Sei sulla pagina 1di 33



The term behavior therapy is applied to

psychological treatment based on
experimental psychology and intended to
change symptoms and behavior
Active participation in their own lives
Human destiny is not solely determined by the
socio-cultural society
more freedom to the individual to have more
control over their lives
Pushing towards freedom
Improve individuals skills so they can have more
option in life
Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov, 1936)

Operant Conditioning (BF Skinner, 1953)

Social learning ( Albert Bandura, 1963)

Cognitive Behavior Therapy ( Bandura, 1969,1986; Beck, 1976)

Focuses on Observable behaviors
Clear Treatment Goal

Applying Therapeutic Strategies based on learning

Theory principle

Behavior Learned trough reinforcement and imitation

The targeted behaviors are measured before and after
Not limited to the action that can be observed
Focus on the present
Active involvement of the client
Changes do not necessarily have to start with insight and
Evaluation is ongoing process
Treatment of behavior is accordance to the unique problem
CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make
negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which
reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive therapy helps
people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving
which aims to reduce their psychological distress.
Aversion therapy uses the principle that new behaviour can be
'learnt' in order to overcome addictions, obsessions or, as
demonstrated in Kubrick's film, A Clockwork Orange, violent
Patients undergoing aversion therapy are made to think of the
undesirable experience that they enjoy.

forexample, a violent person might be shown images of violent

crime, or an alcoholic might be made to drink, while drugs or
electric shocks are administered. In theory, the patient will, over
time, come to associate their addiction with the negativity of
electric shocks or seizures
1. Habits
2. Smoking
3. Alcoholism
4. Gambling
5. Violence
6. Homosexuality (historically)
Aversion therapy's long-term success in treating patients is
questionable; patients may appear to be treated by therapy,
but once out of the view of doctors, where the deterrent
drugs or electric shocks are removed, they may feel able to
return to their addictions or undesirable behaviour.
Aversion therapy has endured much criticism in previous decades
in its use in abusing patients. At a time when homosexuality was
considered by some to be a mental illness, gay people were made
to undergo aversion therapy for their lifestyles. A number of
fatalities have also occurred during aversion therapy.
Commonly Used To Treat FEAR, ANXIETY
The Goal Of This Therapy Is To Remove The
Phobic Response With Stimulus & Relaxation
For Example Fear Of Flying, Spider,
2. Client Creates A Hierarchy Of Feared
3. Client Will Deal With Phobias Starting
From Lowest Hierarchy To The Highest
Asking the client to close his eyes, sit in a comfortable
position, and relax all muscles while paying close
attention to breathing slowly and naturally.
Encourage the client to relax each muscle in his body
from his head to his toes.
Relaxation gives clients a sense of calmness & reduces fear
responses / worries.

Starting with the least frightening to most

frightening level
Behavior Fear rating
Think about a spider 10
Look at a photo of a spider 25
Look at a real spider in a closed box 50
Hold the box with the spider 60
Let a spider crawl on your shoe 80
Let a spider crawl on your sleeve 90
Let a spider crawl on your bare arm 100

The transition from one stage to the next is determined based on changes
in client phobic reaction.

Clientsare considered ready to start the next level when they feel
comfortable and lose the fear to the latest stimulus
Exposure therapy - psychological
treatment that was developed to help
people deal with fear

Individuals who are afraid of something

(e.g: objects, situations, events) will usually
avoid getting involved in the matter
1. In Vivo exposure

2. Flooding
Method in which the client will deal directly with
objects, situations or event that frighten them

1. Individuals who are afraid of snakes will be
instructed to hold a snake.

1.Individuals who fear the public will be directed to

go to a party or celebration.
Method is contrary to the in vivo exposure.
The therapist will use clients fear hierarchy and expose
them to an object, situation or activity that scares them the
To involve exposure to feared stimuli for a prolonged period.
In controlled conditions, the therapist will use relaxation
methods to replace the fear within the client
Benefit to the client who has phobias that seriously affect
their life
Used to improve the individual's ability to interact
effectively with other people in various social situations.
To improve the efficiency of the client's interpersonal
Social skills include the ability to communicate well and
Several elements in social skill training (e.g:
psychoeducation, modelling, behaviour rehearsal &
feedback (Antony & Roemer, 2011)
Suitable for clients who have psychosocial problems.
Negrin (2008) says that social skills training involves severals
processes such as assessment, direct instruction, coaching,
modelling, role playing & homework assignments.
Assessment help therapists identify aspects or situations where
clients have problems
Client learn new information to be applied to social situations.
Effective for treating clients who have had a variety of
emotional problems (anxiety disorders, social phobia, alcohol
dependence, depression, bipolar disorder, drug addiction.
This training aims to teach clients to be assertive in
various situation
Useful for individuals who have problems such as difficulty
in showing feelings of anger, difficulty to say no, too polite
& allow others to take advantage of them, individuals who
have difficulties showing affection & positive responses,
difficulties in expressing thoughts, feelings & trust and
individuals with social phobia.
Assertion does not teach people to be aggressive, but to
stand up & be brave enough in defending their rights.
This method is to teach clients the necessary skills to
manage themselves effectively.
These skills can be learned by the clients without need for
traditional treatment approaches & it is cost-effective
This method requires high commitment & responsibility
from the client.
The strategies in this exercise are self-monitoring, self-
reward, self-contracting & stimulus control
a) Selecting goals - Goals should be clear, measurable, achievable,
positive & important. Expectations must be realistic.
b) Translating goals into target behaviors - Identify the target
behavior. Expect obstacles & think of ways to overcome them.
c) Self-monitoring - Deliberately & systematically make observations
on the target behaviors. Record changes in diary.
d) Working out a plan for change - Think of the program that can
produce results. Design alternative programs for the same goal. Make
sure that the changes can be sustained by a strategy of self-
e) Evaluating an action plan - Evaluate the plan to determine its
effectiveness. Make changes if necessary.