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FIRE SAFETY IN INDUSTRIAL

ESTABLISHMENTS

A.K.Sharma
Director
Delhi Fire Service
Industrial Core Sector
• Energy & Power

• Petroleum, Gas and Chemical

• Metals, Minerals and Steel

• Cement

• Coal
• Defence Production

• Telecom & IT

• Automobiles

• Textile

• And many more


• India is the second fastest growing economy
in the world. India’s GDP has touched
US$1.25 trillion.

• India is fourteenth in the world in


factory output.

• Manufacturing sector together


account for 29% of the GDP

• 56 Indian companies were listed in


the Forbes Global 2000 ranking for
2010. The 10 leading companies are:
LEADING TEN COMPANIES

WORLD COMPANY SECTOR WORLD COMPANY SECTOR


RANKING RANKING

121 Reliance Oil and gas 329 ICICI Bank Banking


industries operations

150 State bank of Banking 463 Tata Steel Materials


India

152 ONGC Oil and gas 508 Bharti Airtel Telecom


operations services

207 IOCL Oil and gas 582 SAIL Materials


operations

317 NTPC Utilities 689 Reliance Telecom


communicati services
on
Industrial Domain

• Storage (Raw Material - Solid,


Liquid, Gases)

• Process Plant & Machinery

• Utilities ( Power, Steam,


Nitrogen etc.)

• Finished Product

• People (Operation, Maintenance


and Supporting Staff)
Industrial Accidents
“Industrial Accidents are caused
by chemical, mechanical, civil,
electrical, or other process
failures due to accident,
negligence or incompetence, in
an industrial plant which may
spill over to the areas outside
the plant causing damage to life
and property.”
Industrial Accidents
These may originate in:
• Manufacturing and formulation installations
including during commissioning and process
operations; maintenance and disposal.
• Material handling and storage in
manufacturing facilities, and isolated
storages; warehouses and godowns
including tank farms in ports and docks and
fuel depots.
• Transportation (road, rail, air, water, and
pipelines).
Major Threats

• Fire

• Explosion

• Toxic release

• Poisoning

• Combinations of the above


PROBABLE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
• Process deviations i.e pressure,
temperature & flow.
• Parameters with regard to the state of
the substance i.e., solid, liquid or gas,
proximity to other toxic substances.
• Runaway reaction.
• Hardware failure, resulting in large-
scale spills of toxic substances.
• Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour
Explosion (BLEVE) on the chemicals
during transportation.
• Electrical failure
• Cutting and welding
• Open flame
• Carelessness
• Poor housekeeping
• Smoking
• Sabotage
COMPOUNDING OF EFFECTS OF
ACCIDENTS

• Meteorology of the area, wind speed


and direction, rate of precipitation,
toxicity/quantity of chemical released,
population in the reach of release,
probability of formation of lethal
mixtures and other industrial activities
in vicinity.
Impact of Industrial Accidents
Industrial Accidents

Living Organisms Environment Property

Immediate, Short-term
and Long-term Effects

Humans Livestock Plants Soil and Water Bodies Atmosphere

Death, Injury, Disease and Disability Pollution


Major Consequences

 Loss of life / injuries


 Impact on livestock
 Damage to Flora/fauna
 Environmental Impact (air, soil,water)
 Financial losses to industry.
FILXBOROUGH, 01.06.1974, UK
MEXICO CITY, 19.11.1984,
GASOLENE TANK FIRE- South
East Asia 2000
Bhopal Gas Tragedy
• Worst industrial disaster in history
• 2,000 people died on immediate
aftermath
• Another 13,000 died in next fifteen
years
• 10-15 persons dying every month
• 520,000 diagnosed chemicals in blood
causing different health complications
• 120,000 people still suffering from
– Cancer
– Tuberculosis
– Partial or complete blindness,
– Post traumatic stress disorders,
– Menstrual irregularities
• Rise in spontaneous abortion and
stillbirth
IOC JAIPUR - 2009

slide 20 Uran Plant


IOC JAIPUR - 2009

slide 21 Uran Plant


IOC JAIPUR - 2009

ENVIRONMENT !!!
Oil Rig Explosion
What could have prevented
these losses?
RISK CONTROL MEASURES

• Physical Protection
• Procedural Protection
• Educational Protection
Physical Protection
•Strict & Rigorous approach in
following the Relevant Standards ,
Codes & Practices
•Built in Safety Devices and Safety
System
•Venting through Tall stacks
•Field Monitors for Different Toxic
Gases
•Burning Waste gases in a Flare
System
•Provision of Wind Cones
•Fire Proofing of Steel Structures
•PPE
•Passive Protection System
•Active Protection system
•Automatic Protection system
PROCEDURAL PROTECTION
•Fire Emergency Procedure
•Disaster Preparedness Plan
•Mutual Aid Scheme
•No Smoking Policy
•Investigation of All Accidents
•Hazard Identification through Safety
Committee, House Keeping Committee, Safety
audit Committee
•Conducting Plant Survey, safety survey
•Work Permit System
Contd.

• Safety promotional activities


• Information notes on unsafe
conditions
• MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet
• Annual Medical Check up of
Employees
• Safe Start up & Shut Down
Procedure
• Regular and Preventive Maintenance
• Periodic testing of Fire Fighting
Appliances
EDUCATIONAL PROTECTION
•Periodic Training Program on Safety,
Fire Safety and Hazardous properties of
materials
•Mock Fire Drill
•Safety Manuals
•Health & Safety News Bulletins, leaflets
•Safety Motivation schemes
•Plant Operating Manual
•Educating the Public Living nearby
about the activities in the industry
Thank you