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# Contemporary Processes In

Architecture

Unit-04
Geometrics and surfaces

## Prepared by : Prof. Ar. Abitha Robin

Terminology and Definitions
Kinematics:
Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies
(objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without consideration of the causes of
motion. Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion".
Dynamics:
Every object experiences some form of motion which is the result of different forces acting on
the object. Dynamics is the study of the forces which are responsible for this motion.
Kinetics:
Kinetics is a term for the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the
relationship between the motion of bodies and its causes, namely forces and torques.Since
the mid-20th century, the term "dynamics" (or "analytical dynamics") has largely superseded
"kinetics" in physics text books;the term "kinetics" is still used in engineering.
ROTATING TOWER DUBAI
Da Vinci Tower

The Dynamic tower in Dubai was designed by architect David Fisher. It is 1,375 foot high.
Solar panels will be installed on the roof, and individual wind turbines will be hidden in
between the floors to provide power. According to the architect, the building will generate up
to 10 times more energy than it will use.

## The Dynamic Tower will have 80

floors that are capable of rotating
a full 360 degrees, letting tenants
and hotel guests select their own
personal views via voice
command. The twisting tower
features sustainability profile the
sun and wind energy.

tch?v=RgNoLWTmsng
ROTATING TOWER - DUBAI
Architects philosophy dynamic buildings, adjusting to sunrise and sunset, to the wind and to
the view thus becoming part of nature. and the first buildings to have a fourth
dimension: Time. shape by life ;designed by time

Mechanism of rotation
The mechanism of rotation is that there is a drive system located at the base of each
floor. The bearing ring and air cushion will help in rotating the tower smoothly. A few options
to power the rings is to install a motor at every floor. There will a main generator installed at
the base of the building. A shaft running to the entire length of the building would rotate
continuously whenever the user wants to rotate the floor he can simply connect his floor
level to the main shaft.

The rotation was supposed to happen from the steel bearing rings . The diameter of the
core is around 22mts approx and the power of 4 KW is required . Each floor will rotate a
maximum of 6 meters per minute or one full rotation in 90 min.
ROTATING TOWER - DUBAI
Construction techniques

## 1. The Rotating Tower will be constructed in two main phases. The

central core will take just six months to be constructed, using slip
forms that allow the erection of a floor every two days.

## 2. This structural solution of a massive single concrete core will

increase the building's seismic resistance compared to a

3. Two months after the start of works, the first residential units will
reach the job site, complete with all their plumbing, electric and
air-conditioning systems.

## 4. The units will be hooked to the core with a sequence of one

floor a week, allowing a 80 stories building to be built and to save
about 30% over a construction time of a similar skyscraper

## 5. Once attached to the load-bearing structure, an operation that

would require few days.
ROTATING TOWER - DUBAI
A Green Environmental Tower Dubai:
The Dynamic Architecture building, which will be constantly in motion changing
its shape, will be able to generate electric energy for itself as well as for other
buildings.
Considering per year 2,300 Hr of 16mt/sec of wind in Dubai, it is expecting to
have 460,000KwH of energy produced by one turbine in one year. As each
family consume about 24,000KwH in a year, therefore one turbine should supply
energy for 19 apartments. The entire tower will be powered from wind turbines
and solar panels.
While the floors will rotate by electric power, the turbines will rotate by the wind
power and will be connected to a single generator, one in each floor. As far as
the photovoltaic panels are concerned they will be placed on the roof of each
rotating floor. Even though the panels will cover only a 20% of its surface, the roof
of each floor is exposed this Rotating Tower can be considered the first real
green building
ROTATING TOWER - DUBAI
Foster and Heatherwick - Shanghai theatre
The Fosun Foundation is the centre piece of the Bund Finance Center, a new mixed-use
complex designed by Norman foster and Thomas Heatherwick's design studio for the end of
famous Shanghai street The Bund.
The building is 1,90,000 Sq.m and it is under construction.

## Inspired by traditional Chinese theatres,

the three-storey building features a
curtain-like facade of bronze tubes. These
tubes hang in three layers, creating semi-
transparent screens in front of windows
and balconies.
The architect described the building as A
moving veil, which adapts to the
changing use of the building, and reveals
the stage on the balcony and views
towards Pudong".

Foster and Heatherwick - Shanghai theatre
Responsive Architecture
INTRODUCTION
What is Responsive architecture ?

## Responsive architecture is an evolving field of architectural practice and research.

Responsive architectures are those that measure actual environmental conditions (via sensors) to
enable buildings to adapt their form, shape, color or character responsively (via actuators).

## Many authors describe responsive architecture as a class of architecture or building that

demonstrates an ability to alter its form, to continually reflect the environmental conditions that
surround it.

## Responsive architectures extends the discipline of architecture by improving the energy

performance of buildings with responsive technologies (sensors / control systems / actuators) while
also producing buildings that reflect the technological and cultural conditions of our time.

## Responsive architectures distinguish themselves from other forms of interactive design by

incorporating intelligent and responsive technologies into the core elements of a building's fabric.
For example: by incorporating responsive technologies into the structural systems of buildings
architects have the ability to tie the shape of a building directly to its environment. This enables
architects to reconsider the way they design and construct space while striving to advance the
discipline rather than applying patchworks of intelligent technologies to an existing vision of
"building".
Responsive Architecture
Introduction
The term "responsive architecture" was introduced by Nicholas Negroponte, who first
conceived of it during the late 1960s when spatial design problems were being explored
by applying cybernetics to architecture. Negroponte proposes that responsive
architecture is the natural product of the integration of computing power into built
spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational buildings are the result.
Since Negropontes contribution, new works of responsive architecture have also
emerged, but as aesthetic creationsrather than functional ones. The works of Diller &
Scofidio (Blur), dECOi (Aegis Hypo-Surface) the Aegis project consists of an interactive
mechanical surface that deforms in real-time based on various environmental stimuli,
including the sounds and movements of people, weather, and electronic information.
and NOX (The Freshwater Pavilion, NL) are all classifiable as types of responsive architecture.
Each of these works monitors fluctuations in the environment and alters its form in response to
these changes. The Blur project by Diller & Scofidio relies upon the responsive characteristics
of a cloud to change its form while blowing in the wind. In the work of dECOi, responsiveness
is enabled by a programmable faade, and finally in the work of NOX, a programmable
audiovisual interior.
Taiwan research institute
T he research institute in Taiwan is wrapped in a vortex-like skin
made of 4000 aluminum fins. The building, designed in
collaboration between Noiz Architects and Bio Architecture
Formosana, celebrates the country's industrial.
Taiwan research institute
The architects designed a veil-like facade layer composed of 4000 fins installed over
the curtain walls. The double skin hides maintenance spaces and enables future addition of pipes
and ducts without compromising the appearance of the building. The team ran various computer
simulations to reach the final pattern and determine optimal densities and angles of the fins.

The facade was initially conceived as a movable layer based on a simple mechanical system
with embedded electric motors that control the movement of the fins. Noiz and ARUP worked on the
proposal for this kinetic facade system which was eventually abandoned due to construction costs.
City hall, London Norman fosters+ partners
Under the impact of the sun path and other environmental considerations the GLA
design morphed from a pure sphere, the most efficient geometric form for enclosing a given
volume- to its present laid back, lens like shape. Sloping backwards from its site on the south
bank of the river thames, the north face of the building is precisely angled so that at no time
of the day or year does the sun directly strike the steel and glass wall.
City hall, London
Norman fosters+ partners
Correspondingly , the south facing wall is
stepped upwards and outwards,
so that the upper floors shade the lower
ones.
south, east and west sides finish the
job, leaving the north side completely
clear for the council members and
observers to enjoy the views across the
river from inside the council chamber,
which is situated directly behind the
glass wall.
A spectacular elliptical stairway, a
complex connecting all the floors,
providing office workers with the same
views.
Al Bahr Towers
Situated in Abu Dhabi, The Al Bahr Towers are a
benchmark for a highly considered approach in the
built environment. The towers proudly stand at the
vanguard of this new orientation by respecting the
historical, cultural, and environmental nature of the
region.
The design is based on the concept of adaptive
flowers and the "mashrabiya" - a wooden lattice
privacy whilst reducing glare and solar gain.
The geometry of the shading screen folds and
unfolds in response to the movement of the sun,
reducing solar gain by up to 50%, whilst simultaneously
improving admission of natural diffused light into the
towers and improving visibility.
Al Bahr Towers
The original folding concept for the dynamic mashrabiya unit was initially explained
through a simple origami model that revealed how the triangular unit would function.
Al Bahr Towers fuse the principles of bio-inspiration, regional architecture, and
performance oriented technology with an underlying performance criteria, grid-guide, and
geometric composition that generates a highly efficient integrated system.

are used to reflect the concept
of unification and unity evident
in nature. The plan of the towers
is based on six tangential arcs,
taken from three intersecting
circles a pattern which forms
the basis of nearly all geometric
configurations known to the
region.
Al Bahr Towers
The 2,098 dynamic units avoid the need for heavily treated glass, thereby reducing the
need for significant artificial lighting and mechanical air conditioning. Therefore, the
dynamic faade improves visibility and user comfort while decreasing energy usage and
plant size thus providing an efficient system that lends itself to a more sustainable solution.

## A bespoke application was

developed using Javascript
technologies to simulate the
response to the suns path.
The performance criteria and
geometry build-up of the
system design were conveyed
using a unique project specific,
Geometry Construction &
Performance Manual.
One Ocean by SOMA Architecture, Yeosu, Korea
After winning an open international competition in 2009, the proposal for the world exhibition developed
into a reality, generating a multi-layered experience with a kinetic facade of fins which move in ocean-
like patterns. spanning 140 meters, the elevation undulates from 3 to 13 meters in height. topographical
lines along the roof translate into 108 vertical lamellas to control solar gain and then begin to open and
close in a choreographed sequence after the sun sets. compressive forces are imposed upon the blades
made of glass fiber reinforced polymers, a material high in tensile strength with low bending stiffness
allowing for repeated and reversible elastic deformations. upper and lower motors generate a side
rotation with a screw spindle driven by a computerized servomotor.

positioned upon an industrial harbor, a permanent structure and waterfront promenade will serve as a
tourist destination and permanent attraction for residents. derived from the ocean concept, morphing
surfaces organize the spatial sequences. upright surfaces create portals to welcome visitors into the
exhibition area and transition into horizontal levels serving as a flexible stage for the best practice area.
concrete structures in the forms of cones redefine the edge of the meandering coast, offering panoramic
views of the nearby islands from roof top terraces. a public landscape of plateaus and paths unfold from
the pavilion.
One Ocean by SOMA Architecture, Yeosu, Korea
LUMENHAUS: the responsive architecture, zero energy house
The name LUMENHAUS comes from "lumen", meaning "the LUMENHAUS uses responsive
power of light", and "haus", a reference both to the architecture: all of the systems
have been designed to work
Bauhaus design movement in which the Virginia Tech together to balance
College of Architecture and Urban Studies has roots, and occupants' comfort and
energy efficiency.
the German word for house or home. The house maximizes
occupants exposure to bright
light during the day through its
open, flowing spaces and at
night radiates it back via a
low-energy LED lighting system
in the insulating panels. The
color temperature of the white
lights can be controlled to
optimize mood and wellbeing.
For example, a warmer
temperature could be used to
promote relaxation and a
cooler temperature to
increase concentration.
LUMENHAUS: the responsive architecture, zero energy house
Solar (or photovoltaic or PV) panels cover the roof and the house uses passive energy
systems, radiant heating and building materials from renewable and/or recyclable sources. The
prefabricated construction process reduces waste and increases efficiency.
A meter records the usage of energy throughout the day.
The fully automated Eclipsys System is an advanced building facade comprising two
layers: a metal shutter shade and a translucent insulating panel. The shutter shade slides along the
north and south facades, providing protection from direct sunlight while allowing for indirect,
natural light, views to the exterior and privacy.
The sliding insulating panel is a translucent polycarbonate panel filled with aerogel, a
super lightweight, highly insulating translucent material that provides insulation equivalent to a
typical solid wall during harsh weather conditions without blocking natural light.
When the Eclipsys System is open, floor space doubles and the interior and exterior of
the house meld seamlessly, connecting the house to the natural environment outside.
The panels automatically adjust to best capture the suns energy in all seasons and all weathers. In
the cold months, the Eclipsys System will open up to allow sunlight to passively heat the concrete
slab floor, decreasing the amount of energy needed to heat the house.
Computer automated controls, which can be activated via iPhone or iPad, allow the house to
automatically adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Dynamic architectuture vision

Interior camouflage

Credits
https://www.dezeen.com
http://inhabitat.com
L I Q U I D A R C H I T E CT U R E
When droplet create space.- a look at liquid architecture.

Here, in a windowless and amorphous interior structure, Lars Spuybroek assigned the real
water the role of being non-interactive, creating a sprayed mist that drained over the floors. As a
counterpoint NOX introduced virtual water through interactive projections with sensors, which
transformed wave patterns into ripples and blobs culminating in fascinating viewer experiences of
water and light.

In contrast, the Iceland pavilion at Expo 2000 welcomed visitors with a water faade. Iceland,
surrounded by water and boasting numerous spouting geysers on the island, presented a striking
blue membrane cube in Hanover. A flowing film of water turned the pavilion into a cubic waterfall.
With the sun shining on the cascading ripples and thereby reflecting the moving clouds, the faade
generated a fresh and sparkling impression of the environment
Liquid Architecture
INTRODUCTION
Marcos Novak defines liquid architectures: ""What is liquid architecture? A liquid architecture is an
architecture whose form is contingent on the interests of the beholder; it is an architecture that
opens to welcome you and closes to defend you; it is an architecture without doors and hallways,
where the next room is always where it needs to be and what it needs to be. It is an architecture
that dances or pulsates, becomes tranquil or agitated. Liquid architecture makes liquid cities, cities
that change at the shift of a value, where visitors with different backgrounds see different
landmarks, where neighborhoods vary with ideas held in common, and evolve as the ideas mature
or dissolve."

## Marcos Novak, "Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace" from "Cyberspace: First Steps"

""If we described liquid architecture as a symphony in space, this description should still fall short of
the promise. A symphony, though it varies within its duration, is still a fixed object and can be
repeated. At its fullest expression a liquid architecture is more than that. It is a symphony of space,
but a symphony that never repeats and continues to develop. If architecture is an extension of our
bodies, shelter and actor for the fragile self, a liquid architecture is that self in the act of becoming
its own changing shelter. Like us, it has an identity; but this identity is only revealed fully during the
course of its lifetime." -- Marcos Novak
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

The design of Heydar Aliyev Center establishes a continuous, fluid relationship between its
surrounding plaza and the buildings interior. The plaza, as the ground surface; accessible to all as
part of Bakus urban fabric, rises to envelop an equally public interior space and define a sequence
of event spaces dedicated to the collective celebration of contemporary and traditional Azeri
culture. Elaborate forms, including undulations, bifurcations, folds, and inflections modify this plaza
surface into an architectural landscape that performs a multitude of functions: welcoming,
embracing, and directing visitors through different levels of the interior.
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

Fluidity in architecture is not new to this region .In Historical Islamic architecture, rows grids or
sequences of columns flow to infinity like trees in a forest, establishing non- hierarchical space.
Continuous calligraphic and ornamentation patters flow from carpets to walls , walls to ceiling ,
ceilings to domes, establishing seamless relationships and blurring distinctions between
architectural elements and the ground they inhabit.

Responding to the topographic sheer drop that formerly split the site in two, the project introduces
a precisely terraced landscape that establishes alternative connections and routes between public
plaza building and underground parking.

## GEOMETRY, STRUCTURE AND MATERIALITY

One of the most critical yet challenging elements of the project was the architectural development
of the building s skin. Their ambition was to achieve a surface so continuous that it appears
homogenous, required a broad range of different functions, construction logics and technical
systems had to be brought together and integrated into the buildings envelope.

Advanced computing allowed for the continuous control and communication of these
complexities.
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

The Heydar Aliyev Center principally consists of two collaborating systems: a concrete structure
combined with a space frame system. In order to achieve large-scale column-free spaces that allow
the visitor to experience the fluidity of the interior, vertical structural elements are absorbed by the
envelope and curtain wall system. The particular surface geometry fosters unconventional structural
solutions, such as the introduction of curved boot columns to achieve the inverse peel of the surface
from the ground to the West of the building, and the dovetail tapering of the cantilever beams that
support the building envelope to the East of the site.
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

## The space frame system enabled the

construction of a free-form structure and
saved significant time throughout the
construction process, while the
substructure was developed to
incorporate a flexible relationship between
the rigid grid of the space frame and the
These seams were derived from a process
of rationalizing the complex geometry,
usage, and aesthetics of the project.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyester (GFRP) were chosen as
ideal cladding materials, as they allow for the powerful plasticity of the buildings design while
responding to very different functional demands related to a variety of situations: plaza, transitional
zones and envelop
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

In this architectural composition, if the surface is the music, then the seams between the panels are the
rhythm. Numerous studies were carried out on the surface geometry to rationalize the panels while
maintaining continuity throughout the building and landscape. The seams promote a greater
understanding of the projects scale. They emphasize the continual transformation and implied motion
of its fluid geometry, offering a pragmatic solution to practical construction issues such as
manufacturing, handling, transportation and assembly; and answering technical concerns such as
accommodating movement due to deflection, external loads, temperature change, seismic activity
Liquid Architecture HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTER, BAKU ,AZERBAIJAN
2007-2012, BUILT: 1,02,801 Sq.m SITE : 111292 Sq.m

## To emphasize the continuous relationship between

the buildings exterior and interior, the lighting of
the Heydar Aliyev Center has been very carefully
considered. The lighting design strategy
differentiates the day and night reading of the
building. During the day, the buildings volume
reflects light, constantly altering the Centers
appearance according to the time of day and
viewing perspective. The use of semi-reflective
glass gives tantalizing glimpses within, arousing
curiosity without revealing the fluid trajectory of
spaces inside. At night, this character is gradually
transformed by means of lighting that washes from
the interior onto the exterior surfaces, unfolding the
formal composition to reveal its content and
maintaining the fluidity between interior and
exterior
Liquid Architecture Liquid Glacial dining Table.

Liquid glacial is a collection of pieces encompassing tables, chair stools and enter piece resembling
ice formation. The geometry of the items appears transformed from motionless to fluid by subtle
waves rippling below the surface

The liquid glacial design embeds surface complexity and refraction within a powerful fluid dynamic.
The elementary geometry of the flat table top appears transformed from static to fluid by the subtle
waves and ripples evident below the surface, while the tables legs seem to pour from the
horizontal in an intense vortex of water frozen in time.

Material :Polished
plexi glass
clear/Acrylic
Liquid Architecture
Liquid Glacial dining Table.
All pieces , milled and hand polished to create a
pristine finish are made from clear as well as
colored acrylic material that conveys depth and
complexity through an ever changing
kaleidoscope of refractions evolving from Hadids
architectural narrative exploring the movement
through space.
Liquid Architecture CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL CENTER, CHINA
The international culture and arts centre embodies a unique variety of civic nodes and spaces.

In true Hadid-fashion, the Changsha Meixihu Lake International Culture & Arts Center defines

itself by extreme sinuous curves that radiate from each of the three independent structures

and links them by a pedestrianized landscape that offers a strong urban experience, forming

## what they hope to be a global destination for performance art.

The Grand theatre is the focal point of the
culture and arts centre.. With a capacity
of 1800 seats. A Grand Theatre, a
Contemporary Art Museum, a
Multipurpose Hall and supporting facilities.
The central plaza is generated by the
relative position of these separate
buildings and offers a strong urban
experience whereby the flow of
pedestrian visitors that come from all sides
of the site intersect and meet.
Liquid Architecture CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL CENTER, CHINA
Liquid Architecture CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL CENTER, CHINA

The Museums composition of three fluid petals around its internal central atrium, juxtaposes of the
various patchworks of gallery spaces in a truly seamless fashion. With outward views and balconies to its
exteriors, it aims to engage the sites unique location and surrounding views into some of its gallery
spaces. An external plaza which faces Meixihu Lake Road allows for outdoor sculptures, exhibitions and
events to be extended to an expansive outdoor space.
Liquid Architecture CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL CENTER, CHINA

The Small Theatre (Multipurpose Hall) is characterized by its flexibility. With a maximum capacity of 500
seats, it can be adapted and transformed to different configurations. It can therefore accommodate a
broad range of functions and shows that span from banquets and commercial events to small plays,
fashion shows and music. A commercial attraction, this venue shares seamless public access to retail
areas and restaurant facilities, which are seated in an open and gently sunken courtyard linking visitors
to and from the basement level.
Liquid Architecture CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL CENTER, CHINA

Although these civic institutions are uniquely defined and separate, they supply each other in all

respects within its setting with plazas offering visitors a tapestry-like sequence of urban ambiances that

relate to the different institutions, inject the site with urban vitality.

This dynamic composition further establishes a powerful relationship with its surroundings, which confers

## monumentality to the ensemble.

Embodying values of functionality, elegance and innovation, the Changsha Meixihu Lake International

Culture & Arts Center aims to become the new cultural and civic node for the city of Changsha, and

## well as global cultural destination.

Liquid Architecture LONDON AQUATIC CENTER - OLYMPIC 2012
2011; Built : 15950.0 sqm.

The architectural concept of the London Aquatic Centre is inspired by the fluid geometries of water in
motion, creating spaces and a surrounding environment that reflect the riverside landscapes of the
Olympic Park. An undulating roof sweeps up from the ground as a wave - enclosing the pools of the
Centre with a unifying gesture of fluidity, while also describing the volume of the swimming and diving
pools.
CONSTRUCTED BUILDING

RENDERED IMAGE
Liquid Architecture LONDON AQUATIC CENTER - OLYMPIC 2012
2011; Built : 15950.0 sqm.

The pool hall is expressed above the podium by a large roof which arches along the same axis as the
pools. Its form is generated by the sightlines of the 17,500 spectators in its Olympic mode. Double-
curvature geometry has been used to generate a parabolic arch structure that creates the unique
characteristics of the roof. The roof undulates to differentiate between the volumes of competition pool
and the diving pool. Projecting beyond the pool hall envelope, the roof extends to the external areas
and to the main entrance on the bridge that will be the primary access in Legacy mode. Structurally,
the roof is grounded at 3 primary positions with the opening between the roof and podium used for the
additional spectator seating in Olympic mode, then in-filled with a glass faade in Legacy mode.
Liquid Architecture LONDON AQUATIC CENTER - OLYMPIC 2012
2011; Built : 15950.0 sqm.

## The Aquatics Centre is planned on an

orthogonal axis that is perpendicular to the
Stratford City Bridge. All three pools are
aligned on this axis. The training pool is
located under the bridge with the
competition and diving pools located within
the large pool hall enclosed by the roof. The
overall strategy is to frame the base of the
pool hall as a podium connected to the
Stratford City Bridge.
This podium element contains of a variety of
differentiated and cellular programmes within
a single architectural volume which is seen to
be completely assimilated with the bridge.
The podium emerges from the bridge to
cascade around the pool hall to the lower
level of the canal.
Liquid Architecture LONDON AQUATIC CENTER - OLYMPIC 2012
2011; Built : 15950.0 sqm.
The pool hall is expressed above the podium level
by a large roof arching along the same axis as the
pools, its generated by sight lines for spectators
during Olympic mode. Double curvature geometry
creates a structure of parabolic arches that provide
the character of the roof
Liquid Architecture SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY
20131 Built :1566 sq.m

## Instrumental to the transformation into a

public art gallery was the decision to
reinstate the historic arrangement of the
Magazine building as a free standing
pavilion within an enclosure, whereby the
former courtyards would be covered and
become internal exhibition spaces. In order
to reveal the original central spaces, all
non-historic partition walls within the former
gunpowder stores were removed. The flat
gauged arches over the entrances were
The Serpentine Sackler Gallery consists of two distinct
reinstated whilst the historic timber gantry
parts, namely the conversion of a classical 19th century
crane was maintained. Necessary services
brick structure - The Magazine and a 21st century
and lighting were discreetly integrated as
tensile structure. - the second art space where Zaha
to not interfere with as found quality of
Hadid Architects have created a synthesis of old and
the spaces. These vaults are now part of
new.
the sequence of gallery spaces.
Liquid Architecture SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY
20131 Built :1566 sq.m

The envelope is completed by a curved, frameless glass wall that cantilevers from the ground to
reach the edge beam and fabric roof. The interior of the new extension is a bright, open space
with light pouring in from all sides and through the 5 steel columns that open up as light scoops.
The anticlastic curvature of the roof animates the space with its sculptural, organic fluidity. The
only fixed elements within the space are the kitchen island and a long smooth bar counter that
flows along the Magazines brick wall. The tables, banquets and chairs are designed as a
continuous Voronoi pattern, reminiscent of organic cell structures.
Liquid Architecture SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY
20131 Built :1566 sq.m

## Longitudinal roof lights deliver natural

daylight into the whole gallery sequence
surrounding the central vaults and with a
fixed louver system they create perfectly
lit exhibition spaces. Retractable blinds
allow for a complete black-out of the
galleries. The continuous sky-light makes
the vertical protrusion of the central core
of the building (containing the two vaults)
legible on the inside.
Liquid Architecture SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY
20131 Built :1566 sq.m

## The new extension feels ephemeral, like a

temporary structure, although it is a fully
functional permanent building. It is the first
permanent tensile structure and realization of
our current research into curvilinear structural
surfaces. The tailored, glass-fibre woven textile
membrane is an integral part of the buildings
load bearing structure. It stretches between
and connects a perimeter ring beam and a set
of five interior columns that articulate the roofs
highpoints. Instead of using perimeter columns,
the edge beam - a twisted ladder truss
supported on three points - dips down to the
supporting ground in front, in the back, and on
the free west side.
Liquid Architecture SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY
20131 Built :1566 sq.m
Liquid Architecture ROCA LONDON GALLERY, U.K
2009-2011 Built :1100 sq.m

Designed as a versatile multi purpose environment, the gallery will host a wide range of social and
cultural events .
The design theme of water movement extends to the dynamic facade of Roca London gallery ,
which appears initially to the visitors approaching the architecture like set of ripples in movement
across the exterior of the ground level space
The grey facade has large apertures of the main entrance and windows and an appearance of
tactility, creating a sense of intrigue on the street as the visitor approaches.
Liquid Architecture ROCA LONDON GALLERY, U.K
2009-2011 Built :1100 sq.m

## The fluid lines of convergence both lend

each area of the space an individual
identity and connect them by the way
they define a feeling of movement.

## The geometry is akin to natural forms, with no one

point in the space being projected vertically. The
language of fluidity and natural movement is
driven by ZHAs commitment to parametric design
tools and to the creative possibilities arising from
the constant evolution of manufacturing processes
and techniques.
Liquid Architecture ROCA LONDON GALLERY, U.K
2009-2011 Built :1100 sq.m

## The design brings about a connective

language between the architecture and
the bathroom products, with the movement
of water carving out the interior and
moving through the gallery as individual
drops. A flowing , all white space made of
faceted gypsum panels serves as a central
axis of the gallery. Around this a number of
smaller connected semi enclosed spaces
can be viewed through opening s in walls.
As the result the visitor never feels
Water defines the landscape of the interior space,
enclosed in one space, but can always see
creating a sense of mobile liquidity reinforced by a
beyond it into the space through
series of elongated, illuminated water drops. The
overlapping and cutaway forms that
cascade around the ceiling as a set of lighting fixtures,
enable a pleasing permeability to the
down the walls as shelves for books , media and small
gallery.
products and onto the floor as tables and seating

Esfera City Center / Zaha Hadid Architects
F RACTAL GEOMETRY
FRACTAL GEOMETRY
INTRODUCTION
For a long period of time , nature has been an inspiration for architects, which implies copying
natural forms, translating them into floral ornamentation or using underlying structures found in
nature for static optimization.

## Mimicking natural forms and structural organizations of natural settings.

Fractal geometry is the formal study of mathematical shapes that display a progression of never-
ending, self-similar, meandering detail from large to small scales. It has the descriptive power to
capture, explain, and enhance one's appreciation of and control over complex diversity.

Fractal structures could also relate the physiological and cognitive effects of both natural
phenimena such as waves and cultural artifacts like music.

The term fractal is derived from the term fractus meaning broken or fractured.

## Fractal geometry has been described and explore since 1970s

FRACTAL GEOMETRY
INTRODUCTION
One of the defining feature that plays an important role within the field of fractal geometry is the concept of
DIMENSION

Fractal architecture can be realized by repeating similar details on multiple hierarchical scales of an
architectural design

Natural shapes and rhythms, such as leaves, tree branching, mountain ridges, flood levels of a river, wave
patterns, and nerve impulses, display this cascading behavior. These fractal concepts are found in many
fields, from physics to musical composition.

Architecture and design, concerned with control over rhythm, and with such fractal concepts as the
progression of forms from a distant view down to the intimate details, can benefit from the use of this
relatively new mathematical tool.

Fractal geometry is a rare example of a technology that reaches into the core of design composition, allowing
the architect or designer to express a complex understanding of nature.
FRACTAL - In Nature
FRACTAL fibonacci series
FRACTAL - GENERATION

## The Koch snowflake (also known as the Koch

curve, Koch star, or Koch island) is
a mathematical curve and one of the
earliest fractal curves to have been described. It is
based on the Koch curve, which appeared in a
1904 paper titled "On a continuous curve without
tangents, constructible from elementary geometry
by the Swedish mathematician Helge von koch .
The progression for the area of the snowflake
converges to 8/5 times the area of the original
triangle, while the progression for the snowflake's
perimeter diverges to infinity. Consequently, the
snowflake has a finite area bounded by an infinitely
long line
KOCHS SNOWFLAKE
FRACTAL GEOMETRY
SIERPINSKI TRIANGLE.

## connecting them. The

iterations should be

repeated an infinite

number of times.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY

Fractal aesthetics

## Fractal structure Fractal architecture

-Eiffel tower
Temple
Arial view of Ba- ila villagers- africa

Fractal planning

FRACTAL GEOMETRY

Friuli Venezia Giulia( ITALY)
FRACTAL GEOMETRY
Historically, fractals have been found to be present world-wide, particularly in
places such as, Africa, Europe and India. However their uses and origins differ. For
example, 'African fractals are more directly informed by nature' and their
composition is derived from the social structure of their day-to-day village life and
patriarchal values. Where as the Indian architectural use of fractals demonstrates
their Hindu belief in the infinite cosmos, which is thought to be composed entirely of
fractal elements. On the other hand, the use of fractals in European architecture is
greatly varied ranging from the organized hierarchy of St Peter's Dome ,the
complicated fractal ornamentation of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque
Cathedrals, to the ambiguous scale of K. Malevich's Arkitectonic models
(perspective above) and the complex fractal construction of the Eiffel tower
FRACTAL GEOMETRY THE HALL OF NATIONS- NEHRU PAVILION
REWAL RAJ / MAHENDRA RAJ
FRACTAL GEOMETRY THE HALL OF NATIONS- NEHRU PAVILION
REWAL RAJ / MAHENDRA RAJ

## The Permanent Exhibition Complex is designed

to form the focus of 130 acres of Exhibition
ground designed by Raj Rewal in New Delhi.
The design was evolved to meet the constraints
of time, availability of materials and labour, but
above all, to reflect symbolically and
technologically, India's intermediate technology
in the 25th year of its independence.
The depth of the structural system( Fractal
geometry) was utilized as a Sun breaker and
conceived of in terms of the traditional 'jali', a
geometrical pattern of perforation that serves to
obstruct directs rays of the harsh Sun while
permitting air circulation.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY THE HALL OF NATIONS- NEHRU PAVILION
REWAL RAJ / MAHENDRA RAJ

## The main pavilion of the Hall of Nations has a

clear span of 78 metres and a height varying from
three metres to 21 metres, thereby providing a
vast capacity for items to be exhibited, from
books to bulldozers.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Lab architecture- Federation square.
Melbourne

Federation Square is a civic centre and cultural precinct in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is
a mixed-use development covering an area of 3.2 hectare
The formal conception the architects were aiming at the material and visual coherence of all the
buildings using perfectly assembled geometric structures arranged irregularly. The rectangle and
triangle are the most frequently used geometric shapes in the different buildings, as glass, stone and
zinc are the main material used.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Lab architecture- Federation square.
Melbourne

The tiling pattern is used to create the structural sub-framing for the facades. The pinwheel tiling
system was based on the single triangular element, composed of zinc, perforated zinc, sandstone or
glass (known as a tile), which was joined to 4 other similar tiles on an aluminum frame, to form a "panel.
The rotational positioning of the tiles gives the facades a more random, uncertain compositional quality,
even though the process of its construction is based on pre-fabrication and repetition.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Lab architecture- Federation square.
Melbourne

## This Fractal facade" is contrasted with sections

featuring use of metal like surfaces including
randomly slotted metallic screens and transparent
glass walls tinted with a slightly green tinge

## The Interiors and exteriors can be described as

being of a deconstructivist style, with modern
minimalist shapes interspersed with geometry and
angular slots.
While there are slight variations, the main bulk of its
buildings follow a similar theme with a complex
geometrical design featuring a mix of zinc,
perforated zinc, glass and sandstone tiles over a
metal exo-skeletal frame in a complex geometrical
pattern composed entirely of scalene triangles. The
triangle is formed with dimensions 1,2
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Lab architecture- Federation square.
Melbourne

## The architects have employed non-classical

geometries that govern surfaces and three-
dimensional form at a variety of scales from
the partition to the lighting grid.

## These geometries, which are not all the same

but are genetically alike, are based on
concepts of fractal. Like the process of
sketching where a line appears from a series
of pencil strokes, the forms of Federation
Square arise from a reiteration and
accumulation of actions within the system set
up by the architects.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY South Australian Health and Medical Research
Institute / Woods Bagot

## The SAHMRIs sculptural, iconic form is

characterized by a striking transparent facade
that unifies the organic diamond-shaped plan
while showcasing the two atria inside the building.
Inspired by the skin of a pine cone, the buildings
unique triangulated dia-grid facade responds to its
environment like a living organism.
Both functional and aesthetic in nature, the
reduce heat and glare, and maintain vision for a
healthy internal environment.
basic functional program of the building floor
plate sculpted to express an organic object
from its inherent functional symmetry, ready for
the application of the triangular diagrid skin
modulation.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY
The glass skin comprises 6,300 triangular glass panels.
The structural steel grid spans up to 40 metres with
no additional support and has less embodied
energy than if it would have been made of
aluminium. The sunshades have been designed and
orientated for optimum thermal and light efficiency
(reducing also heat load and glare), and sizes vary
for that reason, making it nearly impossible to
register the buildings scale accurately.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Mumbai airport- SOM architects

## The panelled cells of the canopy spanning the

new airport terminal in Mumbai was designed by
American firm SOM to reference both the open-
air pavilions of traditional Indian vernacular
architecture and the arrangement of feathers in
a peacock's tail - Fractal geometry
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Mumbai airport- SOM architects

## Inside, visitors are greeted with a warm, light-filled

chamber, sheltered beneath a long-span roof
supported by thirty mushrooming columns, which
call to mind the interior courtyards of local houses.
recessed within the canopys coffers, small disks of
colorful glass reflect speckled light across the
grand hall below. the kaleidoscopic effect
references the peacock, the national bird of india
and the symbol of the airport itself.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Turning Torso
Santiago Calatrava
In the original sculpture of Turning Torso, seven cubes are set
around a steel support to produce a spiral structure, which
resembles a twisting human spine.

## In the Turning Torso building, the spiraling tower is

composed of nine box units, each of five floors. The
equivalent in the tower of the sculpture's steel support is
the nucleus of internal elevators and stairs, through
which the box units communicate. The framework
consists of the core, shaped like a concrete pipe. Inside
the core a concrete construction houses lift shafts and
staircases.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Turning Torso
Santiago Calatrava

## An exo skeleton around the building's front face is made of

tapered white steel tubes. Following the concrete perimeter
column, the exoskeleton's single upright is fixed to the tower
between each module with horizontal and inclined tubes.
These tubes reach back to steel anchors embedded in shear
walls at the building's back corners.

aluminum panels, with
windows leaning either
inwards or outwards, in order
to follow the twist of the
building.
The structural slabs, shaped
like slices of a pie that fitted
together to form an entire
floor, are anchored in the
core. Each floor is rotated to
create the characteristic
twist of the building.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Oriente Station,lisbon-Portuguese
Santiago Calatrava

Oriente Station is situated in an urban area of reclaimed industrial and abandoned buildings fronting
the northern margin of the Tagus River, situated 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the city centre.
With some influence from Gothic architecture, the station has been evolved with fractal geometry
characteristic.
Santiago Calatrava
Oriente features several design elements
that keep travelers from becoming
claustrophobic. The most notable is the
beautiful and massive metal skeleton that
covers eight elevated tracks and their
corresponding platforms. The structure
seems to emulate the veiny underside of a
tree leaf, with beams shooting off in all
directions. The structure is covered only
with glass, so daylight can illuminate the
station during the day.
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Reggio Emilia AV Mediopadana
Santiago Calatrava

## A high-speed train station in Reggio

Emilia, Italy, opened in 2013. Made
with white-painted steel and glass,
the undulating structure forms a
shape called a sinusoidal curve.

## The structure for the Mediopadana

Station is a large undulation form
composed of 457 steel frames

The fame varies slightly so as to give the appearance of a fluid wave. Over top of the
platform to provide protection from the elements, translucent glass panels are situated
between the steel members. For added support, each of the ribs is partially supported by a
curved longitudinal beam supported every 25 meters by a composite concrete and steel
column
FRACTAL GEOMETRY Reggio Emilia AV Mediopadana
FRACTAL GEOMETRY LHemisfric, valenica
Santiago Calatrava

## The globe of LHemisfric (the Planetarium),

which is built in the shape of human eye,which
also houses the Omnimax theater, is roofed over
by an elliptical shell structure and placed within an
elliptical pod that cradles it like the pupil of an eye

## The pupil is the hemispherical dome of the IMAX

theatre and the eyelid can open and close by
using hydraulic lifts to operate the steel and glass
shutter. The concrete socket of the eye
incorporates elongated aluminium awnings that
differ in length and fold upwards collectively, or as
individual units, to form a brise-soleil roof that
opens along the curved central axis of the eye
shape. The concrete encasement has been
extended upwards, and the brise-soleil narrowed
and replaced by a system of slats mounted on
each side of pivoting, to imitate the structure of a
feather.The brise-soleil is moved hydraulically up
the outside of the structure by telescoping
Translucent glass panels embedded in the path
allow light into the underground spaces and
demarcate the axis through the center of the
Planetarium. The walkway also connects to the
sunken gallery, formed by the prefabricated,
concrete arches that support the transparent roof,
FRACTAL GEOMETRY LHemisfric, valenica
Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava

Peace bridge,Alberta

## Fractal sculpture- calatrava

FRACTAL GEOMETRY
INTRODUCTION
What are the possible motivations for creating a building based on fractals?

One reason is the structural strength mentioned above. Fractals also disperse the energy of waves
very efficiently whether they be sound waves from noise, vibrational waves from passing traffic, or
shakes from earthquakes. Thus, fractal buildings are fundamentally quiet and safe. Fractal shapes also
have large surface area to volume ratios. For example, trees are built from fractals in order to
maximize exposure to the sunlight. Possible advantages of this large surface area for buildings
therefore include solar cells on the rooftops and windows that deliver a large amount of light to the
buildings interior.

However, the main reason for building fractal architecture focuses on the associated aesthetics and the
hope of mimicking a natural organic shape. The study of aesthetic judgement of fractal patterns
constitutes a relatively new research field. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown the people find
fractals to be aesthetically pleasing and that they can reduce the observers stress-levels.
Although we think of fractal architecture as a concept for future cities, examples such as the sunken
temple show that our ancestors have been exploiting the many positive qualities of fractals for many
centuries.