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Garis-garis Besar Perkuliahan

1. Sistem Persamaan Linier


2. Matriks dan Operasinya
3. Determinan dan Sifat-sifatnya
UTS
4. Ruang Vektor
5. Basis dan Dimensi
6. Ruang Hasil Kali Dalam
7. Transformasi Linier
UTS
8. Matriks Transformasi Linier
9. Keserupaan
10. Nilai Eigen dan Vektor Eigen
11. Diagonalisasi
1
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS
Content

6.1 Linear Transformations

6.2 Matrix Transformations

6.3 Kernel and Range

6.4 Transformations and Systems of Linear Equations

6.5 Matrix Representations of Linear Transformations

3
6.1 Linear Transformation
Definition
Let U and V be vector spaces. Let u and v be vectors
in U and let c be a scalar. A transformation T : U
V is said to be linear if
T(u + v) = T(u) + T(v)
T(c u) = c T(u)

U V

5
Example 1
Prove that the following transformation T: R2 R2 is linear.
T(x, y) = (x y, 3x)
Solution
Let (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) be vectors in R2.
T((x1, y1) + (x2, y2)) = T(x1 + x2, y1 + y2) (vector addition)
= (x1 + x2 y1 y2, 3x1 + 3x2) (definition of T)
= (x1 y1, 3x1) + (x2 y2, 3x2) (vector addition)
= T(x1, y1) + T(x2, y2) (definition of T)
Thus T preserves vector addition.

T(c(x1, y1)) = T(cx1, cy1) = (cx1 cy1, 3cx1) = c(x1 y1, 3x1)
= cT(x1, y1)
Thus T preserves scalar multiplication.
T is linear.

6
Example 2
Show that the following transformation T: R3 R2 is not linear.
T(x, y, z) = (xy, z)
Solution
Let (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2 , z2) be vectors in R3.
T((x1, y1, z1) + (x2, y2 , z2)) = T(x1 + x2, y1 + y2, z1 + z2)
= ((x1 + x2 )( y1 + y2), z1 + z2)
= (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x1 y2 + x2 y1, z1 + z2)
and
T(x1, y1, z1) + T(x2, y2 , z2)) = (x1y1, z1) + (x2 y2 , z2)
= (x1 y1 + x2 y2, z1 + z2)
Thus, in general
T((x1, y1, z1) + (x2, y2 , z2)) T(x1, y1, z1) + T(x2, y2 , z2))
Since vector addition is not preserved, T is not linear.

7
Example 3

Let Pn be the vector space of real polynomial functions of degree n.


Show that the following transformation T: P2 P1 is linear.
T(ax2 + bx + c) = (a + b) x + c
Solution
Let ax2 + bx + c and px2 + qx + r be arbitrary elements of P2.
T((ax2 + bx + c) + (px2 + qx + r))
= T((a + p)x2 + (b + q)x + (c + r)) By vector addition
= (a + p + b + q) x + (c + r) By definition of T
= (a + b) x + c + (p + q) x + r
=T(ax2 + bx + c) + T(px2 + qx + r)) By definition of T

Thus T preserves addition.

8
Example 3

Let k be a scalar.
T(k(ax2 + bx + c)) = T(kax2 + kbx + kc) By multiplication
= (ka + kb) x + kc By definition of T
= k((a + b) x + c)
=kT(ax2 + bx + c)
By definition of T

Hence T also preserves scalar multiplication.

Therefore, T is a linear transformation.


9
Example 4

Let D be the operation of taking the derivative. D can be


interpreted as a mapping of Pn into itself.

For example, D(4x3 3x2 2x 1) 12x2 6x 2.


D maps the element 4 x 3 3x 2 2 x 1 of P3 into 12 x 2 6 x 2 of P3 .
Let f and g be elements of Pn and c be a scalar. Then
D( f g ) Df Dg
D(cf ) cD( f )
The derivation thus preserves addition and scalar
multiplication of functions. It is a linear transformation.

10
Theorem 6.1.1
Let A be an m n matrix. Let x be a vector in Rn, interpreted as a
column matrix. The transformation T: Rn Rm, defined by T(x) = Ax, is
linear. Such a linear transformation is called a matrix transformation.

Proof
Let x and y be vectors in Rn, written as column matrices, and c be a
scalar.
T (x y ) A(x y )
Ax Ay
T ( x) T ( y ) Addition is preserved.
T (cx) A(cx)
cAx Scalar multiplication is
cT (x) preserved.
Thus the transformation is linear.

11
Example 5
Consider the linear transformation T defined by the following 3 2
matrix A. Find the image of an arbitrary vector under T, and use this
result to determine the image of the given vector x.
1 1
A 0 2 x 5
1
1 3
Solution
Since A is a 3 2 matrix, it defines a linear transformation T: R2R3.
We get 1 1 x y

T 0 2 2 y
x x
y 1 3 y x 3 y

Letting x = 5, y = 1 we get
6
5
T
2
2
1

12
Example 5

R2 R3
x x y
2y
y x 3 y

5 6
1 2
2
T

13
Composition of Transformations

U V W

The composite transformation T = T2 T1 of T1 and T2. T(x) = T2(T1(x)).

14
Example 6

Find the T2 T1 of the transformations T1(x, y) = (3x, x + y)


and T2(x, y) = (2x, y). Determine the image of (2, 3).

Solution
We get

T2 T1 ( x, y) T2 (T1 ( x, y)) T2 (3x, x y) (6 x, x y)

The image of (2, 3) is T2 T1 (2, 3) (12, 1).

15
Theorem 6.1.2
The composite of two linear transformation is itself a linear
transformation.

Proof
Let U, V and W be vector spaces and T1: U V, T2: V W be linear
transformations. Let u and v be vectors in U and c be a scalar. We use
the linearity of T1 and T2 to get

T2 T1 (u v) T2 (T1 (u v)) T2 (T1 (u) T1 ( v))


T2 (T1 (u)) T2 (T1 ( v)) T2 T1 (u) T2 T1 ( v)
T2 T1 (cu) T2 (T1 (cu)) T2 (cT1 (u)) cT2 (T1 (u)) cT2 T1 (u)

Thus T2 T1 is linear.

If T1 (x) A1x and T2 (x) A2 x, then T2 T1 (x) A2 A1x

16
Non-commutative Composition
Scale then Translate: p' = T(S(p)) = (TS)(p)
(5,3)
Scale(2,2) (2,2) Translate(3,1)
(1,1) (3,1)
(0,0) (0,0)

Translate then Scale: p' = S(T(p)) = (ST)(p)


(8,4)
Translate(3,1) (4,2) Scale(2,2)
(1,1) (6,2)
(3,1)
(0,0)

17
Example 7
Let T1(x) = A1x and T2(x) = A2x be defined by the following
matrices A1 and A2. Let T = T2 T1. Find the image of the vector
x under T. 1
A1 3 0 1 A2 1 2 x 4
4 2 0 4 0
2
Solution

T is defined by the product matrix A2A1. We get

A2 A1 1 2 3 0 1 5 4 1
4 0 4 2 0 12 0 4
Thus 1 23
T (x) 5 4 1 4
12 0 4 2 4

18
6.2 Matrix Transformation
Rotation about the Origin

20
Matrix Representation of Rotation
x ' r cos( )
r cos cos r sin sin
x cos y sin
y ' r sin( )
r sin cos r cos sin
y cos x sin
x' x cos sin x
Thus, ' T (a linear transformation)
y y sin c os y
Note tha t is positive for counterclockwise rotation,
negative for a clockwise rotation.

21
Matrix Representation
Let T: Rn Rm be a linear transformation. Consider the
standard basis S = {e1, e2, , en} for Rn as the set of column
matrices. Then for any vector v in Rn can be uniquely
written as
v = v1e1 + v2e2 + + vnen.
Since T is linear,
T(v) = T(v1 e1 + + vn en ) = v1 T(e1) + + vn T(en)
= [ T(e1) T(en) ] [v1 vn] t
The linear transformation T is then defined by the matrix
A = [ T(e1) T(en) ]
A is called the standard matrix of T.
22
Example 1
2x y
Determine the standard matrix of T
x
.

y 3 y
Solution
We find the effect of T on the standard basis.
1 2 0 1
T , T

0 0
1 3
These matrices are the columns of the standard matrix A.

A 2 1
0 3
Hence T can be written as a matrix transformation:
x
T 2 1
x
y 0 3 y
23
Dilation and Contraction
x x
Let T : R R be defined by T r , where r is a scalar.
2 2

y y
If r > 1, then T moves the points outward from the origin; it is called a
dilation of factor r. If 0 < r < 1, then T moves points inward toward the
origin; it is called a contraction of factor r.

Defined by
r 0
0 r

r > 1, dilation 0 < r < 1, contraction

24
Reflection
x x
Let T : R R be defined by T that maps a point into its
2 2

y y
mirror image in the x axis. T is called a reflection.

1 0
Defined by
0 1

reflection in x axis

25
Example 2
Determine the matrix that describes a reflection in the x axis, following
by a rotation through /2, followed by a dilation of factor 3.
Find the image of the point 4
under this sequence of mappings. 1
Solution
The matrices that define the reflection, rotation, and dilation are,
respectively,
1 0 cos( / 2) sin( / 2) 3 0
, ,
0 1 sin( / 2 ) cos( / 2) 0 3

The composite mapping is thus defined by the single product matrix.


3 0 cos( / 2) sin( / 2) 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 0

0 3 sin( / 2) cos( / 2) 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 1
0 3

4 0 3 4 3 3 0
The image of the point is .
1 3 0 1 12

26
Transformations Defined by Invertible
Matrices

An invertible transformation is a mapping T: Rn Rn defined by


T(u) = Au
where A is a invertible matrix.

Theorem 6.3
An invertible linear transformation T maps
(a) lines into lines.
(b) segments of lines into segments of lines.
(c) parallel lines into parallel lines.
(d) lines through the origin into lines through the origin.

27
Example 3
Consider the transformation T: R2 R2 defined by
A 4 2.
2 3
Determine the image of the unit square under this transformation.

Solution
The unit square in R2 is the square whose vertices are,
respectively, the points
1 1 0 0
P , Q , R , O
0 1 1 0
Let us compute the images of these points under the
transformation. It is convenient to use the notation u Au to
discuss the images of specific points. Multiplying each point by
the matrix, we get P P Q Q R R O O
1 4 1 6 0 2 0 0

0 2 1 5 1 3 0 0

28
Example 3
Further, A (4 3) (2 2) 8 0. The matrix A is invertible, thus
line segments are mapped into line segments. We get
OP OP PQ PQ QR QR OR OR
The square PQRO is transformed into the parallelogram
PQRO.

29
Example 4
Let T be the orthogonal transformation defined by the following
orthogonal matrix A. Show that T preserve norms, and distances for the
vectors u and v. 1 1 2 3
A 1 1 , u , v
2 2

2 2 0 4
Solution
7
2 2
T (u) Au and T ( v) Av 1
2
2
u T (u) 2 and v T ( v) 5.
The angle between u and v is equal to the angle between T (u) and T ( v).
This angle is 53.13.
2 3 2
7
2
d , d , 1 17.
0 4 2 2

30
Translations

A translation is a transformation

T: Rn Rn defined by

T(u) = u + v

where v is a fixed vector.

31
Example 4

Find the equation of the image of the line y = 2x + 3 under the


translation
x x
T .
2
y y 1
Solution
The equation y = 2x + 3 describes points on the line of slope 2
and y intercept 3. T will slide this line into another line. We
want to find the equation of this image line. We get
x x 2 x 2 x 2 x
T
y y 1 2 x 3 1 2 x 4 y
We see that y = 2x for the image point. Thus the equation of
the image line is y = 2x.

32
6.3 Kernel and Range
Theorem 6.3.1
Let T: U V be a linear transformation. Let 0V and 0U be
the zero vectors of U and V. Then
T(0U) = 0V
That is, a linear transformation maps a zero vector into
zero vector.

Proof
Let u be a vector in U and let T(u) = v.
Let 0 be the zero scalar. Since 0u = 0U and 0v = 0V and T is
linear, we get
T(0U) = T(0u) = 0T(u) = 0v = 0V

34
Definition
Let T: U V be a linear transformation.
The set of vectors in U that are mapped into the zero
vector of V is called the kernel of T. The kernel is denoted
ker(T).
The set of vectors in V that are the images of vectors in U is
called image (range) of T. The image is denoted im(T).

35
Theorem 6.3.2

Let T: U V be a linear transformation.


(a) The kernel of T is a subspace of U.
(b) The image of T is a subspace of V.

36
Example 1
Find the kernel and image of the linear operator
T(x, y, z) = (x, y, 0)
Solution
Kernel: ker(T) is the subset that is mapped into (0, 0, 0).
T(x, y, z) = (x, y, 0)
= (0, 0, 0), if x = 0, y = 0
Thus ker(T) is the set of all vectors of the form (0, 0, z). We write
this as
ker(T) = {(0, 0, z)}
Geometrically, ker(T) is the set of all vectors that lie on the z axis.
Image: The image of T is the set of all vectors of the form (x, y, 0).
im(T) = {(x, y, 0)}
Geometrically, im(T) is the set of all vectors that lie in the xy-
plane.

37
Example 1

Projection T(x, y, z) = (x, y, 0)

38
Theorem 6.3.3

The image of T: Rn Rm, defined by T(u) = Au, is spanned


by the column vectors of A.
Proof
Let v be a vector in the image. There exist a vector u such
that T(u) = v. Express u in terms of the standard basis of Rn.
u = a1e1 + + anen
Thus
v = T(a1e1 + + anen) = a1T(e1) + + anT(en)
Therefore, the column vectors of A, namely, T(e1), , T(en),
span the image of A.

39
Example 2
Determine the kernel and the image of the transformation
defined by the following matrix.
1 2 3
A 0 1 1
Solution 1 1 4

A is a 3 3 matrix. Thus A defines a linear operator T: R3R3
with
T(x) = A(x).
Kernel:
1 2 3 x1 0 x1 2 x2 3 x3 0 x1 5r
0 1 1 x2 0 x2 x3 0 x2 r
1 1 4 x 0 x1 x2 4 x3 0 x3 r
3
The kernel is the set of vectors of the form (-5r, r, r).
ker(T) = {(-5r, r, r)}
Thus ker(T) is a one-dimensional subspace of R3 with basis (-5, 1, 1).
40
Example 2
Range: The image is spanned by the column vectors of A.

1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
3 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0

The vectors (1, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1) span the image of T. An arbitrary


vector in the image will be a linear combination of these vectors.
s(1, 0, 1) + t(0, 1, 1)
Thus the image of T is
im(T) = {(s, t, s + t)}
Thus im(T) is a two-dimensional subspace of R3 with basis {(1,0,1),
(0,1,1)}.

41
Theorem 6.3.4
Let T: U V be a linear transformation. Then
dim ker(T) + dim im(T) = dim domain(T)
Example 3
Find the dimensions of the kernel and image of the linear
transformation T defined by the matrix
1 0 3


A 0 1 5


Solution 0 0 0
Observe that A is in row echelon form. The nonzero row vectors
are linearly independent. Thus rank(A) = 2, implying that
dim im(T) = 2.
The domain of T is R3; dim domain(T) = 3.
Therefore, dim ker(T) = 1.

42
One-to-one Transformation

A transformation T is said to be one-to-one if each element


in the image of T corresponds to just one element in the
domain of T. This means that T is one-to-one if T(u) = T(v)
implies that u = v.

one-to-one not one-to-one

43
Theorem 6.3.5
A linear transformation T is one-to-one if and only if the
kernel is the zero vector space.
Proof
(1) Assume that T is one-to-one. The kernel consists of all vectors
that are mapped into zero. Since T is one-to-one, the kernel
must consist of a single vector. However we know that the
zero vector must be in the kernel. Thus the kernel is the zero
vector space.
(2) Conversely, assume that the kernel is the zero vector space.
Let u and v be vectors such that T(u) = T(v).
T(u) T(v) = 0 T(u v) = 0
Thus u v is in the kernel. But the kernel only has the zero
vector. Therefore, u v = 0 or u = v. Thus T is one-to-one.

44
Theorem 6.3.6
The transformation T: RnRn, defined by T(x) = Ax, is one-
to-one if and only if A is invertible.
Proof
(1) Let T be one-to-one. Thus ker(T) = 0. The rank/nullity
theorem implies that dim im(T) = n. Thus the n columns of A
are linearly independent, implying that the rank(A) is n, and
|A| 0.
(2) Conversely, assume that A is invertible. This implies that the
rank of A is n and that its n column vectors are linearly
independent. This means that dim im(T) = n. The rank
(nullity) theorem now implies that ker(T) = 0. Thus T is one-
to-one.
45
Example 4
Determine whether the linear transformations TA and TB
defined by the following matrices are one-to-one.
1 2 5 7 2 0 1

A 0 1 9 8 B 3 4 2

0 0 1 3 0 7 5
Solution
(a) Since the rows of A are linearly independent, rank(A) = 3,
implying that dim im(TA) = 3. The domain of T is R4, so dim
domain(TA) = 4. By the rank/nullity theorem, dim ker(TA) =
1. Therefore, ker(TA) 0 and by Theorem 6.3.5, TA is not one-
to-one.
(b) It can be shown that |B| = 9 0. Matrix B is then invertible.
Thus, by Theorem 6.3.6, TB is one-to-one.

46
Theorem 6.3.7
Let T: U V be a one-to-one linear transformation. If
{u1, , un} is linearly independent in U, then {T(u1), ,
T(un)} is linearly independent in V.
Proof
Consider the equation
a1T(u1 ) + + anT(un ) = 0 (1)
for scalars a1, , an. Since T is linear, this is equivalent to
T(a1u1 + + anun ) = 0
T is one-to-one; thus the kernel is the zero vector space. Therefore,
a1u1 + + anun = 0
By linear independence of {u1, , un}, we have a1 = 0, , an = 0.
Returning to equation (1), this means that {T(u1), , T(un)} is
linearly independent.

47
6.4 Transformations and Systems
of Linear Equations
Relationships

49
Theorem 6.4.1

The set of solutions to a homogeneous system of m linear


equations in n variables, Ax = 0, is a subspace of Rn.

Proof
Let T be the linear transformation of Rn into Rm defined by
A.
The set of solutions is the set of vectors in Rn that are
mapped by T into the zero vector.
The set of solutions is the kernel of the transformation and
is thus a subspace.
50
Example 1
Solve the following homogeneous system of linear equations.
Interpret the set of solutions as a subspace. Sketch the subspace
of solutions.
x1 2 x2 3 x3 0
x2 x3 0
Solution x1 x2 4 x3 0
Using Gauss-Jordan elimination we get
1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 0 5 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 1 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Thus x1 5r
x1 5x3 0 x1 5x3
x2 r
x2 x3 0 x2 x3
x2 r

51
Example 1
The solutions are vectors of the
form
( 5r, r, r)
These vectors form a one-
dimensional subspace of R3,
with basis ( 5, 1, 1). This
subspace is the kernel of the
transformation defined by the
matrix of coefficients of the
system
1 2 3

0 1 1 .

1 1 4

52
Theorem 6.4.2
Let Ax = y be a nonhomogeneous system of m linear
equations in n variables. Let x1 be a particular solution.
Every other solution can be written in the form x = z + x1,
where z is a vector in the kernel of the transformation T
defined by A.

53
Proof Theorem 6.4.2

Let x1 be a solution. Then Ax1 = y. Let x be an arbitrary


solution. Thus Ax = y. Equating Ax1 and Ax, we get
Ax1 = Ax Ax Ax1 = 0 A(x x1) = 0 T(x x1) = 0
Thus x x1 is in the kernel of T; call it z. That is,
x x1 = z.

We can write
x = x1 + z

54
Example 2
Solve the following system of linear equations. Sketch the set of
solutions. x1 2x2 3x3 11
x2 x3 2
x1 x2 4x3 9
Solution
Using Gauss-Jordan elimination, we get
1 2 3 11 1 2 3 11 1 2 3 11 1 0 5 7

0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2

1 1 4 9 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0
Thus x1 5r 7
x1 5x3 7 x1 5x3 7
x2 r 2
x2 x3 2 x2 x3 2
x2 r
The solutions are vectors of the form

55
Example 2
( 5r + 7, r + 2, r) = r(5, 1, 1) + (7, 2, 0)
arbitrary solution element of kernel a particular solution
to Ax = y to Ax = y

The set of solutions can be


represented geometrically by
sliding the kernel, namely the
line defined by the vector ( 5,
1, 1), in the direction and
distance defined by the
vector (7, 2, 0).

56
Many Systems

Consider a number of linear systems, Ax = y1, Ax = y2, Ax =


y3, , all having the same matrix of coefficients A. Let T be
the linear transformation defined by A. Let x1, x2, x3, , be
particular solutions to these systems. Then the sets of
solutions to these systems are
ker(T) + x1, ker(T) + x2, ker(T) + x3
These sets are parallel sets, each being the ker(T)
translated by the amounts x1, x2, x3.

57
Example 3
Analyze the solutions to the following system of equations.
x1 2 x2 3 x3 x4 1
2 x1 3 x2 2 x3 x4 4
3 x1 5 x2 5 x3 5
x1 x2 x3 2 x4 3
Solution Solve using Gauss-Jordan elimination.
1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 0 5 5 5

2 3 2 1 4 0 1 4 3 2 0 1 4 3 2

3 5 5 0 5 0 1 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 2 3 0 1 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 0
We get x1 5 x3 5 x4 5
x2 4 x3 3x4 2
Express the leading variables in terms of the free variables.
x1 5 x3 5 x4 5 x2 4 x3 3x4 2

58
Example 3
The arbitrary solution is
(5r 5s 5, 4r 3s 2, r , s)
Separate the parts of this vector as follows.

(5r 5s 5, 4r 3s 2, r , s )
Arbitrary solution to Ax = y
r (5, 4, 1, 0) s (5, 3, 0, 1) (5, 2, 0, 0)
kernel of mapping a particular solution
defined by A to Ax = y

Observe that the kernel is a two-dimensional subspace of R4


with basis (5, 4, 1, 0), (5, 3, 0, 1). It is a plane through the origin.
The set of solutions to the given system is this plane translated
in a manner described by the vector (5, 2, 0, 0).

59
6.5 Matrix Representations of
Linear Transformations
Theorem 6.5.1

Let T: U V be a linear transformation. Let {u1, , un} be


a basis for U. T is defined by its effect on the base vectors,
namely by T(u1), , T(un). The image of T is spanned by
{T(u1), , T(un)}.

Thus, defining a linear transformation in a basis defines it


on the whole domain.

61
Example 1
Consider the linear transformation T: R3 R2 defined as
following basis vectors of R3. Find T(1, -2, 3).
T(1, 0, 0) = (3, -1), T(0, 1, 0) = (2, 1), T(0, 0, 1) = (3, 0)

Solution
Since T is defined on basis vectors for R3, it is defined on the
whole space.
To find T(1, -2, 3), express the vector (1, -2, 3) as a linear
combination of the basis vectors and use the linearity of T.
T(1, -2, 3) = T(1(1, 0, 0) 2(0, 1, 0) + 3(0, 0, 1))
= 1T(1, 0, 0) 2T(0, 1, 0) + 3T(0, 0, 1))
= 1(3, -1) 2(2, 1) + 3(3, 0) = (8, 3)

62
Theorem 6.5.2
Let U and V be vector spaces with bases B = {u1, , un} and
B = {v1, , vm}, respectively, and T: U V a linear
transformation. If u is a vector in U with image T(u)
having coordinate matrices [u]B and [T(u)]B, then
T u B ' =Au B
where
A = T ( u 1 ) T ( u )
n B' T
B'
u T u
The matrix A thus defines a
transformation of coordinate vectors of U
in the same way as T transforms the u B T u B '
vectors of U. A is called the matrix A
representation of T (or matrix of T) with
respect to the bases B and B.
63
Example 2
Let T: U V be a linear transformation. T is defined relative to
bases B = {u1, u2, u3} and B = {v1, v2} of U and V as follows.
T(u1) = 2v1 v2
T(u2) = 3v1 + 2v2
T(u3) = v1 4v2
Find the matrix representation of T with respect to these bases
and use this matrix to determine the image of the vector
u = 3u1 + 2u2 u3.
Solution The coordinate matrices of T(u1), T(u2), and T(u3) are

2 3
, , and 1
-1 2 -4
These vectors make up the columns of the matrix of T.

2 3 1
A =
-1 2 -4

64
Example 2

Let us find the image of the vector u = 3u1 + 2u2 u3 using this matrix.
The coordinate matrix of u is

3

2 .
-1


3 11
We get 2 3 1
Au = 2 = .
B
-1 2 -4 -1 5


T(u) has coordinate vector 11 . Thus T(u) = 11v1 + 5v2.
5

65
Example 3
Let T: R3 R2 be the linear transformation defined by T(x, y, z) = (x
+ y, 2z). Find the matrix of T with respect to the bases {u1, u2, u3}
and {u1, u2} for R3 and R2, where
u1 = (1, 1, 0), u2 = (0, 1, 4), u3 = (1, 2, 3) and u1 = (1, 0), u2 = (0, 2)
Use this matrix to find the image of the vector u = (2, 3, 5).

Solution We find the effect of T on the basis vectors of R3.


T(u1) = T(1, 1, 0) = (2, 0) = 2(1, 0) + 0(0, 2) = 2u1 + 0u2
T(u2) =T(0, 1, 4) = (1, 8) = 1(1, 0) + 4(0, 2) = 1u1 + 4u2
T(u3) =T(1, 2, 3) = (3, 6) = 3(1, 0) + 3(0, 2) = 3u1 + 3u2
1
The coordinate vectors of T(u1), T(u2), and T(u3) are thus 2 , , and 3
0 4 3

These vectors form the


2 1 3
A =
columns of the matrix of T: 0 4 3
66
Example 3
Let us now use A to find the images of the vectors u = (2, 3, 5).
We determine the coordinate vector of u. It can be shown that
u = (2, 3, 5) = 3(1, 1, 0) + (0, 1, 4) (1, 2, 3)
= 3u1 + 2u2 + ( 1)u3
3

The coordinate matrix of u is thus 2 .

The coordinate matrix
of T(u) is 3 1

2 1 3 5
2
0 4 3 5
1
Therefore, T(u) = 5u1 + 5u2 = 5(1, 0) + 5(0, 2) = (5, 10).
We can check this result directly using the definition T(x, y, z) = (x
+ y, 2z). For u = (2, 3, 5), this gives
T(u) = T(2, 3, 5) = (2 + 3, 2 5) = (5, 10)

67
Example 4
Consider the linear transformation T: P2 P1, defined by T(ax2 +
bx + c) = (a + b)x c. Find the matrix of T with respect to the basis
{u1, u2, u3} and {u1, u2} of P2 and P1, where
u1 = x2, u2 = x, u3 = 1 and u1 = x, u2 = 1
Use this matrix to find the image of u = 3x2 + 2x 1 .

Solution
Consider the effect of T on each basis vectors of P2.
T(u1) = T(x2) = x = 1x + 0(1) = 1u1 + 0u2
T(u2) = T(x) = x = 1x + 0(1) = 1u1 + 0u2
T(u3) = T(1) = 1 = 0x + (-1)(1) = 0u1 + (1)u2

The coordinate vectors of T(x2), T(x), and T(1) are thus 1 , 1 , and 0
0 0 -1
The matrix of T is thus

1 1 0
A =
0 0 -1
68
Example 4

Let us now use T to find the image of u = 3x2 + 2x 1. The

coordinate matrix of u relative to the basis {x2, x, 1} is



3
2
-1

We get

3 5
1 1 0 2 =
0 0 -1
-1 1

Therefore T(u) = 5u1 + 1u2 = 5x + 1.

69
Example 5
Let D d be the operation of taking the derivative. Find the
dx
matrix of D with respect to the basis {x2, x, 1} of P2.

Solution We examine the effect of D on the basis vectors.


D(x 2 ) 2x 0x 2 2x 1(1)

D(x ) 1 0x 2 0x 0(1)

D(1) 0 0x 2 0x 0(1)
The matrix of D is thus

0 0 0
A = 2 0 0
0 1 0

70
Theorem 6.5.3
Let U be a vector space with B and B. Let P be the transition
matrix from B to B. If T is a linear transformation on U,
having matrix A with respect to the first basis and A with
respect to the second basis, then
A = P1AP
Proof
Consider a vector u in U. Let its coordinate matrices
relative to B and B be a and a. The coordinate matrices of T(u)
are Aa and Aa. Since P is the transition matrix from B to B, we
know that a = Pa and Aa = P(Aa)
The second equation may be written P1Aa = Aa
Substituting a = Pa into the equation gives P1APa = Aa
The effect of the matrices P1AP and A as transformation on an
arbitrary coordinate vector a is the same. Thus these matrices
are equal.

71
Example 6
Consider the linear transformation T(x, y) = (2x, x + y) on R2. Find
the matrix of T with respect to the basis B = {(1, 0), (0, 1)} on R2.
Determine the matrix A with respect to B = {(-2, 3), (1, -1)}.
Solution The effect of T on the standard basis vectors is
T(1, 0) = (2, 1) = 2(1, 0) + 1(0, 1)
T(0, 1) = (0, 1) = 0(1, 0) + 1(0, 1)
2 0
The matrix of T relative to the standard basis is A =
1 1
Write the vectors of B in terms of those of B.
(-2, 3) = -2(1, 0) + 3(0, 1)
(1, -1) = 1(1, 0) 1(0, 1)
The transition matrix is
-2 1
P =
3 -1
Therefore
-1

-1 -2 1 2 0 -2 1 1 1 2 0 -2 1 = -3 2
A = P AP = =
3 -1 1 1 3 -1 3 2 1 1 3 -1 -10 6

72