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2 visualizzazioni67 pagineFundamentals of Numerical Control

Oct 23, 2017

20091023053517390

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Fundamentals of Numerical Control

© All Rights Reserved

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2 visualizzazioni67 pagine20091023053517390

Fundamentals of Numerical Control

© All Rights Reserved

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5.1 Historical Development/

In 1947, a jig borer that was

coupled with a computer was developed

In 1949, a prototype of a programmable

milling machine was developed

In 1952, a modified three-axis milling

machine was demonstrated

5.1 Historical Development/

machine and in the control have been made.

NC machine tool/

Turning center/

Machining center/

Mill-turn center/

High-speed machine tool/

Turning center Vertical Machining center

/ /

multiple machining processes

Machining center/

carousel tool magazine

Machine tool

loading and

unloading station pallet changer

Mill-turn center/

A mill-turn

center that

combines

lathe features

with second

active spindle

can turn as

well as mill a

part.

Mill-turn center/

High-speed machine tool/

Three high

high-speed spindle: >20,000 rpm

high-feed-rate drives: >600 ipm

high precision: <0.0001-in accuracy

5.1 Historical Development/

Position/

The invention of the NC machine tool is a

major technological evolution in

manufacturing.

NC is the foundation for many modern

manufacturing technologies

5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL

/

Definition of NC/

a system in which actions are controlled by

direct insertion of numerical data at some

point. The system must automatically interpret

this data.

5.3 CLASSIFICATION OF NUMERICAL CONTROL

/

Motion control: point to point (PTP)

continuous (contouring) path

Control loops: open loop and closed loop

Power drives: hydraulic, electric, pneumatic

Positioning systems: incremental positioning

absolute positioning

Hardware and software: Hardware NC

software computer numerical control (CNC)

5.3.5 NC and CNC

Hardware NC: vacuum-tube circuit

transistor, relay

Computer numerical control (CNC)

produced. Today, when the term NC is mentioned,

it normally means CNC.

5.3.1 Motion Control/

PTP motion-control /

To move the machine table or spindle to a specified position

so that machining operations may be performed at that point.

Path taken to reach the specific point is not defined.

Movement from one point to the next is non-machining, it is

made as rapidly as possible.

5.3.1 Motion Control/

To control two or more axes simultaneously to get desired shape.

To control not only the destinations, but also the paths through

which the tool reaches these destinations.

In the process of machining, the tool contacts the workpiece.

5.3.2 Control Loops/

Open-loop control/

Closed-loop control/

Half closed-loop control/

5.3.2 Control Loops/

Closed-loop control: to measure displacement of table motion

Half closed-loop control: to measure rotary angle of motor or

leadscrew

5.3.2 Control Loops/

Closed-loop control: to measure displacement of table motion

Half closed-loop control: to measure rotary angle of motor or

leadscrew

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Electric motor/

widely used

small size, ease of control, low cost

Hydraulic drive/

much larger power/size ratio

Pneumatic drive/

rarely used in NC positioning system

can be used to drive the auxiliary devices

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Electric motor/

Stepping motor/

Servo motor (DC or AC) /

Most closed-loop systems control use servo

motors (either DC or AC), while, open- loop NC

machines normally use stepping-motor drives

1

3

Stepping motor/

is an electromechanical actuator that translates

digital electrical signals into fixed mechanical rotation.

Stator 30 30

Rotor

electrified electrified electrified

5.3.3 Power Drives/

UVW

30

step angle/

UUVVVWW

15

When the pattern of the signals shifts, the motor rotates one step angle

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Stepping motor/ : pulse control

When the pattern of the

Three-phase motor

clockwise

signals shifts, the motor Step U V W

stepping

rotates one step angle.

1 1 0 0

The direction of rotation

2 0 1 0

depends on the pattern-

shifting direction. 3 0 0 1

4 1 0 0

signal and a direction 5 0 1 0

signal. 6 0 0 1

Counter

clockwise Stepping

stepping signal

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Stepping motorpulse control

The number of steps (displacement) is

determined by the number of signals (pulses)

received.

angle of rotor = number of pulses step angle

the rate at which the signals (pulse rate) are

received.

angular speed of rotor = pulse rate step angle

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Example

If we would like to turn a 1.8step angle motor 2000

steps at 360 rpm, what is the number of pulses and

pulse rate to be sent to the motor?

The number of pulses should be the same as the steps.

Therefore, number of pulses = 2000.

Number of steps a revolution: N360/1.8=200 steps/rev

Pulse rate6 rev/s200 steps/rev1200 pulses/s

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Servo motor/

DC motor: voltage control

When a higher voltage is applied to the motor, a large

current flows through the motor coil, which in turn

produces more torque and makes the motor run faster.

The higher the power-source frequency, the faster the

motor rotation.

5.3.3 Power Drives/

Servo motor/

Servo motors are controlled using a feedback mechanism

v K t P168

Figure 5.15

5.3.4 Positioning system

/

Incremental positioning system/

absolute positioning system/

of the machine table, the machine is an absolute

positioning machine.

5.4.3.2 Position transducer

/

Encoder/

most commonly used in NC machines

to measure angular displacement

two types of encoders:

incremental and absolute

5.4.3.2 Position transducer

/

f K e

fpulse frequency,

input angular speed

Incremental encoder

The output is a series of electric pulses.

There is no reference of the actual position.

5.4.3.2 Position transducer

/

Absolute encoder

An external device is needed to denote the reference on

the encoder shaft home position

Actual position is got by keeping track of the output

and accumulating the position count.

5.4.3.2 Position transducer

/

speed transducers: tachometer/

position transducers

Encoders/ angular

Resolvers /

LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer)

/

Inductosyn/ linear

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

1. Key components

Tool magazine/

Tool changer/

Spindle/

Column/

Controller/

Machine table/

Driver motor/

Leadscrew/

Way/

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

Open-Loop Servo system/

Carriage

Gear box

Stepping Bearing

Coupling

Motor

Ball-bearing

leadscrew and nut

5.4.4 Leadscrew/

Leadscrew and nut converts rotational motion to linear motion

Pitch () of leadscrew is defined as the distance between

adjacent screw threads

preloaded ball-bearing

leadscrew

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

The leadscrew is coupled

with the machine table

through a nut

The machine table is

confined to a linear motion

by two slides (ways).

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

2. BLU (basic length unit)/

BLU is the minimum length distinguishable by

the control unit.

In an open-loop servo system, each pulse of

the stepping signal, which stepping motor

receives, turns the motor a small fixed angle

(step angle). This movement is also translated

to the table to move a distance of one BLU.

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

Open-Loop Servo system Z1 1

BLU p

Z2 360

Carriage

Gear box Z

2

Stepping bearing

Coupling

Motor

Z1 ball-bearing

( ) leadscrew and nut p (mm)

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

Open-Loop Servo system/

Example:

A system has the BLU=0.001 in. It is desired to move the

table 5 in. at a speed (feed rate) of 6 ipm. Please calculate

the pulse rate and pulse count.

pulse ratespeed/BLU

6 ipm/0.001 ipp6000 pulses/min100 pulses/s

pulse countdistance/BLU5/0.0015000 pulses

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

BLU (basic length unit)/

In a closed-loop servo system, the machine BLU

is determined by the leadscrew pitch and

the position transducer resolution.

The rotational position-transducer resolution

coupled to the leadscrew has N pulses per

revolution resolution:

BLUp/N

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

Close-Loop Servo system/

Example

An NC machine uses a 0.1-in. pitch leadscrew and a

100-pulse/rev encoder.

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

3. Characteristic/

Accuracy/

Repeatability/

spindle and axis-motor horsepower/

number of controlled axes/

dimension of workpiece/

features of the machine and the controller/

5.4.1 NC Accuracy and Repeatability

Accuracy/

Control resolution() : Basic length unit (BLU)

Hardware inaccuracies

inaccuracies in the machine elements

machine-tool assembly errors

spindle runout

leadscrew backlash ()

tool deflection

thermal error

5.4.1 NC Accuracy and Repeatability

Repeatability/

It is a measure of how closely a machine repeats a given

position command

It is measured as the diameter of the circle enclosing a

target area produced by many repeated experiments

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

4. Interpolation/

In the case of the control of multiple axes, it

is needed to generate a series of fixed-sized

steps in order to approximate a geometric

feature that is not directly attainable. The

maximum deviation of the tool path is kept

within one step. The idea is interpolation.

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM

/

4. Interpolation/

In the case of the control of multiple axes, it

is needed to generate a series of fixed-sized

steps in order to approximate a geometric

feature that is not directly attainable. The

maximum deviation of the tool path is kept

within one step. The idea is interpolation.

5.4.6 Interpolation/

For PTP control in drilling operations, both the X and Y

axes move at the same speed.

For continuous control in milling or turning, it is necessary

to control the speed of each axis, so that both axes reach

the destination at the same time.

5.4.6 Interpolation/V y V

Vx

Example

If the desired feed rate is 6 ipm, the speed

components on the X and Y axes are:

10 3 7

Vx 6 6 5.5149 in. / min

10 3

2

5 2

2 12

49 912

52 3

Vy 6 6 2.3635 in. / min

10 3 2

5 2

2 12

49 912

5.4.6 Interpolation/

10 3 7

Vx 6 6 5.5149 in. / min

10 3

2

5 2

2 12

49 912

52 3

Vy 6 6 2.3635 in. / min

10 3 2

5 2

2 12

49 912

pulses/min, in Y is 2364 pulses/min.

In order to get as close to the desired line as

possible, both axes must be coordinated closely.

This is called linear interpolation .

5.4.6 Interpolation/

Basic interpolation

Linear interpolation/

Circular interpolation/

Implementation----

Digital differential analyzers (DDAs) /

5.4.6 Interpolation/

Digital differential analyzer

(DDA)

t (frequency: f)

In a digital system:

dx

xi xi 1 t xi xi 1 a x t

dt

dy Each time a pulse is received, the

yi yi 1 t yi yi 1 a y t

dt value of the register (a) is added

to the accumulator. When the

Recursive formulas accumulator overflows, the

overflow bit is output to the motor

control counter.

5.4.6 Interpolation/

Output frequency

input is clock pulse:

af t (frequency: f)

fr

2N

N: the width of the accumulator (bits)

Value a

f x 2N

ax f

Each time a pulse is received, the

fr 2 N

value of the register (a) is added

a N to the accumulator. When the

f a yf 2 accumulator overflows, the

y

f overflow bit is output to the motor

control counter.

y

y Vf

5.4.6 Interpolation/ x

x

Output frequency

If: all length units in BLUs

af x

fr ax

f rx N f V f Vx

2N 2 x y

2 2 12

f ry f Vf Vy

Value a 2 N

x 2

y 2 12

fx 2 N

ax f ax V f

x 2N

N

a

fr 2

f

N

x 2

y

2 12 f

a yf 2

y 2N

y

ay V f

f

x 2

y

2 12 f

y

y Vf

5.4.6 Interpolation/ x

x

a x x 2N

f rx Nx f V f ax V f

2

x 2 y 2 12

x 2

y 2

12

f

frx X axis

DDA X Counter

f

fry Y axis

DDA Y Counter

ay y y 2N

f ry f Vf ay V f

2 N

x 2

y

2 12 x 2

y 2

12

f

frx X axis

DDA X Counter

Example: f

fry Y axis

DDA Y Counter

BLU 0.01in.

x 1 2 1

vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s

f 1 103 Hz x y

2 2 BLU 60

2 3 0.001 60

2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1

vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s

2 BLU 60

y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60

2 2 2

f ry 83.3

N 10

f rx 2 N 55.5 210

ax 57

f 1 10 3

f ry 2 N 83.3 210

ay 85

f 1 10 3

frx X axis

DDA X Counter

Example: f

fry Y axis

DDA Y Counter

BLU 0.01in.

x 1 2 1

vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s

f 1 103 Hz x y

2 2 BLU 60

2 3 0.001 60

2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1

vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s

2 BLU 60

y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60

2 2 2

f ry 83.3

N 10 X-axis control DDA

f rx 2 N

55.5 2 10

ax 57 overflows 57 times

f 1 10 3

while Y-axis control DDA

f ry 2 N 83.3 210 overflows 85 times.

ay 85

f 1 10 3

Question

when the 57 X-axis control pulses and

85 Y-axis control pulses overflow?

frx X axis

DDA X Counter

Example: f

fry Y axis

DDA Y Counter

N=3

ax= 4

ay= 3

The maximum deviation of the tool path is kept within one step

frx X axis

DDA X Counter

Example: f

fry Y axis

DDA Y Counter

BLU 0.01in.

x 1 2 1

vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s

f 1 103 Hz x y

2 2 BLU 60

2 3 0.001 60

2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1

vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s

2 BLU 60

y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60

2 2 2

f ry 83.3

N 10 x-axis control DDA

f rx 2 N

55.5 2 10

ax 57 overflows 57 times

f 1 10 3

while y-axis control DDA

f ry 2 N 83.3 210 overflows 85 times.

ay 85

f 1 10 3

5.4.6.2 Circular interpolator/

d

Feed rate: Vf R

dt

x R cos x0

Coordinate:

y R sin y0

dx d d

R sin y yo ax=|dx/dt| and ay=|dy/dt| are

dt dt dt

values loaded into the registers

dy d d

R cos x xo in DDAs

dt dt dt

(Quadrant )

5.4.6.2 Circular interpolator/

x R cos x0

y R sin y0

dx d d d 2x d d dy d

R sin y yo R cos

dt dt dt dt 2 dt dt dt dt

dy d d 2

d y d d dx d

R cos x xo 2

R sin

dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt

ax=dx/dt X axis When there is an

+ output from DDA Y,

DDA X Counter

f - ax is decremented.

When there is an

+ Y axis output from DDA X,

DDA Y Counter ay is incremented.

+

ay=dy/dt

Review/

Hardware and software: NC/CNC

Motion control: PTP/ continuous (contouring) path

Control loops: open loop and closed loop

Power drives: hydraulic, electric, pneumatic

Positioning systems: incremental/absolute positioning

Review/

Components of NC machine and principle

Electric motor

Stepping motor: Pulse control

Servo motor (DC or AC): Voltage and frequency

control

Transducers

speed transducers: tachometer

position transducers: Encoder

NC Characteristics: accuracy and repeatability

Review/

Design and calculation

BLU: open and close loop control

Interpolation

Linear interpolation

Circular interpolation

Homework

5.1

5.2

5.4

5.8

5.14

5.15

5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL

/

Pulse signals activate

motors or devices to position

the machine spindle relative

to the workpiece.

speed and direction of the

spindle and coolant supply,

the selection of the cutting

tool, and other functions.

5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL

/

G code: for controlling the

relative movement of the

workpiece and machine

spindle.

individual machine

components, such as motor

on/off control, selection of

spindle speed, tool change,

and coolant on/off control.

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