Sei sulla pagina 1di 28

UNIT-5

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


FLUORESCENT PENETRANT TECHNIQUE
(OR)
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)
ADVANTAGES OF LIQUID PENETRANT
Relatively low cost
Highly portable NDT method
Fairly simple method
Can be used on a variety of materials
LIMITATIONS OF LIQUID PENETRANT
Test surface must be free of all contaminants
(dirt, oil, grease, paint, rust, etc.)
Cannot be used on porous specimens and is
difficult to use on very rough surfaces
There is no easy method to produce permanent
record
ULTRASONIC TESTING

Most ultrasonic inspection is done at


frequencies between 0.5 and 20
MHz, well above the range of
human hearing which is about 20
Hz to 20 kHz
ULTRASONIC TESTING
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TESTING
It has high sensitivity which permits
detection of minute defects
It has high penetrating power (of the order of 6
to 7 metres in steel) which allows examination
of extremely thick sections
It has a high accuracy of measurement of flaw
position and size
It has fast response which permits rapid and
automatic inspection
It needs access to only one surface of the
specimen
LIMITATIONS OF ULTRASONIC TESTING
Highly skilled manpower is required
Reference standards and calibration required
Rough surfaces can be a problem and surface
preparation is necessary
Equipment is quite expensive
MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION

Distortion of the magnetic flux lines due to


a surface crack in a magnetic material
Distortion of the magnetic flux lines
due to a subsurface defect
Little distortion of the magnetic flux lines
when the length of the defect is
parallel to the applied magnetic field will
not
ADVANTAGES OF MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
It does not need very stringent pre-cleaning
operation
Best method for the detection of fine, shallow
surface cracks in ferromagnetic material
Fast and relatively simple NDT method
Generally inexpensive
It is quicker
LIMITATIONS OF MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
Material must be ferromagnetic
Large currents sometimes required
Orientation and strength of magnetic field is
critical
EDDY CURRENT TESTING

Coil's
Coil magnetic field

Eddy current's
magnetic field
Eddy
currents

Conductive
material
EDDY CURRENT TESTING

Distortion of eddy currents due to defect

Generation of eddy currents in the test specimen.


TYPES OF PROBES USED IN EDDY
CURRENT TESTING
Internal probes are usually used for the
in-service testing of heat exchanger
tubes
Encircling probes are commonly
used for the testing of rods and tubes
during manufacturing
The uses of surface probes include the
location of cracks, sorting of materials,
measurement of wall and coating thickness
ADVANTAGES OF EDDY CURRENT TESTING
Is extremely sensitive to flaws
Is very repeatable.
High scanning speeds can be used.
Is very accurate for dimensional analysis of flaws or
coating thickness
Has uncomplicated steps during set-up.

LIMITATIONS OF EDDY CURRENT TESTING


Extremely sensitive to surface variations and therefore
requires a good surface
The theory requires a good academic background in
electrical principles and in mathematics
Can be used on non-magnetic and magnetic material
but is not reliable on carbon steel for the detection of
subsurface flaws
ACOUSTIC EMISSION TECHNIQUE
THERMOGRAPHY
Measurement chain

(1) (2)
INSTRUMENTATION

Calibration
heating
piece 1- IR camera
2 control panel of the camera
COMPAQ 3 Direct view on the screen
V70
V70

(4)
4 Signal processing of the
(3)
acquisition
TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

Without With defect rubber


defect

Applied
Heat
Transmitte
d Heat T
carbon

14 mm
REFLEXION TECHNIQUE

Without defect With defect


rubber

Emitted
Heat T
Reflected
carbon
Heat
Absorbed
Heat

14 mm

THERMOGRAM
ADVANTAGES
Global examination of part
Only ONE SIDE access is required for the examination
Real Time inspection
Apply for all composite structure and materials even porous
not very sensitive to part geometry, well suited for large surfaces

DISADVANTAGES
Sensitive to heating mode (type,duration,position)
Response time must be studied
Exact composition of the pieces and the thicknesses must be known
Less definition than Ultrasonic C-Scan and Radiography
Inhomogeneous heating on complex part
RADIOGRAPHY
THE PRINCIPLES OF X-RAY TESTING
THE PRINCIPLES OF -RAY TESTING