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# PROBLEM 12

SAFETY
CONTINGENCIES

Problem 12 - Page 1
PROBLEM 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
At this point, after the equipment design pressures and temperatures have been
set, and the location of all the pressure relief valves has been determined, the
pressure relief valves should be designed.

The first step before any pressure relief valves can be sized is to identify all the
various safety contingencies that need to be considered for the major equipment
items. For this problem, the contingencies for the T-1 Depentaniser will be
evaluated and pressure relief valve relieving capacities will be determined (In
Problem No. 12, the pressure relief valve will be sized).

## For this problem:

1. List all the contingencies that should be considered for the T-1
Depentaniser.

## 2. Determine the flow rate or relieving capacity required through the

pressure relief valve(s) for each contingency.

Problem 12 - Page 2
PROBLEM 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
Assume:

## 21% accumulation pressure for a fire contingency.

The tower is insulated with 25mm of insulation good for fire (F = 0.075)

## The tower diameter at 2.4 m; facilities have good drainage.

Spare pumps are on a different power circuit from the main pumps.

The HLL in the bottom section of the tower is 4.3m above the bottom
tangent line.

## Do not calculate the relief rate required for a liquid overfill

contingency. This has been calculated for you.

## Do not consider the case of water in the feed in the contingency

analysis.

Problem 12 - Page 3
SOLUTION 12 - PRESSURE RELIEF

Problem 12 - Page 4
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
1. CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

FIRE

## loss to P-4/P-4A (ovhd prod), leading to blocked ovhd product outlet,

No credit can be taken for spare pumps on different power supplies to
main pumps (DP XV-C Page 15)
loss to P-3/P-3A (reflux), leading to loss of reflux (loss of heat removal),
loss to P-2/P-2A (btms prod), leading to blocked btms product outlet. Loss
of P-2/P-2A may lead to overpressure if T-1 becomes liquid filled.
Problem 12 - Page 5
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

Liquid Filling T-1 must be considered a design contingency unless both of the
following are provided (DP XV-C Page 19):

independent LHA
at least 30 mins holdup (vapour space above LHA)
T-1 has no independent alarm, so liquid overfill is a valid contingency. If one
were specified, it will be shown later (Problem 12) that liquid overfill is still a valid
contingency since tower holdup is less than 30 mins.
b. power loss to all consuming equipment
Feed Pumps will stop, so no overpressure.

## Cooling Water Failure (DP XV-C Page 17, 22)

loss of condenser duty, leading to loss of reflux, leading to overpressure.

Problem 12 - Page 6
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTION
Any one control valve may fail in any position (DP XV-C Page 20)
T-1 ovhd PRC CV closes, leading to blocked outlet
T-1 return FRC CV closes, leading to loss of reflux and overpressure
T-1 btms LRC CV closes, leading to blocked outlet for btms product

Problem 12 - Page 7
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
Operating Failure
Inadvertent operation of a block valve
close block valve between T-1 and D-1, leading to partial or total
block in (depending on valve)
close block valve on T-1 ovhd product, leading to D-1 overfill
close block valve on P-2/P-2A suction, leading to blocked outlet
with potential for liquid overfill.
This contingency has same effect as power loss to P-2/P-2A
close block valve between T-1 and tankage, leading to blocked
outlet with potential for liquid overfill. Unlike above, reboiler F-1 is
still operating.
This contingency has the same effect as T-1 LRC valve closing.

## SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FRACTIONATOR OVERHEAD SYSTEMS

(DP XV-C Page 30).
Basically covered above, issues around Overhead Drum.
Problem 12 - Page 8
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
SUMMARY
The various causes of overpressure, and the associated contingency are summarised
below.
CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE CONTINGENCY
1. FIRE FIRE

## 2. BLOCKED OVERHEAD OUTLET Power loss (P-4 / P-4A)

Cooling water loss
Equipment malfunction
(liquid distillate PCV fail closes)
Operating failure(closure of block valve)

## 3. LOSS OF REFLUX Power loss (P-3 / P-3A)

Could be due to condensing failure
Equipment malfunction(reflux
FCV closes)
Operating failure (closure of block valve)

Problem 12 - Page 9
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

## 4. BLOCKED BTMS PROD OUTLET Power loss (P-2 / P-2A)

(Total Block, No out flow, No Operating Failure (Closure of valve u/s of P-2
reboiler Duty) - Liquid Overfill (1)

## 5. BLOCKED BTMS PROD OUTLET

(Partial Block, No out flow, Equipment malfunction (Bottoms
Reboiler still operating) LCV closes)
Liquid Overfill (2) Operating failure (closure of valve to tankage)

## 6. LIQUID OVERFILL ON START UP- Equipment malfunction (Bottoms LCV closes)

Liquid Overfill (3) Operating failure (closure of block valve)

Problem 12 - Page 10
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

CONTINGENCY 1

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Fire

BASIS Hand written calc attached
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr 590

CONTINGENCY 2

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Blocked Overhead Outlet

BASIS Normal Overhead vapour rate. (DP XV-C
page 22-23)
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr 66013 (Stream 3, Problem 3)

Problem 12 - Page 11
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
CONTINGENCY 3

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Loss of Reflux

BASIS Normal Overhead Vapour Rate. (DP XV-C
page 22-23)
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr 66013 (Stream 3, Problem 3)

CONTINGENCY 4

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Blocked Bottoms Product Outlet

(Total Block, No out flow, No reboiler duty)
BASIS No condenser Duty (Flooded)
No Feed Preheat, No reboiler.
Take credit for normal overhead product
flow.
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr Feed Rate minus normal overhead
product flow.
Will not be limiting - See Liquid Overfill on
Start-up below.

Problem 12 - Page 12
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
CONTINGENCY 5

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Blocked bottoms product outlet

BASIS No Condenser duty (flooded).
No Feed Preheat
Reboiler still operating.
Take credit for normal overhead product out.
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr Feed rate, with added reboiler duty, minus
Relief Rate Required = 47.8 Te/h liquid plus 57.2
Te/h vapour. (Carried out in PRO/II. See output,
attached.)
CONTINGENCY 6

## CAUSE OF OVERPRESSURE Liquid overfill at start-up.

BASIS Assume no condenser/reboiler duty and no
product flow.
RELIEF RATE, kg/hr Feed Rate at Feed conditions.

Problem 12 - Page 13
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

## Area (A) includes:

a) straight side area up to max 7.62 m above grade (tower BTL at 6.1 m above
grade, HLL at 4.3 m above BTL) so H = 7.62 - 6.1 = 1.52 m
A1 = d L , assume dia=2.40 m = 3.14 x 2.40 x 1.52 = 11.45 m2
b) bottom head (assume 2:1 elliptical), use equation A = 1.14 d**2
A2 = 1.14 d **2 = 1.14 x 2.40**2 = 6.57 m2
c) tower dumped level would not come into play, so Area =sum of surface areas
Area = A1 + A2 = 11.45 + 6.57 = 18.02 m2
Total Heat Absorbed (Q):
Q = 43.2 F A ** 0.82
Q = 43.2 x 0.075 x 18.02 ** 0.82 = 34.69 kW

Problem 12 - Page 14
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES
Vapour Release Rate (W):
W=Q/
= Latent heat of vaporisation of the liquid in the vessel evaluated at the
pressure existing at the PR valve inlet under full discharge conditions
and obtained from VLE calculations per API PR-520 Part I, Figure D-3.
a) Use of Figure D-3: obtain molecular weight
Use T-1 bottoms stream; MW =126
b) Vapour pressure = PRV relieving = accumulation
VP = 5.2 barg x 1.21 = 6.29 barg = 106 psia
c) Latent heat of vaporisation (from Figure D-3) = 91 Btu/lb
91 Btu/lb x 4.18 x 2.205 / 3.966 = 211.5 kJ/ kg
d) Vapour release W = Q /
W = 34.69 kw / 211.5 = 0.164 kg/s or 590 kg/hr

## PRV Relieving temperature

From Figure D-3 Temperature = 470 F (243 C)

Problem 12 - Page 15
SOLUTION 12 - SAFETY CONTINGENCIES

Problem 12 - Page 16
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency

VAP_90

V2

VAP_TO_PRV
TOTAL_TO_PRV

V1
M1
F2

L4

T-1FEED L2
F1 LIQ_90

S2 LIQ_TO_PRV

S2

L1
L3

OVHD_LIQ_OUT

SP1

Problem 12 - Page 17
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency

TITLE
DIMENSION METRIC, PRES=BAR, ENERGY=KJ, STDTEMP=0, STDPRES=1.01325
SEQUENCE SIMSCI
CALCULATION RVPBASIS=IDL, TVP=37.778
COMPONENT DATA
LIBID 1,PROPANE/2,BUTANE/3,PENTANE
PETRO 4,PF1-53,,702,53
PETRO 5,PF2-100,,735,100
PETRO 6,PF3-130,,755,130
PETRO 7,PF4-147,,763,147
PETRO 8,PF5-175,,780,175
PETRO 9,PF6-197,,793,197
PETRO 10,PF7-211,,802,211
PETRO 11,PF8-225,,811,225
THERMODYNAMIC DATA
METHOD SYSTEM=DCUBE, TRANSPORT=EDL, SET=DCUB01, DEFAULT
STREAM DATA
PROPERTY STREAM=S1, TEMPERATURE=32.2, PRESSURE=1.36, PHASE=M, &
RATE(M)=1373.9, COMPOSITION(M)=1,3.3263/2,14.5062/3,22.7382/ &
4,4.6219/5,7.3586/6,6.507/7,9.0836/8,21.9885/9,5.0877/ &
10,2.4383/11,2.3437

Problem 12 - Page 18
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
UNIT OPERATIONS
FLASH UID=F1
FEED S1
PRODUCT L=S2
ISO TEMPERATURE=94.4, PRESSURE=6.7
FLASH UID=F2
FEED S2
PRODUCT V=V1, W=L1
SPLITTER UID=SP1
FEED L1
PRODUCT M=L2, M=L3
OPERATION OPTION=FILL
SPEC STREAM=L3, RATE(WT,KG/H),TOTAL,WET, VALUE=35110
MIXER UID=M1
FEED V1,L2
PRODUCT M=S5
FLASH UID=F3
FEED S5
PRODUCT V=V2, L=L4
END

Problem 12 - Page 19
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-3
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
FLASH DRUM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

FLASH ID F1 F2 F3
NAME
FEEDS S1 S2 S5
PRODUCTS VAPOR V1 V2
LIQUID S2 L1 L4

## TEMPERATURE, C 94.400 185.332 182.930

PRESSURE, BAR 6.700 6.700 6.100
PRESSURE DROP, BAR -5.340 0.000 0.600
MOLE FRAC VAPOR 0.00000 0.50791 0.66067
MOLE FRAC LIQUID 1.00000 0.49209 0.33933
DUTY, M*KJ/HR 19.83389 47.54996 0.00000

Problem 12 - Page 20
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-9
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID L1 L2 L3 L4
NAME
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID
----- TOTAL STREAM -----
RATE, KG-MOL/HR 676.077 389.725 286.352 369.043
K*KG/HR 82.895 47.785 35.110 45.687
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 109.279 62.994 46.285 60.087
TEMPERATURE, C 185.332 185.332 185.332 182.930
PRESSURE, BAR 6.700 6.700 6.700 6.100
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 122.611 122.611 122.611 123.800
ENTHALPY, M*KJ/HR -109.240 -62.971 -46.269 -60.297
KJ/KG -1317.818 -1317.818 -1317.818 -1319.780
MOLE FRACTION LIQUID 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
REDUCED TEMP (KAYS RULE) 0.7704 0.7704 0.7704 0.7629
PRES (KAYS RULE) 0.2458 0.2458 0.2458 0.2253
ACENTRIC FACTOR 0.3784 0.3784 0.3784 0.3816
WATSON K (UOPK) 12.025 12.025 12.025 12.016
STD LIQ DENSITY, KG/M3 758.562 758.562 758.562 760.359
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.7593 0.7593 0.7593 0.7611
API GRAVITY 54.853 54.853 54.853 54.413

Problem 12 - Page 21
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency

## -------- VAPOR ---------

RATE, KG-MOL/HR N/A N/A N/A N/A
K*KG/HR N/A N/A N/A N/A
K*M3/HR N/A N/A N/A N/A
NORM VAP RATE(1), K*M3/HR N/A N/A N/A N/A
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (AIR=1.0) N/A N/A N/A N/A
MOLECULAR WEIGHT N/A N/A N/A N/A
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG N/A N/A N/A N/A
CP, KJ/KG-C N/A N/A N/A N/A
DENSITY, KG/K*M3 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Z (FROM DENSITY) N/A N/A N/A N/A
TH COND, KCAL/HR-M-C N/A N/A N/A N/A
VISCOSITY, CP N/A N/A N/A N/A

## (1) NORMAL VAPOR VOLUME IS 22.414 M3/KG-MOLE (0 C AND 1 ATM)

Problem 12 - Page 22
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-10
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID L1 L2 L3 L4
NAME
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID
-------- LIQUID --------
RATE, KG-MOL/HR 676.077 389.725 286.352 369.043
K*KG/HR 82.895 47.785 35.110 45.687
M3/HR 135.598 78.166 57.433 74.142
GAL/MIN 597.020 344.153 252.868 326.439
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 109.279 62.994 46.285 60.087
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H2O=1.0) 0.7593 0.7593 0.7593 0.7611
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 122.611 122.611 122.611 123.800
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG -1317.818 -1317.818 -1317.818 -1319.780
CP, KJ/KG-C 2.733 2.733 2.733 2.718
DENSITY, KG/M3 611.326 611.326 611.326 616.211
Z (FROM DENSITY) 0.0353 0.0353 0.0353 0.0323
SURFACE TENSION, DYNE/CM 9.1419 9.1419 9.1419 9.4826
THERMAL COND, KCAL/HR-M-C 0.08288 0.08288 0.08288 0.08347
VISCOSITY, CP 0.17570 0.17570 0.17570 0.18126

Problem 12 - Page 23
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-11
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID S1 S2 S5 V1
NAME
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID MIXED VAPOR
----- TOTAL STREAM -----
RATE, KG-MOL/HR 1373.900 1373.900 1087.548 697.823
K*KG/HR 140.062 140.062 104.952 57.168
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 194.457 194.457 148.172 85.178
TEMPERATURE, C 32.200 94.400 185.332 185.332
PRESSURE, BAR 1.360 6.700 6.700 6.700
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 101.945 101.945 96.504 81.923
ENTHALPY, M*KJ/HR -254.918 -235.085 -141.266 -78.294
KJ/KG -1820.035 -1678.428 -1346.000 -1369.556
MOLE FRACTION LIQUID 1.0000 1.0000 0.3584 0.0000
REDUCED TEMP (KAYS RULE) 0.5617 0.6762 0.8650 0.9287
PRES (KAYS RULE) 0.0446 0.2196 0.2136 0.1991
ACENTRIC FACTOR 0.3227 0.3227 0.3080 0.2687
WATSON K (UOPK) 12.266 12.266 12.346 12.614
STD LIQ DENSITY, KG/M3 720.274 720.274 708.314 671.153
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.7210 0.7210 0.7090 0.6718
API GRAVITY 64.759 64.759 68.073 79.123

Problem 12 - Page 24
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency

## -------- VAPOR ---------

RATE, KG-MOL/HR N/A N/A 697.823 697.823
K*KG/HR N/A N/A 57.168 57.168
K*M3/HR N/A N/A 3.554 3.554
NORM VAP RATE(1), K*M3/HR N/A N/A 15.641 15.641
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (AIR=1.0) N/A N/A 2.828 2.828
MOLECULAR WEIGHT N/A N/A 81.923 81.923
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG N/A N/A -1369.556 -1369.556
CP, KJ/KG-C N/A N/A 2.358 2.358
DENSITY, KG/K*M3 N/A N/A 16085.424 16085.431
Z (FROM DENSITY) N/A N/A 0.8951 0.8951
TH COND, KCAL/HR-M-C N/A N/A 0.02756 0.02756
VISCOSITY, CP N/A N/A 0.01029 0.01029

## (1) NORMAL VAPOR VOLUME IS 22.414 M3/KG-MOLE (0 C AND 1 ATM)

Problem 12 - Page 25
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID S1 S2 S5 V1
NAME
PHASE LIQUID LIQUID MIXED VAPOR

## -------- LIQUID --------

RATE, KG-MOL/HR 1373.900 1373.900 389.725 N/A
K*KG/HR 140.062 140.062 47.785 N/A
M3/HR 197.051 213.740 78.166 N/A
GAL/MIN 867.590 941.066 344.153 N/A
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 194.457 194.457 62.994 N/A
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H2O=1.0) 0.7210 0.7210 0.7593 N/A
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 101.945 101.945 122.611 N/A
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG -1820.035 -1678.428 -1317.817 N/A
CP, KJ/KG-C 2.144 2.398 2.733 N/A
DENSITY, KG/M3 710.792 655.295 611.326 N/A
Z (FROM DENSITY) 7.6830E-03 0.0341 0.0353 N/A
SURFACE TENSION, DYNE/CM 20.1436 13.4331 9.1419 N/A
THERMAL COND, KCAL/HR-M-C 0.10024 0.09109 0.08288 N/A
VISCOSITY, CP 0.43748 0.24903 0.17570 N/A

Problem 12 - Page 26
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-13
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID V2
NAME
PHASE VAPOR

## ----- TOTAL STREAM -----

RATE, KG-MOL/HR 718.505
K*KG/HR 59.265
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 88.086
TEMPERATURE, C 182.930
PRESSURE, BAR 6.100
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 82.484
ENTHALPY, M*KJ/HR -80.969
KJ/KG -1366.211
MOLE FRACTION LIQUID 0.0000
REDUCED TEMP (KAYS RULE) 0.9211
PRES (KAYS RULE) 0.1817
ACENTRIC FACTOR 0.2702
WATSON K (UOPK) 12.601
STD LIQ DENSITY, KG/M3 672.813
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.6735
API GRAVITY 78.604

Problem 12 - Page 27
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency

## -------- VAPOR ---------

RATE, KG-MOL/HR 718.505
K*KG/HR 59.265
K*M3/HR 4.028
NORM VAP RATE(1), K*M3/HR 16.105
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (AIR=1.0) 2.848
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 82.484
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG -1366.211
CP, KJ/KG-C 2.338
DENSITY, KG/K*M3 14713.148
Z (FROM DENSITY) 0.9018
TH COND, KCAL/HR-M-C 0.02713
VISCOSITY, CP 0.01020

## (1) NORMAL VAPOR VOLUME IS 22.414 M3/KG-MOLE (0 C AND 1 ATM)

Problem 12 - Page 28
Problem 12 - Liquid Overfill Contingency
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-14
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.1 EXXON 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 10/31/00
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: EXXON Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID V2
NAME
PHASE VAPOR

## -------- LIQUID --------

RATE, KG-MOL/HR N/A
K*KG/HR N/A
M3/HR N/A
GAL/MIN N/A
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR N/A
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H2O=1.0) N/A
MOLECULAR WEIGHT N/A
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG N/A
CP, KJ/KG-C N/A
DENSITY, KG/M3 N/A
Z (FROM DENSITY) N/A
SURFACE TENSION, DYNE/CM N/A
THERMAL COND, KCAL/HR-M-C N/A
VISCOSITY, CP N/A

Problem 12 - Page 29