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# External Flows

CEE 331
December 29, 2017
School of Civil and
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk Environmental Engineering
Overview

## The Fss connection to Drag

Boundary Layer Concepts
Drag
Shear Drag
Pressure Drag
Pressure Gradients: Separation and Wakes
Drag coefficients
Vortex Shedding
Fss: Shear and Pressure Forces
U

## Shear forces: Major losses in pipes

viscous drag, frictional drag, or skin friction
caused by shear between the fluid and the solid
surface
function of ___________and
surface area length object
______of
Pressure forces U
Flow
expansion
pressure drag or form drag
losses
caused by _____________from
flow separation the body
function of area normal to the flow Projected area
Non-Uniform Flow

##  In pipes and channels the velocity distribution was

uniform (beyond a few pipe diameters or
hydraulic radii from the entrance or any flow
disturbance)
 In external flows the boundary layer (the flow
influenced by the solid object) is always growing
and the flow is non-uniform
 We need to calculate shear in this non-uniform
flow!
Boundary Layer Concepts

##  Two flow regimes

 Laminar boundary layer
 Turbulent boundary layer
 with laminar sub-layer
 Calculations of
 boundary layer thickness
 Shear (as a function of location on the surface)
 Viscous Drag (by integrating the shear over the entire
surface)
Flat Plate: Parallel to Flow
U U U
to boundary
layer
y thickness
U d
x
shear

## Why is shear maximum at the leading edge of

the plate? du
is maximum
dy
Laminar Boundary Layer:
Shear and Drag Force
d 5 Ux x
 Re x  d 5
x Re x  U
square
Boundary Layer thickness increases with the _______
root of the distance from the leading edge of the plate
______
Based on momentum and mass
U 3
t 0  0.332 conservation and assumed
x velocity distribution
U 3
l l
Fd  w t 0 dx  w 0.332 dx Integrate along length of plate
0 0 x

## Fd  0.664w U 3l On one side of the plate!

Laminar Boundary Layer:
Coefficient of Drag
2Fd
Fd  0.664w U l 3
Cd   f (Re)
U A
2

Cd 
U 2lw

## 1.328w U 3l 1.328  Cd 

1.328
Cd  Cd 
Ul Rel
U 2lw
Ul
Rel 

Transition to Turbulence

## The boundary layer becomes turbulent when

the Reynolds number is approximately
500,000 (based on length of the plate)
The length scale that really controls the
transition to turbulence is the
boundary layer thickness
_________________________

Ud Red d d 5 Red  5 Re x
Re x 
Ux
Red   = 
  Re x x x Re x
Red = 3500
Transition to Turbulence
U U U
d

y turbulent
U
x
Viscous
sublayer
to This slope (du/dy) controls t0.

## Transition (analogy to pipe flow)

Turbulent Boundary Layer:
(Smooth Plates)
1/ 5
d 0.37 Ux  
 1/ 5 Re x  d  0.37 x  4/5

x Re x  U 
Grows ____________
more rapidly than laminar
1/ 5
  Derived from momentum conservation
t 0  0.029 U  
2

##  Ux  and assumed velocity distribution

x 5/4
1/ 5
l
 
Fd  w t 0 dx  0.036 U wl  
2
Integrate shear over plate
0  Ul 
2Fd  
Cd  0.072Rel1/ 5 5 x 105 < Rel < 107 Cd   f  Re, 
U A
2
 l
Boundary Layer Thickness
 Water flows over a flat plate at 1 m/s. How long is the laminar region?
0.02 2,000,000
1/ 5 laminar
 
0.018 d  0.37 x 4/5
  turbulent 1,800,000
 
U  Reynolds Number Ux
Re x 
boundary layer thickness (m) .

0.016 1,600,000

0.014 1,400,000 

Reynolds Number
0.012 1,200,000
 Re x
x
0.01 x 1,000,000

0.008
d 5 800,000
U
U
1x10 6 m 2 / s(500,000)
0.006 600,000 x
0.004 400,000
1m / s

## 0.002 200,000 x = 0.5 m

0 -
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
length along plate (m) Grand Coulee
Flat Plate Drag Coefficients
2.5
Cd f  1.89  1.62log   / l   rough
0.01
1 x 10-3
1.328 5 x 10-4
Cd f 
 Rel  2 x 10-4
0.5
1 x 10-4 e
laminar 5 x 10-5
2 x 10-5 l
1 x 10-5
Cd f 5 x 10-6
2 x 10-6
1 x 10-6
0.455 1700
transitional Cd f  
Cd f  0.072Rel0.2
log  Rel  
2.58
Rel
0.001
0.455
Cd f 

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log  Rel  
2.58

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Ul
Rel  Turbulent boundary

Example: Solar Car

##  Solar cars need to be as efficient as

possible. They also need a large surface
area for the (smooth) solar array. Estimate
the power required to counteract the
viscous drag on the solar panel at 40 mph
 Dimensions: L: 5.9 m W: 2 m H: 1 m
 Max. speed: 40 mph on solar power alone
 Solar Array: 1200 W peak
air = 14.6 x10-6 m2/s air = 1.22 kg/m3
Viscous Drag on Ships

## The viscous drag on ships can be calculated

by assuming a flat plate with the wetted
area and length of the ship
Fd  Fd f  Fwave 0.01

2Fd Cd U 2 A
Cd 
0.001

Fd f 

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U 2 A

10

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2

10
Ul
Rel 

Lr3 (based on _______
Fwave scales with ____ Froude similarity)
U

## Separation often occurs at sharp corners

fluid can’t accelerate to go around a sharp
corner
Velocities in the Wake are ______
small (relative
to the free stream velocity)
Pressure in the Wake is relatively ________
constant
(determined by the pressure in the adjacent
flow)
and Wakes

Diverging streamlines

## Van Dyke, M. 1982. An Album of Fluid Motion. Stanford:

Parabolic Press.
Streamlines diverge behind object
Increasing pressure in direction of flow
p V2
Fluid is being decelerated z C
 2g
Fluid in boundary layer has less ______
inertia
than the main flow and may be completely
stopped.
If boundary layer stops flowing then
separation occurs
Point of Separation

## Predicting the point of separation on smooth

bodies is beyond the scope of this course.
Expect separation to occur where
streamlines are diverging (flow is slowing
down)
Separation can be expected to occur around
any sharp corners
(where streamlines diverge rapidly)
Flat Plate:
Streamlines

3
 
v2  p  p0 
U Cp  1  2
2 2 
 U 
2
4 U
0 1 Point v Cp p
1 ______
0 Cp = 1
________ ____
>p0
2 ______
<U ________
0 < Cp < 1 ____ >p0
3 ______
>U ________
Cp < 0 ____
<p0
<U ________
4 ______ Cp < 0 ____
<p0
Points outside boundary layer!
p in wake is uniform
Application of Bernoulli
Equation
p1 v12 p2 v22 In air pressure change due to
 z1    z2 
 2g  2g elevation is small
2 2
p0 U p v
   U = velocity of body relative to fluid
 2g  2g
U2 v2 p p0
  
2g 2g  

v2  p  p0 
1  2  2 2 
  Cp
U  U 
Flat Plate:
Pressure Distribution
    U 2C p

 C p  2 0
2
 2 0
v p p p p
Cp  1  p  p0
2  2 
U   U 
2
U  2
>U 3
Fd  Fd front  Fd rear

## <U 2 Front of plate Fd   p front  prear A

U 2
0 1
Back of plate

Fd  C p front
 Cp rear
 2
A

U 2
Fd  0.8  1.2 A
2
1 0.8 0 Cp -1 -1.2 Cd = 2
Drag Coefficient of Blunt and
Streamlined Bodies
 Drag dominated by viscous
drag, the body is __________.
streamlined
 Drag dominated by pressure
drag, the body is _______.
bluff
 Whether the flow is viscous-
drag dominated or pressure-
drag dominated depends Flat plate

## entirely on the shape of the

body. 2Fd
Cd 
U 2 A
 This drag coefficient is
calculated from a measured
Fss
value of ____
Bicycle page at Princeton
Drag Coefficient at High
Reynolds Numbers
Figures 9.28-9.30 bodies with drag
coefficients on p 593-595 in text.
hemispherical shell 0.38
Why?
hemispherical shell 1.42
Velocity at
cube 1.1 separation point
parachute 1.4 determines pressure
in wake.

Vs ? The same!!!
2 Drag
SUVs have got Drag… Cd 
U 2 A

Cd U 2 A
Ford Explorer 2002 Cd = 0.41 Drag 
2
Automobile Drag Coefficients
(High Reynolds Number)
Cd = 0.32
Height = 1.539 m
Width = 1.775 m
Length = 4.351 m
Ground clearance = 15 cm
100 kW at 6000 rpm
Max speed is 124 mph
Where does separation occur?
Calculate the power required to overcome drag at 60 mph and 120 mph.
What is the projected area? A   H  G W
A  1.539m  0.15m 1.775m  2.5m2
Electric Vehicles

## Electric vehicles are designed to minimize drag.

Typical cars have a coefficient drag of 0.30-0.40.
The EV1 has a drag coefficient of 0.19.
Smooth connection to windshield

## Plan view of car?

Velocity and Drag: Spheres

 
Cd  f  , Re, M, shape, orientation  General relationship for
D  submerged objects
Spheres only have one shape and orientation!

2Fd
Cd 
U 2 A

2Fd Cd U 2 A
 Cd  f  Re  Fd  Where Cd is a function of Re
U A
2
2
Sphere Terminal Fall Velocity
 p  particle volume
 F  ma Fb Ap  particle cross sectional area
Fd  Fb  W  0 ρ p  particle density
Fd
W  ppg ρw  water density
Fb   p  w g g  acceleration due to gravity
C D  drag coefficient
Vt 2
Fd  Cd AP  w Vt  particle terminal velocity
2
W 2Fd
4
 p  r 3
Ap  r 2
Cd 
3 U 2 A
Sphere Terminal Fall Velocity
(continued)
Fd  W  Fb

Vt 2
Cd AP  w   p (  p  w ) g
2
2 p (  p   w ) g
Vt  2 General equation for falling objects
Cd AP  w
p 2
 d Relationship valid for spheres
Ap 3

4 gd   p   w  4 gd   p   w 
Vt 
2
Vt 
3 Cd w 3 Cd w
Drag Coefficient on a Sphere
1000
Drag Coefficient

## 100 Stokes Law

10

0.1
0.1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 107
24 Re=500000
Cd  Reynolds Number
Re
Turbulent Boundary Layer
Drag Coefficient for a Sphere:
Terminal Velocity Equations
4 gd   p   w 
Valid for laminar and turbulent Vt 
3 Cd w

24 d 2 g  p   w 
Laminar flow R < 1 Cd  Vt 
Re 18
Transitional flow 1 < R < 104
gd   p   w 
Fully turbulent flow R > 104 Cd  0.4 Vt 
0.3 w
Vt d 
Re 

Example Calculation of Terminal
Velocity
Determine the terminal settling velocity of a
cryptosporidium oocyst having a diameter of 4 m
and a density of 1.04 g/cm3 in water at 15°C.
ρ p  1040 kg/m 3 d 2 g  p   w 
Vt 
ρw  999 kg/m 3 18

g  9.81 m/s 2
Vt 
4x10 6
m  9.81 m/s 2 1040 kg/m 3  999 kg/m 3 
2

 3 kg

 
d  4x10 6 m 181.14x10
 sm

kg
  1.14x10 3 Vt  3.14 x107 m/s
sm
Vt  2.7 cm/day
Reynolds
Drag on a Golf Ball

##  Drag on a golf ball comes mainly from pressure

drag. The only practical way of reducing
pressure drag is to design the ball so that the
point of separation moves back further on the
ball.
 The golf ball's dimples increase the turbulence
inertia of
in the boundary layer, increase the _______
the boundary layer, and delay the onset of
separation.
 What is the Reynolds number where the
boundary layer begins to become turbulent with
a golf ball? _________
40,000
 Why not use this for aircraft or cars?
Boundary layer is already turbulent
At what velocity is the boundary
layer laminar for an automobile?
Ul m2
Rel   air  1.5 x10 5

 s
 Rel l  4m
U
l
Rel  500,000

 5 m 
2

## 1.5 x10 s   500000 

U   1.9m / s  6.8km / hr
 4m 
Effect of Turbulence Levels on
Drag
Flow over a sphere with a trip wire.
Causes boundary layer to become turbulent

Re=15,000 Re=30,000

Point of separation
Effect of Boundary Layer
Transition
Ideal (non Real (viscous) Real (viscous)
viscous) fluid fluid: laminar fluid: turbulent
boundary layer boundary layer

Increased inertia in
No shear!
boundary layer
Spinning Spheres

## What happens to the separation points if

we start spinning the sphere?
LIFT!
Vortex Shedding

##  Vortices are shed alternately

from each side of a cylinder
 The separation point and thus the
resultant drag force oscillates nd
S
 Frequency of shedding (n) given U
by Strouhal number S
 S is approximately 0.2 over a
wide range of Reynolds numbers
(100 - 1,000,000)
Summary: External Flows

##  Spatially varying flows

 boundary layer growth
 Example: Spillways
 Two sources of drag (Fss)
 shear (surface area of object)
 pressure (projected area of object)
 Separation and Wakes
 Interaction of viscous drag and adverse pressure
Cd U 2 A
Challenge Drag 
2

## I’m going on vacation and I can’t back all

of our luggage in my Matrix. Should I put it
on the roof rack or on the hitch?
Cd U 2 A
Drag 
Challenges 2

## How long would L have to be to double the

drag of a sphere?
L

## V=30 m/s D=3m

Cd U 2 A
Drag 
Challenges 2

2
6m
  14.6 10
How long would L have to be s
V D
to double the drag of a sphere? Re 

6
V=30 m/s L D=3m Re  6.164  10
0.01
Find drag of sphere
Guess at Re for plate
Find drag coefficient for plate
(note different area)
Solve for L 0.001

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Elongated sphere

## V=30 m/s L D=3m

2 Drag
A 
2
C.dplate   V C.dsphere  0.2
2 Drag
L 
2
C.dplate   V   D
C.dplate  0.003
2 2
C.dsphere   V   D
2  C.dsphere   V   D
2 2 Drag 
L 
  8
2
8C.dplate   V   D

C.dsphere D
L  L  50 m
4C.dplate
Solution: Solar Car
0.455
Cd f  Rx 
Ul
U = 17.88 m/s
log  Rel 
2.58

2Fd l = 5.9 m
Cd 
0.01

C d U 2 A
0.001

## Fd  air = 1.22 kg/m3

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2
6
Fd 2
 3 3
x10 1.22 kg 3
/ m 17.88m / s 11.88m  Re
2
l = 7.2 x 10 2

2
Cd = 3 x 10-3
Fd =14 N A = 5.9 m x 2 m = 11.8 m2
P =F*U=250 W
Reynolds Number Check
Vd
R

R
3.14 x10 7
m/s 4 x10 6 m 999kg/m 3 
3 kg
1.14x10
sm
R = 1.1 x 10-6

## R<<1 and therefore in Stokes Law range

Solution: Power a Toyota Matrix
at 60 or 120 mph
2Fd
Cd   f (Re)
U A
2

Cd U 2 A
Fd 
2

C d U 3 A
P
2
(0.32)(1.2kg / m3 )(26.82m / s)3 (2.5m 2 )
P
2
P = 9.3 kW at 60 mph
P = 74 kW at 120 mph
Grand Coulee Dam
Turbulent boundary layer reaches surface!
Reflections on Drag
0.01

##  What are 3 similarities with Moody

diagram?
 Laminar
 Smooth 0.001

 Rough

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 Why 2 curves for smooth (red and

10
green)
 Fully turbulent boundary layer Function of conditions
 Transition between laminar and turbulent on at leading edge
the plate
 Why more detail in transition region
here than in Moody diagram?
 Are any lines missing on the graph?
Drexel SunDragon IV
http://cbis.ece.drexel.edu/SunDragon/Cars.html
 Vehicle ID: SunDragon IV (# 76)
Dimensions: L: 19.2 ft. (5.9 m) W: 6.6 ft. (2 m) H: 3.3 ft. (1 m)
Weight: 550 lbs. (249 kg)
Solar Array: 1200 W peak; 8 square meters terrestrial grade solar cells;
manf: ASE Americas
Batteries: 6.2 kW capacity lead-acid batteries; manf: US Battery
Motor: 10 hp (7.5 kW) brushless DC; manf: Unique Mobility
Range: Approximately 200 miles (at 35 mph on batteries alone)
Max. speed: 40 mph on solar power alone, 80 mph on solar and battery
power.
Chassis: Graphite monocoque (Carbon fiber, Kevlar, structural glass,
Nomex)
Wheels: Three 26 in (66 cm) mountain bike, custom hubs
Brakes: Hydraulic disc brakes, regenerative braking (motor)