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Female
Gametophyte
FEMALE
GAMETOPHYTE
Female
Gametophyte

Central cell
with 2 polar
nuclei
Female
Gametophyte

Egg apparatus
•one egg cell
•two synergids
Female
Gametophyte

Chalazal End
* 3 antipodal
cells
Development
Of
Embryo Sac

Begins with
elongation of functional
megaspore .
Elongation is largely
in micropylar
chalazal axis
  
• Non-Vacuolated megaspore
cytoplasm later developed
with small sized vacuoles.
• In later period they may fuse
together to form large sized
vacuoles.
Stages In
Megagametogenesis
Megaspore after
first - meiotic
mitosis
• A large central vacuole now
appears between the two
daughter nuclei.


• On further expansion of
vacuole the nuclei are pushed
towards opposite poles of the
cell.
Four Nucleate
Stage

le i
n u c
h e ce , t
h t w i i a
• Bo
t e t c le
i vi d n u
d g 4 ole
m in h p
fo r c
ea
Ei
gh
t
Nu
St cl
ag ea
e te

• Again divides to form


8 nucleate stage
3 + 2 + 3
Distribution
• All the 8 nuclei are in
a common cytoplas - m
• Soon after this division
cell elongates and gains
the sac like appearance
Mature Embryo Sac
• 3 – celled egg
apparatus
• 3 – antipodal cell
• Large central cell
with Secondary
nucleus
Mature Embryo Sac
Types Of Embryo
Sac
Depending upon the number of
megaspore nuclei involved in
the formation of Eembryo
• Monosporic Embryo Sac
Sac
• Bisporic Embryo Sac
• Tetrasporic Embryo Sac
Monosporic
Embryo Sac


Features

It is derived from only one of the
four megaspores.

Al the nuclei are genetically
identical, because they are derived
Types Of Monosporic
Embryo Sac


Polygonum

It is formed by the chalazal megaspore
of the tetrad & is 8 nucleate. It Consists,

* 3 celled egg apparatus

* 3 antipodal cells

Types Of Monosporic
Embryo Sac


Oenothera type

It is formed by the micropylar
megaspore of the tetrad & is 4
nucleate. It Consists,

* 3 celled egg apparatus
Types Of Bisporic
Embryo Sac

Features
Formation of dyad cell.

Among 2 one undergoes 2nd meiotic division


and other one degenerates.
Types Of Bisporic
Embryo Sac

Allium Type
The embryo sac is derrived from the
chalazal dyad cell.

Endymion
Types Of Tetrasporic
Embryo Sac
No wall formation takes
place . Hence at the end of
meiosis all the 4 haploid nuclei
in a common cytoplas - m forming
coenomegaspore .
All the 4 nuclei of the
coenomega - spore take part in the
formatio n of embryo sac . Due to
the meiosis all nucleus are
genetically different .
Tetrasporic – Adoxa
Type

Embryo sac is 8 nucleate &


formed after the post - meiotic
mitosis .
Tetrasporic –
Plumbago type
Only one post meiotic mitosis
occurs . The mature embryo sac
consists an - Egg cell
- 4 nucleate central cell
Other 3 nuclei are cut off as
peripheral cell .
Tetrasporic – Penea
Type
Due to 2 post - meiotic motises
in the coenomegaspore 16 nuclei are
formed . It consists 4 groups of 3
cell each ,
- one at the micropylar end
- one at the chalazal end
- two arranged laterally
Remaining 4 behaves as polar
Egg apparatus – micropylar triad
Tetrasporic –
Peperomia Type
The embryo sac is 16 nucleate . The
organization of mature sac is
- Ony one egg and synergids
- six peripheral cells
- central cell with 8 polar
nuclei
Tetrasporic - Drusa

It is also 16 nucleate . It
consists
- 3 celled egg apparatus
- 2 polar nuclei
- 11 antipodal cells
Tetrasporic –
Fritillaria
After the nuclear fusion both
nuclei of the coenomegaspore( one 1N
and one 2N) divide twice forming 4
nuclei at each pole. The mature embryo
sac comprises an
- egg apparatus of 3 1N cells .
- 3 triploid antipodal cells
- Central cell with 2 polar nuclei
one 1N and one 2N
asporic – Plumbagella

nuclei are formed . Two at micropyla


ne acts as upper polar nucleus
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