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Rondang R. Soegianto

Enzyme = Functional protein

Has all the properties of a protein

(macromolecule, heat, pH)

Functions as biocatalyst
- substrate specific
- reaction specific
- can be regulated in the body

Inorganic catalyst
- resistant to heat
- not specific to certain substr/reaction
- Pt, Zn, H+
Cellular enzymes exist in compartments

Carry out activities in organelles, membranes

and cytosol

Enzymes in blood for coagulation process

Enzymes catalyze conversion of substrates
into products

E + S ES E + P

E interacts with S to for ES complex

Mechanism of interaction ;
1. Emil Fischer
Lock and Key Model

2. Koshland
Induced fit model
Enzyme undergoes conformational change
Active site, substrate site, catalytic site

Specific area on enzyme surface that binds

to substrate to form E-S complex, before
enzyme reaction takes place
Why are enzymes essential to body

- At body temp. biochem. processes

have to proceed fast enough to
meet needs of the body

- Enzymes (unlike inorganic catalysts)

can be regulated in the body
Inborn Error of Metabolism is caused

enzyme abnormality
What is enzyme activity?

Enzyme activity measured by velocity of

enzyme reaction (v)

v = amount of product per time unit

(sec. minute)

v = remaining substrate per time unit

A.Substrate Concentration
v = velocity

Vm = maximum velocity

When enzyme conc kept constant,

v will >> with increasing [S]

Vm reached when enzyme molecules

are saturated with S
B. Temperature
Temperature >> v increased

Heat will cause increase of kinetic energy

Incr collision of E and S ES P

Vm is reached at optimum temp.

Raising temp beyond opt.temp. will damage

enzyme protein enz activity decreased
C. Acidity, pH

Enzymes have specific optimum pH

Pepsin ~ pH = 1

Trypsin ~ pH = 7-8

Enzymes denature at high or low pH

relative to optimum pH
A. Competitive Inhibition

- Similarity between S and I

- S and I compete for active site

- Enzyme reaction inhibited when I binds

to active site no P formation
E + I EI E + I

- E not destroyed.
After release, can react with substrate

- Excess substrate eliminates effect of I

- Enzyme reaction can reach Vmax

Example: Inh of succinate DH by malonate

B. Non-competitive Inhibition

- Inhibitor very different from S

- I can bind on E outside of active site
- I causes E denaturation
- Ex. : Hg, Pb
- Active site located in the interior of E molecule
- Can be exposed to the surface upon activation

- Trypsinogen Trypsin

Zymogen prevents self digestion of tissues on its

way from site of formation to site of E reaction.
Non-protein molecule needed for enzyme activity

A. Metal ions: Zn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+

B. Organic molecules = Coenzymes

Derivatives of vitamin B

- Holoenzyme + Enzyme + Coenzyme (Cofactor)

- Apoenzyme = Protein portion of holoenzyme

Vitamin Coenzyme Activity

Nicotinic acid NAD Oxid-Reduct

Riboflavin FAD Oxid-Reduct
Thiamine Thiamine PP Decarboxylation
Pantothenic acid Coenzyme A Activation of FA
Biotin Biotin CO2 binding