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CHM576

ENVIRONMENTAL

CHEMISTRY

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA PAHANG

DEFiNiTiON

DEFiNiTiON Environmental Chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in

Environmental

Chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural

places.

Environmental chemistry is an

interdisciplinary science

that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to

environmental and other areas of science.

Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric , aquatic and soil chemistry , as

Environmental chemistry involves first understanding how the uncontaminated environment works, which chemicals in what concentrations are present naturally, and with what effects. Without this it would be impossible to accurately study the effects humans have on the environment through the release of chemicals.

Environmental chemistry involves first understanding how the uncontaminated environment works , which c hemicals in what

Outline

Atmosphere

General

physical structure

chemical composition

Earth’s Atmosphere

The atmosphere is a gas.

• There is a surface but no “top” – the atmosphere gradually thins out with increasing altitude

The Composition And Structure Of The

Atmosphere

Composition of the

atmosphere

Permanent gasses
Permanent
gasses
Variable gasses
Variable
gasses

Composition of the Atmosphere

permanent gases

roles of nitrogen, oxygen and argon

variable gases

role of water vapor

trace gases

carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, CFCs, et al.

aerosols

suspension of fine particles or liquid droplets in a gas

Composition of the Atmosphere

The composition of gases in the atmosphere is not uniform.

Lighter gases tend to rise to the top.

Gases are measured in ppm volume, which is directly proportional to mole fraction.

Composition of the Atmosphere • The composition of gases in the atmosphere is not uniform. •

Composition of the Atmosphere

• Near the Earth’s surface, about 99% of the

atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and oxygen.

Oxygen has a much lower bond enthalpy than nitrogen, and is therefore more reactive.

Composition of the Atmosphere

The “dry atmosphere”: 78% N 2 , 21% O 2 , 1% Ar

N 2

is

primordial

it’s

been

part

of

the

atmosphere

as

long

as

there’s

been

an

atmosphere

O 2 has been rising from none at all about 2.2 Gya comes from photosynthesis

Ar 40 /Ar 36 tells

us

that the

atmosphere

has

been outgassed from volcanoes

Permanent Gasses

Permanent Gasses

Variable Gasses

Variable Gasses

Composition of the Atmosphere

Variable gases

Water Vapor: H 2 O (0-4%)

H 2 O can exist in all three phases at the surface of the Earth solid, liquid and gas

Liquid or solid H 2 O can be suspended by atmospheric winds (clouds) or fall to the surface (precipitation)

VERY powerful greenhouse gas (both in vapor form and as clouds)

The Hydrological Cycle

Composition of the Atmosphere

Carbon dioxide

390 ppm (by mass)

Natural and anthropogenic sources

Strong greenhouse gas (GHG) The important:

CO 2 is a product of the reaction that allows modern civilization to exist: combustion.

Increasing atmospheric CO2

concentration

Atmospheric increase

= Emissions from fossil

fuels

+ Net emissions from changes in land use

  • - Oceanic uptake

  • - Terrestrial sinks

Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration Atmospheric increase = Emissions from fossil fuels + Net emissions from changes

Composition of the Atmosphere

Methane

CH 4 concentration: 1.8 ppmv anthropogenic and natural sources powerful greenhouse gas oxidizes rapidly, hence low concentrations Large concentrations proposed to explain greenhouse warming of early Earth

Methane Emissions

Energy production and consumption

coal mining natural gas systems Waste management

landfill gas Agriculture manure management cattle (enteric fermentation)

rice cultivation

Composition of the Atmosphere

Ozone, CFCs and NO x

  • Ozone (O 3 ) shields the surface from UV rays produced by reaction with NO x and sunlight near the surface

  • CFC’s (Chlorofluorocarbons) • destroy stratospheric ozone

chlorine is a catalyst: it destroys one O 3 molecule and then is free to find another

Ozone at high altitudes (stratosphere) is “good”;

ozone at low altitudes (troposphere) is “bad.”

Composition of the Atmosphere

Aerosols

Dust Sea-spray Microbes

Human and natural

activities displace tiny soil, salt, and ash particles as suspended aerosols,

as well as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons as pollutants.

Human and natural activities displace tiny soil, salt, and ash particles as suspended aerosols, as well

Structure of the Atmosphere

Structure of the Atmosphere
Figure 1.1 Nearly 150 million kilometers separate the sun and earth, yet solar radiation drives earth's

Figure 1.1 Nearly 150 million kilometers separate the sun and earth, yet solar radiation drives earth's weather.

Structure of the atmosphere

Structure of the atmos <a href=p here " id="pdf-obj-26-6" src="pdf-obj-26-6.jpg">

Layers of the atmosphere

***All info based on moving upward through the atmosphere

TROPOSPHERE

Lowest and thinnest layer 16 km at equator, 8 km at poles 90% of the atmosphere’s mass • Temperature decreases with altitude 6°C per kilometer Top of troposphere averages 50°C Where weather occurs Boundary between the troposphere, and the stratosphere is called the tropopause

The Troposphere

Location of all weather Pressure decreases Temperature decreases Wind increase Clouds variable then decrease . Little
Location of all weather
Pressure decreases
Temperature decreases
Wind increase
Clouds variable then decrease . Little water
vapor by the tropopause
Great instability, much vertical mixing

STRATOSPHERE

Extends from 10 km to 50 km above the ground Less dense (less water vapor) Temperature increases with altitude Almost no weather occurrence Contains high level of ozone > ozone layer Upper boundary is called stratopause

The Stratosphere

Pressure decreases Temperature increases Very stable air, little vertical mixing Location of the Ozone layer

UV light produces and destroys O 3

O

UV

O + O

 

2

O O + O O + O O O O +O

O 2 + O

O + O

O 3

O

3

UV

O +O

O 2 +O

MESOSPHERE

Extends to almost 80 km high Gases are less dense. Temperature decreases as altitude increases.

  • Gases in this layer absorb very little UV radiation.

The Mesosphere

The Mesosphere Pressure decreases Temperature decreases Where meteors begin to burn

Pressure decreases

Temperature decreases

Where meteors begin to burn

 
 

THERMOSPHERE

above the mesosphere and extends to almost 600 km high temperature increases with altitude readily absorbs solar radiation Temperature can go as high as 1,500 °C reflects radio waves

The Thermosphere

Pressure decreases • Particles of the atmosphere begin to escape to space
Pressure decreases
• Particles of the atmosphere begin to
escape to space
Temperature increases • But, very few molecules
Temperature increases
• But, very few molecules
Ionosphere (partly in the mesosphere) • Ions can cause auroras
Ionosphere (partly in the
mesosphere)
• Ions can cause auroras
End of Atmosphere Structures and Composition

End of Atmosphere

Structures and Composition

 

Summary of the

Atmospheric Structure

Atmosphere

Atmosphere • Temperature varies greatly with altitude. • The profile makes a Z-shape from mesosphere to

Temperature varies greatly with altitude.

The profile makes a Z-shape from mesosphere to the

ground.

Atmosphere

Pressure is highest at the surface and decreases with

height.

Fluctuations in pressure are a

driving force of

weather.

Atmosphere Pressure is highest at the surface and decreases with height. Fluctuations in pressure are a

Radiation

Aurora Formed here
Aurora
Formed
here
{ The atmosphere is the first line of defense against radiation from the Sun.
{
The atmosphere is
the first line of
defense against
radiation from the
Sun.

Number of photons

Outer Atmosphere

Wavelength, m

Energy

Number of photons Outer Atmosphere Wavelength, m Energy • The Sun emits radiation across the electromagnetic
Number of photons Outer Atmosphere Wavelength, m Energy • The Sun emits radiation across the electromagnetic

The Sun emits radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum.

Light in the ultraviolet region has enough energy to

break chemical

bonds.

Photochemistry =

  • 1. Photodisociation

  • 2. Photoionization

Oxygen

in

the

upper

atmosphere

absorbs much of the solar

radiation

before it reaches the lower atmosphere:

O 2 + h 2 O

These bonds break homolytically.

Photochemistry =

1.

Photodisociation

2.

Photoionization

Photochemistry = 1. Photodisociation 2. Photoionization • Short wavelength radiation (ionizing radiation) causes electrons to be

Short wavelength radiation (ionizing radiation) causes electrons to be knocked out of molecules

in the upper atmosphere; very little of this radiation

reaches the Earth’s surface.

The presence

of these ions makes long-range

radio communication possible.

Ozone

Ozone absorbs much of the radiation between 240 and 310 nm. It forms from reaction of molecular oxygen

with the oxygen atoms produced in the upper

atmosphere by photodissociation (< 242 nm). O + O 2  O 3

Ozone • Ozone absorbs much of the radiation between 240 and 310 nm. • It forms

Ozone Depletion

Ozone Depletion In 1974 Rowland and Molina (Nobel Prize, 1995) discovered that chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

In 1974 Rowland and Molina (Nobel Prize,

1995) discovered

that

chlorine

from

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

may

be

depleting the supply of ozone in the upper

atmosphere.

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen Oxides • What we recognize as smog, that brownish gas that hangs above large cities

What we recognize as smog, that brownish

gas that hangs above large cities like Los Angeles, is primarily nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 .

It forms from the oxidation of nitric oxide,

NO, a component of

car exhaust.

Nitrogen Oxides • What we recognize as smog, that brownish gas that hangs above large cities

CHEMISTRY & THE ATMOSPHERE

CHEMISTRY & THE ATMOSPHERE Atmospheric Chemistry deals with the different chemical reactions , processes and species

Atmospheric Chemistry deals

with the different chemical reactions, processes and species not only of the Earth’s atmosphere but also other planet’s

atmosphere

AIR POLLUTANTS

Primary Particles

• Pollen • Dust • Fly ash • Polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons

Secondary Particles (formed from gas reactions)

• Smog particles

as (NH4)2SO4

• Sulfuric acid droplets • Salts such

Inorganic Gases

• O3

• SO2

• NO

• NO2

• CO

• H2S

• HCl

• NH3

Organics

• Hydrocarbons including those that form

photochemical smog

• Odorous organic sulfur compounds

Organohalides

• Amines and other organonitrogen compounds

• Organo-oxygen compounds including aldehydes and ketones

Photochemical Smog

• Smog particles

• Aldehydes

• Ozone

• Organic oxidants (PAN)

AIR POLLUTANTS Primary Particles • Pollen • Dust • Fly ash • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Secondary

CHEMISTRY & THE GEOSPHERE

Geochemistry deals

with chemical species, reactions, and processes in the geosphere and their interactions with the

atmosphere and

hydrosphere.

CHEMISTRY & THE GEOSPHERE Geochemistry deals with chemical species, reactions, and processes in the geosphere and

CHEMISTRY & THE BIOSPHERE

CHEMISTRY & THE BIOSPHERE The Chemistry of the Biosphere deals with the different chemical reactions ,

The Chemistry of the

Biosphere deals with the different chemical reactions, processes, and species in the Biosphere and its effect on the

Biosphere’s

inhabitants

A Major Concern Regarding the Biosphere is the Effect of Toxic Substances on Organisms:

Addressed by Toxicological Chemistry

A Major Concern Regarding the Biosphere is the Effect of Toxic Substances on Organisms: Addressed by

THE ANTHROSPHERE

THE ANTHROSPHERE

CHEMISTRY & THE ANTHROSPHERE

CHEMISTRY & THE ANTHROSPHERE

RELATED CHEMISTIES

RELATED TO ENVIRONMENT

CHEMISTRY

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

Industrial ecology views an industrial system as an artificial ecosystem, with primary sources of raw materials and energy and with a number of enterprises making use of what would otherwise be waste products of other members of the system practiced in a manner that minimizes environmental impact while optimizing utilization of resources, energy, and capital.

It is All About SUSTAINABILITY; Let’s leave Earth in

a Condition to

Support Future Generations.

It is All About SUSTAINABILITY ; Let’s leave Earth in a Condition to Support Future Generations.

CHEMISTRY & THE HYDROSPHERE

Hydrochemistry

deals with the chemical characteristics and uses of the water on and beneath the surface of the

Earth

CHEMISTRY & THE HYDROSPHERE Hydrochemistry deals with the chemical characteristics and uses of the water on