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Elements of Audio- Visual Arts

Elements of Music
Pitch Texture
Volume or Intensity Form
Tempo or rate Melody
Duration Harmony

The relative
highness and
lowness of a tone.

• The loudness or softness of a sound. It ranges

from very soft (pianissimo) and soft (piano) to
very loud (fortissimo) and loud (forte). The
volume is louder when a singer belts out
compared to the volume when he simply

• The speed of a composition or any of its

sections. Ballads have a slow tempo,
whereas dance songs have a fast rate.
Terms such as allegro (fast), vivace
(lively), moderato (moderate speed),
andante (moderately slow), adagio
(slower than andante), lento (slow), and
largo (very slow) are related to tempo.
• The length of time
during which sound is
produced. Some
sounds are longer than
the others.
• The quality of sound that makes it
distinct from other sounds. Thus, a
listener can distinguish the voices of
Regine Velasquez, Java, Janno Gibbs
and Ogie Alcasid; likewise, he can
recognize the sounds of a flute, a
guitar, a drum and a piano.
• The consistent patter or
succession of identical or similar
sounds. This is illustrated by the
succession of similar sounds in a
song, as follows: introduction,
stanza one, chorus, refrain,
stanza two, chorus, refrain,
coda, and conclusion.
• The series of consecutive tones that
vary in pitch and duration but form a
line of individual significance and
expressive value. It is an orderly
succession of tones or musical
sounds. It is the one remembered
by a listener or the one he whistles
or hums, especially so when he
does not know the lyrics.
• The simultaneous sounding of two or
more tones. When three or more
tones are sounded simultaneously,
there exists a chord.
• The number of tones expected to be
apprehended simultaneously. It is either
monophonic (sounding of a single melodic
line without an accompaniment), polyphonic
(simultaneously sounding of two or more
melodic lines of relatively equal interest), or
homophonic (sounding of one main melody
supported by a subordinate one, as in the
performance of a folk singer with a guitar
• The overall organization of the composition. It
is associated with shape, structure, and
coherence. All the musical elements are put
together to come up with the cohesive whole
called form. Jose Palma’s lyrics of the
Philippine National Anthem titled “ Lupang
Hinirang” were arranged into a march by Julin
Felipe. All the notes and all the other
components of the song constitute its form.
Antonio Buenaventura (May 4, 1904-January
25, 1996)
Antonio Buenaventura (May 4, 1904-
January 25, 1996)
• National artist of the Philippines for Music in
• Maestro of the UE School of Music and Arts.
• Among the student of Nicanor Aberlardo, who
ran a boarding school for young musicians.
• Collaborated with Francisca Reyes-Aquino in a
research on Philippine folk songs and dances.
Antonio Buenaventura (May 4, 1904-
January 25, 1996)
• Among his compositions are :
• By the Hillside
• Triumphal March
• Ode to Freedom
• Concert Overture
• Mindanao Sketches
• Symphony to C Major
LEVI CELERIO (April 30,1910-April 2, 2002)
LEVI CELERIO (April 30,1910-April 2, 2002)

• National Artist of the Philippines for Music in

• A Filipino composer and prolific lyricist with
over 4,000 songs to his credit.
• Featured in the Guinness Book of World
Records for being the only man who could
play music with a leaf
He composed Christmas Songs:
• Pasko na Naman
• Maligayang Pasko at Manigong Bagong
• Ang Pasko ay sumapit
• Misa de Gallo
He composed Love songs:
• Saan Ka Man Naroroon?
• Kahit Konting Pagtingin
• Gaano Ko ikaw Kamahal
• Kapag puso’y sinugatan
• Ikaw
• Oh Maliwanag na Buwan
• Dahil sa isang Bulaklak
• Sa Ugoy ng Duyan
• Sapagkat Kami’y Tao Lamang
He composed Folk Songs:
• Ang Pipit • Alibangbang
• Tinikling • Alembong
• Tunay na Tunay • Galawgaw
• Itik-Itik • Caprichosa
• Waray-waray • Ang tapis ni Inday
• Pitong Gatang • Dungawin mo hirang
• Ako ay may Singsing • Umaga na Neneng
• Ikaw Kasi
He composed Nationalistic Songs:
• Ang Bagong Lipunan
• Lupang Pangarap
• Tinig ng Bayan
Ernani Joson Cuenco (May 10, 1936-July
12, 1988)
Ernani Joson Cuenco (May 10, 1936-July
12, 1988)
• National Artist of the Philippines for Music in 1999
• A prolific Filipino composer, film scorer, musical director
and music teacher.
• UST music graduate in piano and cello, he taught in the
same university for decades until his death.
• Outstanding works that resonate with the Filipino sense
of musicality, include Nahan, Kahit na Magtiis, Diligin
mo ng hamog ang Uhaw na lupa, Pilipinas, Inang
Bayan, Isang dalangin, Kalesa, Bato sa Buhangin and
Gaano Kita Kamahal
Ernani Joson Cuenco (May 10, 1936-July
12, 1988)
• He played with the Filipino Youth Symphony
Orchestra and the Manila Symphony
Orchestra from 1960 to 1968 and the Manila
Chamber Soloists from 1966 to 1970.
Felipe Padilla De Leon (May 1, 1912-
November 2, 1992)
Felipe Padilla De Leon (May 1, 1912-
November 2, 1992)
• National Artist of the Philippines for Music in 1997
• He was a Filipino composer wo wrote the patriotic song “Awit sa
Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas” (Hymn of the Birth of the New
Philippines) known by its first line “Tindig aking inang bayan”.
Intended to replace “Lupang hinirang” (Philippine National Hymn) as
the national anthem, it was sung by the members of the
• However, it expressed sentiments against the Japanese at that time.
• It was again used during the Martial Law period as the secondary
national anthem. Finally it assumed the title “Tindig Uring Anak -
pawis”, sung by the members of the New People’s Army.
•(9 February 1941 – 19 September 2014)
was a Filipino composer and conductor.
He was a National Artist of the
Philippines for Music
National of the Phillipines for music in 2014. Feliciano
“contributed to the awareness of people globally, to view the
Asian and Philippine culture, as a rich source of inspiration and
a celebration of our ethnicity. He elaveted the Filipino artistry
into one that is highly esteemed by t6he people all over the
World. His major works are “Ashen Wings,” “Sikhay sa Kabila ng
Paalam,” “La Loba Negra,” “Yerma,” “Pamugun,” and “Pokpok