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Lecture 6

Multi pressure vapour

refrigeration system
High temperaturelift (Tc-Te) is needed in many industrial and food preservation
When high temperature lift is required, single stage vapor refrigeration becomes
impractical having various problems:

Effect of high temperaturelift on SSS refrigeration cycle performance

Compound (Multi-stage) Refrigeration cycles have arisen as a solution to overcome this
Multi pressure vapour compression
refrigeration system
Types of multi pressure V. C. R. System

A. Multiple Compressors (Multi stage compression/

Compound compression) with single
evaporator, or

B. Multiple evaporator with single compressor

C. Multiple Compressors and evaporator

Flash gas removal using flash tank

Flash Gas: Refrigerant-vapour develops during the

throttling process, having some adverse effects:
Does not contribute to the refrigeration effect as (it is
already in the form of vapour)
Decrease the rate of heat transfer in evaporator.
Increases the pressure drop in the evaporator.

One way of improving the performance of the system is

to remove the flash gas at an intermediate pressure
using a flash tank.
The refrigerant liquid and vapour get separated in the flash tank.
upward velocity
of the refrigerant
vapor is (< 1m/s)

1. In process 6-7, The refrigerant from condenser is first expanded to an intermediate

press. corresponding to the pressure of flash tank, Pi using a low side float valve (float
valve also maintains a constant liquid level).
2. In the flash tank, the refrigerant liquid and vapour are separated.

Saturated liquid at point 8 is fed to the evaporator after throttling Saturated vapour in the flash tank (point 3) is either compressed
it to the required evaporator pressure, Pe (point 9) using an to the condenser pressure or throttled to the evaporator
expansion valve. pressure, depending upon the type of the system.
From the above expression, it can be seen that specific work input reduces as
specific volume, v1 is reduced. At a given pressure, the specific volume can be
reduced by reducing the temperature.

Using Intercooling not only reduces the work input but also reduces the compressor
discharge temperature leading to better lubrication and longer compressor life.
Intercooling in multi-stage compression (Cont.)
Intercooling in multi-stage compression (Cont.)
Intercooler between stages may be achieved either by:
Cooling with Refrigerant in flash tank Water Cooling
Optimum Intermediate pressure:
Multi-stage system with flash gas
removal and intercooling