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PHY11 Lesson 4

Rotational Motion
Angular Quantities
angular displacement change in angular position.

o

d

o o dt


ave
t
angular velocity rate of change in angular position
Angular Quantities
angular acceleration rate of change in angular
velocity.


average angular
acceleration:
o

ave
t
o
ave
d t to
instantaneous
angular acceleration:

dt
Chapter 10, Problem 004
The angular position of a point on a rotating wheel is
given by = 3.70 + 7.80t2 + 3.42t3, where is in
radians and t is in seconds. At t = 0, what are
(a) the point's angular position and
(b) its angular velocity?
(c) What is its angular velocity at t = 6.77 s?
(d)Calculate its angular acceleration at t = 1.93 s.

ANSWERS
(a) 3.70 rad
(b) 0
(c) 576 rad/s
(d) 55.2 rad/s2
Chapter 10, Problem 006
The angular position of a point on the rim of a rotating
wheel is given by = 6.49t - 2.03t2 + 2.52t3,
where is in radians and t is in seconds. What are the
angular velocities at
(a) t = 1.50 s and
(b) t = 7.68 s?
(c) What is the average angular acceleration for the
time interval that begins at t = 1.50 s and ends at t =
7.68 s?
What are the instantaneous angular accelerations at
(d) the beginning and
(e) the end of this time interval?

ANSWERS
(a) 17.4 rad/s
(b) 421 rad/s
(c) 65.3 rad/s2
(d) 18.6 rad/s2
(e) 112 rad/s2
Linear vs. Angular Quantities
linear displacement s and
s angular displacement :
o
r s
r

s r

linear velocity v and


angular velocity :
v

ds rd
vo v v r
dt dt
o
linear acceleration a and
angular acceleration :

dv rd
a v r
dt dt
Chapter 10, Problem 026
The flywheel of a steam engine runs with a constant
angular velocity of 120 rev/min. When steam is shut
off, the friction of the bearings and of the air stops the
wheel in 2.0 h. (a) What is the constant angular
acceleration, in revolutions per minute-squared, of the
wheel during the slowdown? (b) How many revolutions
does the wheel make before stopping? (c) At the
instant the flywheel is turning at 60.0 rev/min, what is
the tangential component of the linear acceleration of a
flywheel particle that is 33 cm from the axis of
rotation? (d) What is the magnitude of the net linear
acceleration of the particle in (c)?

ANSWERS
(a) - 1.00 rev/s2
(b) 7200 rev
(c) 0.000576 m/s2
(d) 13.0 m/s2
Motion with Constant Angular Acceleration


Equation 1: av assuming that t0 = 0.
t

o
Equation 2: av
2

o
Equation 3: assuming that t0 = 0.
t

Equation 4: x vot 12 at 2

v 2 vo
2

Equation 5:
x
2a
Chapter 10, Problem 009
A drum rotates around its central axis at an angular
velocity of 10.8 rad/s. If the drum then slows at a
constant rate of 9.67 rad/s2,
(a)how much time does it take and
(b) through what angle does it rotate in coming to
rest?

ANSWERS
(a) 1.12 s
(b) 6.03 rad
Chapter 10, Problem 010
Starting from rest, a disk rotates about its central axis
with constant angular acceleration. In 7.00 s, it rotates
20.8 rad. During that time, what are the magnitudes
of (a) the angular acceleration and (b) the average
angular velocity? (c) What is the instantaneous angular
velocity of the disk at the end of the 7.00 s? (d) With
the angular acceleration unchanged, through what
additional angle (rad) will the disk turn during the next
7.00 s?

ANSWERS
(a) 0.849 rad/s2
(b) 2.97 rad/s
(c) 5.94 rad/s
(d) 62.4 rad
Kinetic Energy in Rotation
Consider a particle of mass m moving with a linear
velocity v and angular velocity about an axis.

The kinetic energy of the particle is:


y
v
mv mr
1 2 1
K
2

2 2

r m
x
K
1
2

mr 2 2

The quantity mr2 is called


the moment of inertia I of the
particle, and its kinetic energy is

1 2
K I
2
Kinetic Energy in Rotation
For a rigid body, its moment of inertia is the sum of
the moments of inertia of all its particles.

I m1r1 m2 r2 m3 r3 ...
2 2 2

If the rigid body is rotating about an axis, its


rotational kinetic energy is

1 2
K rot I
2
If the center of mass of the rigid body is moving
with linear velocity v while rotating about an axis with an
angular velocity , its total kinetic energy is

1 1 2
K mvcm I
2

2 2
Moment of Inertia I
The moment of inertia of any rigid body about any
axis is obtained by dividing the body into mass elements
dm and integrating

I r 2 dm

If the body has constant density , the moment of


inertia can be expressed as

I r dV
2
Parallel-Axis Theorem
Consider a rigid body of mass M with a moment of
inertia Icm about an axis passing through its center of
mass.

Ip I cm
The moment of inertia Ip of this
body about another axis parallel to the
axis through its center of mass is:

cm

I p I cm Md 2
d
where: d is the distance between the
two parallel axes.
Moment of Inertia of Rigid Bodies
Chapter 10, Problem 037
Calculate the rotational inertia of a meter stick, with
mass 0.616 kg, about an axis perpendicular to the stick
and located at the 33.7 cm mark. (Treat the stick as a
thin rod.) Use I = r2 dm

ANSWER: 0.0677 kgm2


Chapter 10
Calculate the rotational inertia of a disk, with mass
0.500 kg and radius 0.500 m, about an axis
perpendicular to the disk and through its center.
Use I = r2 dm

ANSWER: 0.0625 kgm2


Torque
Consider a force F applied to a rigid body that is
free to rotate about an axis O.
If the force is applied at a point P of position vector
r relative to O, then the torque acting on the body is
defined as

rF

rF sin
unit: Nm
Direction of Torque:
(right-hand rule)
Torque and
Newtons 2nd Law:
In linear motion, a net
force F applied to a body of
mass m will give the body a
linear acceleration a.

F ma
In rotational motion, a
net torque applied to a body
of moment of inertia I, will
give the body an angular
acceleration .

I
Work and Power
Consider a torque doing work on a rigid body by
rotating it through an angular displacement . The work
done by this torque is


W
o
The power expended in
doing such work is

W
P
t t

P av
Angular Momentum
Consider a particle of mass m moving with a linear
velocity v about an axis.

y linear momentum
v
of the particle: p mv

r m
angular momentum
x
of the particle: Lr p
L mrv sin

L mrv mr (r ) mr 2

LI
Newtons 2nd Law in Angular Form

linear form: dp
F
dt

dL
angular form:

dt
Conservation of Angular Momentum

If
dL
0, I cons tan t I11 I 22
dt
Chapter 11, Problem 040
A disk with a rotational inertia of 9.89 kgm2 rotates
like a merry-go-round while undergoing a torque given
by
= (8.94 + 7.22t) N m.
At time t = 1.00 s, its angular momentum is 8.06
kgm2/s. What is its angular momentum at t = 3.00 s?

ANSWER: 54.8 kg m2/s


Chapter 11, Problem 055
A horizontal vinyl record of mass 0.139 kg and radius
0.128 m rotates freely about a vertical axis through its
center with an angular speed of 4.83 rad/s and a
rotational inertia of 3.05 x 10-4 kgm2. Putty of mass
0.0121 kg drops vertically onto the record from above
and sticks to the edge of the record. What is the
angular speed of the record immediately afterwards?

ANSWER: 2.93 rad/s


Chapter 11, Problem 057
A uniform disk of mass 4.00m and radius 2.00r can
rotate freely about its fixed center like a merry-go-
round. A smaller uniform disk of mass m and
radius r lies on top of the larger disk, concentric with it.
Initially the two disks rotate together with an angular
velocity of 20.2 rad/s. Then a slight disturbance causes
the smaller disk to slide outward across the larger disk,
until the outer edge of the smaller disk catches on the
outer edge of the larger disk. Afterward, the two disks
again rotate together (without further
sliding). (a) What then is their angular velocity about
the center of the larger disk? (b) What is the
ratio K/K0 of the new kinetic energy of the two-disk
system to the system's initial kinetic energy?

ANSWER: (a) 18.1 rad/s (b) 0.895


ANSWER: 14.7 N
ANSWER: 2.81 m/s
ANSWERS: (a) 0.00225 kgm2 (b) 3.40 m/s (c) 4.95 m/s
ANSWERS: (a) 0.309 rad (b) 100 J (c) 6.67 W
ANSWERS: (a) 67.6 N (b) 62.9 N (c) 3.27 s
Torque and the 2nd Condition of Equilibrium:

RECALL:
1st Condition of Equilibrium: Translational Equilibrium
A body is in translational equilibrium if the sum of
all forces acting on it is equal to zero.

Fx 0 Fy 0

2nd Condition of Equilibrium: Rotational Equilibrium


A body is in rotational equilibrium if the sum of all
torques acting on it about an axis is equal to zero.

0
Example 1
A meterstick weighs 1 N. It is supported at two
points, at the 0-cm and 70.0-cm marks, by vertical
forces F1 and F2. Find these forces

STEP 1: Draw the FBD F2


F1

axis
50 20 30
cm cm cm

1N
STEP 2: Choose a (convenient) axis of rotation.
STEP 3: Determine/compute all torques about this axis.
STEP 4: Get the sum of all torques and equate it to zero.
(1N )(0.5m) F2 (0.7 m) 0
STEP 5: Solve for the unknown. F2 0.7 N F1 0.3 N
Fa (b) Using the 1st
condition of equilibrium:

500 N 280 Fb Fa 0

1.50 m Fb 1140 N

Fb 280 N 500 N

(a) Let the axis be at the left end.

(500 N )(3m) (280 N )(1.5m) Fa (1m) 0 Fa 1920 N


FBD:

Fy

30O
Fx
w
w( 12 L cos 30) w( L cos 30) (T sin 30) L
w
T 2.60 w

Fx T 0 Fy w w 0 F (2.6 w) 2 (2 w) 2
Fx T 2.60 w Fy 2 w F 3.28w,37.6o
FBD:
30O

Fy

T
w( 12 L cos 45) w( L cos 45)
(T sin 15) L 0 45O w

Fx
T 4.10 w

Fx T cos 30 0 w

Fx (4.10W ) cos 30 3.55w F (3.55) 2 (4.05w) 2


Fy w w T sin 30 0 F 5.39 w,48.8o
Fy 4.05w
ANSWERS: (a) 29300 N (b) Fx = 25400 N; Fy = 40600 N
FBD:
Let the axis be at the right end:

240 N (1.5m) 90 N (0.5m) T2 sin 30(3m) 0 T1 270 N


Using the 1st Condition of Equilibrium:

(270 cos 30) T2 cos 0 T2 cos 234 N


240 N 90 N 270 sin 30 T2 sin 0 T2 sin 195 N

T2 sin 195 N
39.8o T2 305 N
T2 cos 234 N
Chapter 12, Problem 028
In the figure, suppose the length L of the uniform bar is
2.5 m and its weight is 180 N. Also, let the block's
weight W = 330 N and the angle = 33. The wire can
withstand a maximum tension of 350 N. (a) What is
the maximum possible distance x before the wire
breaks? With the block placed at this maximum x, what
are the (b) horizontal and (c) vertical
components of the force on the bar from the hinge
at A?

ANSWERS: (a) 0.76 m (b) 290 N (c) 320 N


Chapter 12, Problem 054
A uniform ladder whose length is 5.4 m and whose
weight is 470 N leans against a frictionless vertical wall.
The coefficient of static friction between the level
ground and the foot of the ladder is 0.49. What is the
greatest distance the foot of the ladder can be placed
from the base of the wall without the ladder
immediately slipping?

ANSWER: 3.8 m
Center of Gravity

Center of gravity (cg) is a point where the weight


of a body is considered concentrated.

y Torque due to weight of individual particles:

w1 x1 w2 x2 w3 x3 ...
x3
x1 Torque due to weight of the whole body:
xcg
wxcg
x2 w3
w1 coordinates of the c.g.
w x
w1 x1 w2 x2 w3 x3 ...
w2
xcg
w
w1 y1 w2 y2 w3 y3 ...
ycg
w
Center of Gravity of Different Shapes
Isosceles Triangle Right Triangle

y y

x 12 b x 13 b
h h
y 13 h y 13 h
x x
b b

Semicircle Quarter-circle
y
y

xR x 4
3

y 4
3 R y 4
3 R
x
x R
R
Center of Gravity

If the object is of uniform composition, its weight is


proportional to its area/volume.
y (cm)
coordinates of the c.g.
2.50
A2
2.00
x2
A1 x1 A2 x2 A3 x3 ...
y2 xcg
1.50 A
A3
1.00 x3
x1 A1 y1 A2 y2 A3 y3 ...
0.50
y1
y3 ycg
A1 A
x
0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 (cm)
EXAMPLE: Find the coordinates of the center of gravity of
the composite figure below.

A x y
y (cm)
(cm2 ) (cm) (cm)
25 1

20
2
15
3
10

5 4
x
5 (cm)
10 15 20 25 5

A= xcg= ycg=