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Chapter 3

Building Blocks of
Scientific Research
Business Research (Duane Davis)
Business Research Methods (Cooper/Schindler)
Courtesy: Sir khurram Gujjar & Mr. Danish

Resource Person: Furqan-ul-haq Siddiqui

of Scientific Research
Critical concepts (terminologies) which must be understood
to enter in the world of research. These are the building
blocks upon which building of research is laid down.

Observation Theory
Facts Preposition
Concepts Hypothesis
Construct Variable
Observations are our perception of reality & experimental in
nature. Observation is the activity of a living being (such as
a human), consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside
world through the senses, or the recording of data using
scientific instruments.

The word fact can refer to verified information about past

or present circumstances or events which are presented as
objective reality. In science, it means a provable concept.
A concept is generally accepted collection of meanings or
characteristics associated with certain objects, conditions,
situations and behavior.
To understand & communicate information about objects
or events there must be a common ground on which to do
A concept is typically associated with a corresponding
representation in a language or mental representations,
such as a single meaning of a term.
The concept changes from place to place, things to things,
idea to idea
Table, 1st line manager, production
A construct is an image or idea specially
invented for research purpose. Constructs are
built by combining more concrete concepts,
especially when the idea or image we invented
to convey is not subject to direct observation.
Eg. When a researcher defines terms of
morale, satisfaction, motivation, gravity etc.
Ways of Communication/Reasoning
Ways of conveying meaning
Exposition: Exposition is the type of statement
that describe some thing without reason/logic.
Argument: Argument allow us to explain,
interpret, defend, challenge or explore meaning.
Specially used when a statement gives different
meaning to different people, in order to
support/prove our statement we take help of
In Research two types of arguments are used
1. Deduction (deductive reasoning)
2. Induction (Inductive reasoning)
The logical process of reasoning by which a
specific conclusion is derived from something which
is known to be true or from a known premises
(Premises are previous statements from which
another is derived).
The conclusion must fallow a reason, and the reason
must be from real world, or agreed by real world
(true & Valid).
Deductive techniques of formal logic always leads
from the general to the particular and never vice

We believe that every word of Holly Quran is 100% true.

In the Quran it is written that the world was created in 7
Therefore the statement that the world was created in
7 days is true.
All managers need information to make decisions.
Mr. Ali is a decision maker
Mr. Ali needs information to make decisions
All high performers managers are highly proficient.
Khalid is a high performer
Khalid is a high proficient
At IMS cheating in exams is strictly not allowed.
I am a student of IMS
I don't cheat in exams
If T is larger than C, and If C is larger than W, then T is
larger than W.