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Chapter 5:

Fundamentals of Numerical Control

5.1 Historical Development

5.2 Principles of Numerical Control

5.3 Classification of Numerical Control

5.4 Numerical-Control System


5.1 Historical Development/

It has been over 50 years since


In 1947, a jig borer that was
coupled with a computer was developed
In 1949, a prototype of a programmable
milling machine was developed
In 1952, a modified three-axis milling
machine was demonstrated
5.1 Historical Development/

Since then, many improvements, in the


machine and in the control have been made.
NC machine tool/
Turning center/
Machining center/
Mill-turn center/
High-speed machine tool/
Turning center Vertical Machining center
/ /

Machining centers and turning centers can perform


multiple machining processes
Machining center/
carousel tool magazine

Machine tool

loading and
unloading station pallet changer

Mill-turn center/

A mill-turn
center that
combines
lathe features
with second
active spindle
can turn as
well as mill a
part.
Mill-turn center/
High-speed machine tool/

Three high
high-speed spindle: >20,000 rpm
high-feed-rate drives: >600 ipm
high precision: <0.0001-in accuracy
5.1 Historical Development/

Position/
The invention of the NC machine tool is a
major technological evolution in
manufacturing.
NC is the foundation for many modern
manufacturing technologies
5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL
/
Definition of NC/
a system in which actions are controlled by
direct insertion of numerical data at some
point. The system must automatically interpret
this data.

----Electronic Industries Association (EIA)


5.3 CLASSIFICATION OF NUMERICAL CONTROL
/
Motion control: point to point (PTP)
continuous (contouring) path
Control loops: open loop and closed loop
Power drives: hydraulic, electric, pneumatic
Positioning systems: incremental positioning
absolute positioning
Hardware and software: Hardware NC
software computer numerical control (CNC)
5.3.5 NC and CNC
Hardware NC: vacuum-tube circuit
transistor, relay
Computer numerical control (CNC)

Since the 1980s, no hardwired NCs have been


produced. Today, when the term NC is mentioned,
it normally means CNC.
5.3.1 Motion Control/

PTP motion-control /
To move the machine table or spindle to a specified position
so that machining operations may be performed at that point.
Path taken to reach the specific point is not defined.
Movement from one point to the next is non-machining, it is
made as rapidly as possible.
5.3.1 Motion Control/

continuous (contouring) control / ()


To control two or more axes simultaneously to get desired shape.
To control not only the destinations, but also the paths through
which the tool reaches these destinations.
In the process of machining, the tool contacts the workpiece.
5.3.2 Control Loops/

Whether there is position feedback?


Open-loop control/
Closed-loop control/
Half closed-loop control/
5.3.2 Control Loops/
Closed-loop control: to measure displacement of table motion
Half closed-loop control: to measure rotary angle of motor or
leadscrew


Where is the transducer?


5.3.2 Control Loops/
Closed-loop control: to measure displacement of table motion
Half closed-loop control: to measure rotary angle of motor or
leadscrew


the advantage of a closed-loop system is its positioning accuracy.


5.3.3 Power Drives/
Electric motor/
widely used
small size, ease of control, low cost
Hydraulic drive/
much larger power/size ratio
Pneumatic drive/
rarely used in NC positioning system
can be used to drive the auxiliary devices
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Electric motor/
Stepping motor/
Servo motor (DC or AC) /
Most closed-loop systems control use servo
motors (either DC or AC), while, open- loop NC
machines normally use stepping-motor drives
1
3

5.3.3 Power Drives/ 2 4

Stepping motor/
is an electromechanical actuator that translates
digital electrical signals into fixed mechanical rotation.

Stator 30 30

Rotor

Phase U Phase V Phase W


electrified electrified electrified
5.3.3 Power Drives/

UVW

30
step angle/
UUVVVWW
15

When the pattern of the signals shifts, the motor rotates one step angle
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Stepping motor/ : pulse control
When the pattern of the
Three-phase motor
clockwise
signals shifts, the motor Step U V W
stepping
rotates one step angle.
1 1 0 0
The direction of rotation
2 0 1 0
depends on the pattern-
shifting direction. 3 0 0 1

NC sends one stepping


4 1 0 0
signal and a direction 5 0 1 0
signal. 6 0 0 1
Counter
clockwise Stepping
stepping signal
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Stepping motorpulse control
The number of steps (displacement) is
determined by the number of signals (pulses)
received.
angle of rotor = number of pulses step angle

The speed of a stepping motor is determined by


the rate at which the signals (pulse rate) are
received.
angular speed of rotor = pulse rate step angle
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Example
If we would like to turn a 1.8step angle motor 2000
steps at 360 rpm, what is the number of pulses and
pulse rate to be sent to the motor?
The number of pulses should be the same as the steps.
Therefore, number of pulses = 2000.

360 rpm(360rev/min)/(60s/min)6 rev/s


Number of steps a revolution: N360/1.8=200 steps/rev
Pulse rate6 rev/s200 steps/rev1200 pulses/s
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Servo motor/
DC motor: voltage control
When a higher voltage is applied to the motor, a large
current flows through the motor coil, which in turn
produces more torque and makes the motor run faster.

AC motor: frequency control


The higher the power-source frequency, the faster the
motor rotation.
5.3.3 Power Drives/
Servo motor/
Servo motors are controlled using a feedback mechanism

v K t P168
Figure 5.15
5.3.4 Positioning system
/
Incremental positioning system/
absolute positioning system/

depends on the position transducer used


When the transducer reports the absolute position


of the machine table, the machine is an absolute
positioning machine.
5.4.3.2 Position transducer
/
Encoder/
most commonly used in NC machines
to measure angular displacement
two types of encoders:
incremental and absolute
5.4.3.2 Position transducer
/






f K e
fpulse frequency,
input angular speed

Incremental encoder
The output is a series of electric pulses.
There is no reference of the actual position.
5.4.3.2 Position transducer
/






Absolute encoder
An external device is needed to denote the reference on
the encoder shaft home position
Actual position is got by keeping track of the output
and accumulating the position count.
5.4.3.2 Position transducer
/

Two kinds of transducers used in NC systems


speed transducers: tachometer/
position transducers
Encoders/ angular
Resolvers /
LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer)
/
Inductosyn/ linear
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/

1. Key components
Tool magazine/
Tool changer/
Spindle/
Column/
Controller/
Machine table/
Driver motor/
Leadscrew/
Way/

Horizontal NC machining center


5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
Open-Loop Servo system/
Carriage

Gear box

Stepping Bearing
Coupling
Motor

Ball-bearing
leadscrew and nut

5.4.4 Leadscrew/
Leadscrew and nut converts rotational motion to linear motion
Pitch () of leadscrew is defined as the distance between
adjacent screw threads

preloaded ball-bearing
leadscrew

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
The leadscrew is coupled
with the machine table
through a nut
The machine table is
confined to a linear motion
by two slides (ways).
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
2. BLU (basic length unit)/
BLU is the minimum length distinguishable by
the control unit.
In an open-loop servo system, each pulse of
the stepping signal, which stepping motor
receives, turns the motor a small fixed angle
(step angle). This movement is also translated
to the table to move a distance of one BLU.
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
Open-Loop Servo system Z1 1
BLU p
Z2 360
Carriage

Gear box Z
2

Stepping bearing
Coupling
Motor

Z1 ball-bearing
( ) leadscrew and nut p (mm)

5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
Open-Loop Servo system/
Example:
A system has the BLU=0.001 in. It is desired to move the
table 5 in. at a speed (feed rate) of 6 ipm. Please calculate
the pulse rate and pulse count.
pulse ratespeed/BLU
6 ipm/0.001 ipp6000 pulses/min100 pulses/s
pulse countdistance/BLU5/0.0015000 pulses
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
BLU (basic length unit)/
In a closed-loop servo system, the machine BLU
is determined by the leadscrew pitch and
the position transducer resolution.
The rotational position-transducer resolution
coupled to the leadscrew has N pulses per
revolution resolution:
BLUp/N
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
Close-Loop Servo system/
Example
An NC machine uses a 0.1-in. pitch leadscrew and a
100-pulse/rev encoder.

BLUp/N0.1 in./rev/100 pulses/rev0.001 in


5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
3. Characteristic/
Accuracy/
Repeatability/
spindle and axis-motor horsepower/
number of controlled axes/
dimension of workpiece/
features of the machine and the controller/

5.4.1 NC Accuracy and Repeatability

Accuracy/
Control resolution() : Basic length unit (BLU)
Hardware inaccuracies
inaccuracies in the machine elements
machine-tool assembly errors
spindle runout
leadscrew backlash ()
tool deflection
thermal error
5.4.1 NC Accuracy and Repeatability

Repeatability/
It is a measure of how closely a machine repeats a given
position command
It is measured as the diameter of the circle enclosing a
target area produced by many repeated experiments
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
4. Interpolation/
In the case of the control of multiple axes, it
is needed to generate a series of fixed-sized
steps in order to approximate a geometric
feature that is not directly attainable. The
maximum deviation of the tool path is kept
within one step. The idea is interpolation.
5.4 NUMERICAL-CONTROL SYSTEM
/
4. Interpolation/
In the case of the control of multiple axes, it
is needed to generate a series of fixed-sized
steps in order to approximate a geometric
feature that is not directly attainable. The
maximum deviation of the tool path is kept
within one step. The idea is interpolation.
5.4.6 Interpolation/

The tool moves from (3,2) to (10,5)


For PTP control in drilling operations, both the X and Y
axes move at the same speed.
For continuous control in milling or turning, it is necessary
to control the speed of each axis, so that both axes reach
the destination at the same time.
5.4.6 Interpolation/V y V
Vx
Example
If the desired feed rate is 6 ipm, the speed
components on the X and Y axes are:
10 3 7
Vx 6 6 5.5149 in. / min
10 3
2
5 2
2 12
49 912

52 3
Vy 6 6 2.3635 in. / min
10 3 2
5 2
2 12
49 912
5.4.6 Interpolation/

10 3 7
Vx 6 6 5.5149 in. / min
10 3
2
5 2
2 12
49 912

52 3
Vy 6 6 2.3635 in. / min
10 3 2
5 2
2 12
49 912

If BLU equals 0.001 inthe pulse rate in X is 5515


pulses/min, in Y is 2364 pulses/min.
In order to get as close to the desired line as
possible, both axes must be coordinated closely.
This is called linear interpolation .
5.4.6 Interpolation/
Basic interpolation
Linear interpolation/
Circular interpolation/
Implementation----
Digital differential analyzers (DDAs) /

5.4.6 Interpolation/
Digital differential analyzer
(DDA)

y f (x) input is clock pulse:


t (frequency: f)
In a digital system:
dx
xi xi 1 t xi xi 1 a x t
dt
dy Each time a pulse is received, the
yi yi 1 t yi yi 1 a y t
dt value of the register (a) is added
to the accumulator. When the
Recursive formulas accumulator overflows, the
overflow bit is output to the motor
control counter.
5.4.6 Interpolation/
Output frequency
input is clock pulse:
af t (frequency: f)
fr
2N
N: the width of the accumulator (bits)
Value a
f x 2N
ax f
Each time a pulse is received, the
fr 2 N
value of the register (a) is added
a N to the accumulator. When the
f a yf 2 accumulator overflows, the


y
f overflow bit is output to the motor
control counter.
y

y Vf
5.4.6 Interpolation/ x
x
Output frequency
If: all length units in BLUs
af x
fr ax
f rx N f V f Vx
2N 2 x y
2 2 12

N: the width of the accumulator (bits) ay y


f ry f Vf Vy
Value a 2 N
x 2
y 2 12

fx 2 N

ax f ax V f
x 2N
N

a
fr 2
f
N
x 2
y
2 12 f
a yf 2
y 2N


y
ay V f
f
x 2
y
2 12 f
y

y Vf
5.4.6 Interpolation/ x
x
a x x 2N
f rx Nx f V f ax V f
2
x 2 y 2 12
x 2
y 2
12
f
frx X axis
DDA X Counter
f
fry Y axis
DDA Y Counter
ay y y 2N
f ry f Vf ay V f
2 N
x 2
y
2 12 x 2
y 2
12
f

two-axes control DDAs


frx X axis
DDA X Counter
Example: f
fry Y axis
DDA Y Counter
BLU 0.01in.
x 1 2 1
vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s
f 1 103 Hz x y
2 2 BLU 60
2 3 0.001 60
2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1
vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s
2 BLU 60
y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60
2 2 2

v f 6in. / min f rx 55.5


f ry 83.3
N 10
f rx 2 N 55.5 210
ax 57
f 1 10 3

f ry 2 N 83.3 210
ay 85
f 1 10 3
frx X axis
DDA X Counter
Example: f
fry Y axis
DDA Y Counter
BLU 0.01in.
x 1 2 1
vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s
f 1 103 Hz x y
2 2 BLU 60
2 3 0.001 60
2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1
vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s
2 BLU 60
y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60
2 2 2

v f 6in. / min f rx 55.5 After receiving 210 pulses,


f ry 83.3
N 10 X-axis control DDA
f rx 2 N
55.5 2 10
ax 57 overflows 57 times
f 1 10 3
while Y-axis control DDA
f ry 2 N 83.3 210 overflows 85 times.
ay 85
f 1 10 3
Question

In the 210 pulses,


when the 57 X-axis control pulses and
85 Y-axis control pulses overflow?
frx X axis
DDA X Counter
Example: f
fry Y axis
DDA Y Counter
N=3
ax= 4
ay= 3

The maximum deviation of the tool path is kept within one step
frx X axis
DDA X Counter
Example: f
fry Y axis
DDA Y Counter
BLU 0.01in.
x 1 2 1
vx v f 6 55.5BLU / s
f 1 103 Hz x y
2 2 BLU 60
2 3 0.001 60
2 2

x 2in. y 1 3 1
vy v f 6 83.3BLU / s
2 BLU 60
y 3in. x y 2 3 0. 001 60
2 2 2

v f 6in. / min f rx 55.5 After receiving 210 pulses,


f ry 83.3
N 10 x-axis control DDA
f rx 2 N
55.5 2 10
ax 57 overflows 57 times
f 1 10 3
while y-axis control DDA
f ry 2 N 83.3 210 overflows 85 times.
ay 85
f 1 10 3
5.4.6.2 Circular interpolator/

d
Feed rate: Vf R
dt

x R cos x0
Coordinate:
y R sin y0

dx d d
R sin y yo ax=|dx/dt| and ay=|dy/dt| are
dt dt dt
values loaded into the registers
dy d d
R cos x xo in DDAs
dt dt dt
(Quadrant )
5.4.6.2 Circular interpolator/

x R cos x0
y R sin y0
dx d d d 2x d d dy d
R sin y yo R cos
dt dt dt dt 2 dt dt dt dt
dy d d 2
d y d d dx d
R cos x xo 2
R sin
dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt
ax=dx/dt X axis When there is an
+ output from DDA Y,
DDA X Counter
f - ax is decremented.
When there is an
+ Y axis output from DDA X,
DDA Y Counter ay is incremented.
+
ay=dy/dt
Review/

Classification of numerical control system


Hardware and software: NC/CNC
Motion control: PTP/ continuous (contouring) path
Control loops: open loop and closed loop
Power drives: hydraulic, electric, pneumatic
Positioning systems: incremental/absolute positioning
Review/
Components of NC machine and principle
Electric motor
Stepping motor: Pulse control
Servo motor (DC or AC): Voltage and frequency
control
Transducers
speed transducers: tachometer
position transducers: Encoder
NC Characteristics: accuracy and repeatability
Review/
Design and calculation
BLU: open and close loop control
Interpolation
Linear interpolation
Circular interpolation
Homework
5.1
5.2
5.4
5.8
5.14
5.15
5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL
/

Two types of control signals:


Pulse signals activate
motors or devices to position
the machine spindle relative
to the workpiece.

On/off signals control the


speed and direction of the
spindle and coolant supply,
the selection of the cutting
tool, and other functions.
5.2 PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL
/

Two groups of commands:


G code: for controlling the
relative movement of the
workpiece and machine
spindle.

M code: for controlling


individual machine
components, such as motor
on/off control, selection of
spindle speed, tool change,
and coolant on/off control.