Pyrope: Radial cracks emanating


Augite: Section orthogonal to c axis. Perlite: Due to quenching of the glassy
The {110} cleavage planes form angles of axis. The {110} cleavage planes form material (obsidian) concentrically from coesite inclusions now largely
87° and 93°. angles of 56° and 124°. curved tension cracks developed. transformed to quartz.

Kyanite: Two sections approximately


orthogonal to c show the typical
pattern of very good cleavage {100} Sillimanite: The section orthogonal to Garnet: Fracture planes oriented parallel
to narrowspaced jointing in a basic
Nepheline: Irregular tension cracks
and distinct cleavage {010}. c shows the good cleavage {100}. caused by rapid cooling.
granulite.
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PLEOKROISME
Pleokroisme adalah gejala perubahan warna yang terjadi apabila meja objek diputar,
karena adanya absorbsi dari sumbu – sumbu kristalnya
Untuk menentukan pleokroisme dengan mengamati perubahan warna
mineral pada ortoskop tanpa nikol atau nikol sejajar bila meja objek diputar
90o.

•Dikroik – pada perputaran 0-90o terjadi dua kali perubahan

•Trikroik – pada perputaran 0-90oterjadi tiga kali perubahan


Pleochroic minerals [ortorhombic, monocline, tricline symetry]
Optical characteristics used for mineral determination

Change of absorption colour in crystal sections of biotite, actinolite and aegirine-augite as the stage is rotated
360°. Shown are the four positions in which the vibration directions of the two waves coincide exactly with
the directions of the polarizers
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INDEX BIAS

Suatu konstanta yang menunjukkan perbandingan antara sudut sinus datang


dengan sinus sudut pantul

Penentuan indeks bias relatif

n N>n N<n

Batasan : jika jarak antara obyektif dan obyek dijauhkan, garis Becke
akan bergerak ke arah media yang indeks biasnya lebih besar
N = indeks bias mineral
n = indeks bias Balsem Kanada
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RELIEF
Kenampakan yang timbul karena
adanya perbedaan indeks bias
mineral dengan media di sekitarnya.
Makin besar perbedaan indeks bias
tersebut, makin tinggi reliefnya.

•Relief Tinggi
•Relief Sedang
•Relief Rendah
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BIREFRINGENCE

Menunjukkan perbedaan indeks bias sinar ordiner dan ekstraordiner


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PEMADAMAN

Pemadaman terjadi apabila sumbu – sumbu indikatriks mineral sejajar dan


tegak lurus dengan bidang – bidang getar polarisator dan analisator

•Paralel – 90 derajat
•Miring - >45 derajat atau <45 derajat
•Simetri – 45 derajat
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PRAKTIKUM MINERAL OPTIK
ORIENTASI

Menentukan kedudukan indikatriks di dalam suatu mineral

•Lenght Slow – adisi – penambahan Orde


Sumbu panjang indikatriks sejajar atau hampir sejajar dengan arah memanjang
kristal/sumbu c

•Lenght Fast – substraksi – penurunan Orde


Sumbu panjang indikatriks tegak lurus dengan sb c

Orientasi diamati dengan cara memasukan keping gips


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KEMBARAN
Yaitu sifat yang ditunjukkan oleh mineral akibat pertumbuhan bersama kristal saat
pengkristalannya