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INTRODUCTION

The introduction leads the reader from a


general subject area to a particular topic of
inquiry, by summarizing current understanding
and background information about the topic.
INTRODUCTION
 How will this new study advance new
knowledge or new ways of understanding?

 Why is the topic important to investigate?


PROBLEM STATEMENT
A research problem is a definite or
clear expression about an area of concern

 a condition to be improved upon


 a difficulty to be eliminated
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Statements of desired outcomes,


or the general intentions of
the research study
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
S
M
A
R
T
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Your study should have a value not only to yourself but also
to the community, the respondents and has an impact on
your field of specialization.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Why is your study important?

To whom is it important?

What benefit(s) may occur if your study is done?


SCOPE AND LIMITATION

Defines where and when the study was conducted and who
the subjects were, this also establishes the boundaries of
the study.
RELATED STUDIES

◉Also called as “Review of Related Literatures”

◉Survey books, scholarly articles, and any other sources


relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory
RELATED STUDIES

The purpose of a literature review is to:


•Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
•Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
•Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory
previous studies.
•Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
RELATED STUDIES

“ YOU CANNNOT CRAM YOUR


RELATED LITERATURE”
Playing with your
data; Quick Guide for
Data Analysis
HELLO!
Engr. John Paolo A. Isip
Industrial Engineer, Research Fellow
Before you Analyze;

- Identify your Research Method (Qualitative, Quantitative, Triangular).

- Establish your Conceptual Model.

- Construct your Research Indstrument.


Conceptual Model
Entity Relationship Model 1
Conceptual Models

Dependency Model
Input-Process-Output
ANOVA
Constructing your
Instrument
2

What comes in your mind when you
hear the word,

Research?
Survey?
Characteristics of an Effective Survey

•measurable survey objectives


•sound research design
•effective survey question design
•sound sampling strategy, when needed
•effective survey response strategy
•meaningful data summary
•effective data display and reporting.
Main Parts of a Survey;

Demographics

Questions
Main Parts of a Survey;
Demographics

Questions
-Open Ended
-Closed Ended
-Both
Sampling
3
IE Sampling Method

Purposive

Qouta

Slovin’s
Data Analysis
4
What is Data Analysis?


Data Analysis is the process of
systematically applying
statistical and/or logical
techniques to describe and
illustrate, condense and recap,
and evaluate data.
Data Analysis Tools

Descriptive Statistics
- Frequency Table
- Mean, Median, Mode

Inferential Statistics
- Sample Z,T, proportion
- Paired Samples
- Chi-Square
Lets Differenciate !

Z-TestVS
Kurtosis
Mean VSSkewness
VS T-Test
Median
Common
Basic misconception,
Rules!

Test
Sample
Null comes
Never doubt“
of Hypothesis
tests are not
is commonly
first before
to validate ANOVA
same withused
the Obvious
Alternative
and compare means
THANKS!
Any questions?
You can find me at
@thejpisip / paoloisip7@gmail.com
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section should set out your key experimental results,


including any statistical analysis and whether or not the
results of these are significant.

Should cover any literature supporting your interpretation


of significance
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Top Tips
Summarize your results in the text, drawing on the figures
and tables to illustrate your points.
The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat
the same information. You should refer to every table or
figure in the text. Any that you don’t feel the need to refer to
can safely be moved to an appendix, or even removed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section has four purposes, it should:


oInterpret and explain your results
oAnswer your research question
oJustify your approach
oCritically evaluate your study
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Discussion Section needs to follow from your results


and relate back to your literature review. Make sure that
everything you discuss is covered in the results section.
RECCOMENDATION
When preparing this section, remember that in making your
recommendations, you must show how your results support
them. A recommendation for a preferred alternative should
include:
1. Specifically stating what should be done, the steps
required to implement the policy, and the resources
needed;
2. Discussion of the benefits to the organization and what
problems would be corrected or avoided;
3. Discussion of the feasibility of the proposed policy;
4. General statement about the nature and timing of an
evaluation plan that would be used to determine the
effectiveness of the proposed policy.
CONCLUSION

When writing a conclusion, you should try to answer a few


questions, as concisely as possible.

Some of these are answered in your discussion, but the key


is to leave some questions that another researcher can
expand upon for their research project.