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Earthquake

The word suggests, the movement of the


ground.

In early societies, people often


misunderstood the cause of EARTHQUAKE.
This really result from a combination of
simple observation, logical thought process,
and limited knowledge of that time.

So, many myths had generated.


Japan
Ancient Japanese believed
that earthquake was
caused by a giant catfish.
A catfish may seem a
curious choice. However,
observers have reported
what they thought was
unusual behavior in
catfish before earthquakes.
Chinese
People claimed that
Earth rode on the back
of a giant ox, while
people in Mongolia
believed it was a frog.
In Greeks
Greeks had a pantheon of gods to choose from in
explaining earthquake. Many of them abiding on
Mt. Olympus.
Among them, there was a god of sea, called
Poseidon, who was known as Earth shaker.
Greeks thought that the vibrations of the ground
created when he striking the ground with his trident
The
Aztec Empire

It was an ancient city in


Mexico.
The Aztec view on the
cause of earthquake
was an integral part of
their culture and
history.
Development
Early societies usually had widely accepted ideas about
the nature of Earth and the universe that were also
incorporated into beliefs about earthquake.
Anaxogoras (500-428 BC)believed that the collision
of gases in caverns generated fire. As the fire rose it
burst through obstacles violently, causing the ground
to shake.
Thales(580 BC) held that Earth was like a ship
floating on water and that the movement of the water
caused earthquakes.
Archelaus(fifth century BC) appealed to compressed
air in caverns. Air entering caverns from the surface
eventually became compressed, causing violent
storms to shake the ground.
Theorems in late middle age

The roots of modern science had


begun to grow. The wisdom of
the ancients was no longer
accepted without question, and
the restrictions placed on science
by theology had diminished.
Seismology
It was stimulated by the Lisbon earthquake of
November 1, 175.
Among the people who studied and wrote about he
Lisbon earthquake was an astronomer in the
modern scientific tradition, John Michell.
A man of many interests Michell was the inventor
of the torsion balance used by Henry Cavendish to
measure the universal gravitational constant.
The waves Michell imagined vapors to
raise the strata of Earth in a wavelike
fashion during the earthquake.
Here is a simple demonstration.
Instrument to measure

As the knowledge of people developed further and further,


instruments to measure and record the motion of the
ground during a distant earthquake was a truly great
intellectual achievement.
Chinese devices

This was the first


recognized earthquake
instrument developed in
China by Chang Heng in
about A.D. 132.
It was reputed not only to
have detected a distant
unfelt earthquake, but also
to have estimated direction
to the epicenter.
Early seismometers and seismograph systems were
termed mechanical because they consisted of clever
combinations of springs, levers, rods, and masses.
Their primary drawback was that they were not very
sensitive and could not record distant earthquake.
Measurements

Today, we widely use Richter Scale


to measure the magnitude.
We also use Mercalli Scale to
measure the destructiveness of an
earthquake.
Faults and Earthquake

Although ground shaking c an occur from


many causes, such as volcanic eruptions,
clearly the great majority of earthquakes,
including the very largest, are related to
movement along faults.
The San Andreas fault marks
the boundary between two
gigantic plates of rock of
Earths crust.
This photo showing the
tremendous deformation
of rocks created by forces
generated along the San
Andreas fault.
Pricipal types of faults
*lateral/tear fault*
*Reverse fault*
*Normal fault*
Great Historic Earthquakes

He who does to study the past is doomed to repeat its


mistakes.
Anonymous

A study of the large and imaging earthquakes of the past


is useful to reduce casualties and damage in future
events.
The most useful data are from the effects caused by
large damaging quakes, often called great
because of their size and impact. These tremors
have been with humans throughout history, but
most of the early events are difficult to use or
assess because of a lack of detailed information.
Kourion

Evidence from the


archaeological site and
from the historical reports
were utilized to
reconstruct the earthquake.
The degree of damage ate
Kourion allows
application of the
Modified Mercalli
Intensity scale to estimate
the size of this tremor.
These were simple block
structures such as the
Temple of Apollo.(right)
Lisbon

Somewhere to the southwest of Lisbon, Portugal, on Nov. 1,


1755, under the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, earths crust
broke and slipped, releasing energy that has been estimated
to be equivalent in magnitude to Ms>8.
This resulting ground movements caused by seismic waves
were felt over virtually all of Europe and North Africa.
The potential area over which the earthquake could have
been felt (including ocean) is estimated at 1,600,000 square
kilometers.
The tremor was felt as far
away as Switzerland and
Scotland, but the worst
damage outside of
Lisbon occurred in
North Africa, where
Algiers was almost
totally destroyed.
Tsunamis were
generated that were most
destructive in Europe,
It was occurred on a bright
Sunday morning. Nov. 1,
1755, was All Saint Day on
the Church calendar, and in
a very pious age Lisbons
churches were crowded
when the first shock waves
arrived at 9:40. According
to survivors, the priests had
begun the Gaudeamus
omnes in Deo when the
walls began to rock.
Many of those still alive gathered
along the waterfront for safety or in
open spaces away from buildings,
for the ground continued to shake
intermittently. At about 10 oclock
the sea withdrew, and then came
rushing back in with the first of
three great tsunamis. The waves
engulfed the waterfront, causing
hundreds of casualties and
obliterating everything within the
waves path. Then fires were
occurred everywhere.
Summary

Nevertheless, nowadays, we have advanced devices


and technology, we can reduce the earthquake
hazards or others as low as possible.
But it seems that people are also destroying the
environment that we originally have.
Always try to protect our natural environment, from
you and the one surround you!