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Physics 111: Lecture 23

Todays Agenda

Comment about = I (not true if I is changing!!)

General expression for the angular momentum of a system

Sliding beam example

Vector considerations of angular momentum


Bike wheel and rotating stool

Gyroscopic Motion

Comments about moving rotation axis

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 1


Lecture 23, Act 1
Angular momentum
Two different spinning disks have the same angular momentum,
but disk 1 has more kinetic energy than disk 2.
Which one has the biggest moment of inertia?

(a) disk 1 (b) disk 2 (c) not enough info

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 2


Lecture 23, Act 1
Solution
1 2 1 1
K I I 2 2 L2 (using L = I )
2 2I 2I
If they have the same L, the one with the biggest I
will have the smallest kinetic energy.

L I1 1 L I2 2

1 2

I1 < I2
disk 1 disk 2

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 3


When does = Inot work ?
dL
Last time we showed that EXT
dt
This is the fundamental equation for understanding rotation.

If we write L = I, then

dL d I d dI dI
I I
dt dt dt dt dt

dI
EXT I
dt

We cant assume = I when the moment of inertia is changing!

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 4


When does = Inot work?

dI
EXT I
dt

Now suppose EXT = 0:

dI dI
I 0
dt I dt

So in this case we can have an without an external torque!

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 5


Example...

A puck in uniform circular motion will experience rotational


acceleration if its moment of inertia is changed.

Changing the radius changes the moment of inertia, but


produces no torque since the force of the string is along the
radial direction. (since r X F = 0)

I1 > I2

1 2

2 >1
The puck accelerates without external torque!!
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 6
Review: Angular Momentum

dL EXT r FEXT
EXT where L r p and
dt

dL
In the absence of external torques EXT 0
dt

Total angular momentum is conserved

This is a vector equation.


Valid for individual components.

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 7


Review...

In general, for an object rotating about a fixed (z) axis we


can write LZ = I

The direction of LZ is given by the


z
right hand rule (same as ).

LZ I

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 8


Review...

A freely moving particle has a definite angular momentum


about any axis.
If no torques are acting on the particle, its angular
momentum will be conserved.
In the example below, the direction of L is along the z axis,
and its magnitude is given by LZ = pd = mvd.

x
d

m v

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 9


Lecture 23, Act 2
Rotations Puck on ice

A puck slides in a circular path on a horizontal frictionless table.


It is held at a constant radius by a string threaded through a
frictionless hole at the center of the table. If you pull on the
string such that the radius decreases by a factor of 2, by what
factor does the angular velocity of the puck increase?

(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 8

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 10


Lecture 23, Act 2
Solution
Since the string is pulled through a hole at the center of rotation,
there is no torque: Angular momentum is conserved.
2
L1 = I11 = mR21 = L2 = I22 = m R 2
2
1 2
mR21 = m R 2
4
1
1 = 2 2 =
4 41

m
R 1 m 2
R/2

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 11


A general expression for L of a system:

For a system of particles we can write L ri pi m i ri v i


i i

Express position and velocity in terms of the center of


mass:

ri = Rcm + ri* where ri* and v*i are the position and
vi = Vcm + v*i velocity measured in the CM frame.

r*
Rcm

r
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 12
A general expression for L of a system...

So we can write: L Rcm r * i mi Vcm v * i


i

Expanding this:

L Rcm miVcm Rcm mi v * i r * i miVcm r * i mi v * i


i i i i

Which becomes:

L Rcm MtotVcm Rcm mi v * i mi r * i Vcm r * i mi v * i
i i i

Lcm =MV*cm =MR*cm L*


= 0 = 0

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 13


A general expression for L of a system...

So finally we get the simple expression L = Lcm+ L*

Where LCM RCM PCM is the angular momentum of the CM

and L* is the angular momentum about the CM.

The total angular momentum of a system about a given


axis is the sum of the angular momentum of the center of
mass about this axis and the angular momentum about an
axis through the center of mass.

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 14


A general expression for L of a system...

We have just showed that L = Lcm+ L*


Picture it this way:

y
origin (axis)
x

d
m,I
CM

v LCM mvd k
L I k
*

due to rotation about CM due to movement of CM

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 15


Example 1 (Homework Problem)

A rod of length d and mass m1 is sliding on a frictionless


surface with speed vo as shown (without rotating). An
initially stationary block having mass m2, sticks to the end
of the rod as it goes by.
What is the final angular velocity F of the block-rod
system?

vo d
cm
F
m2 m1
top view: initial top view: final

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 16


Example 1...

Choose the origin to be at the location of the block before


the collision. We can determine the y-position of the center
of mass before the collision.

d m1
y cm
2 m1 m 2

y
vo
d/2

x m1
top view: initial

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 17


Example 1...

The z component of angular momentum about the center of


mass before the collision is due entirely to the center of
mass motion of the rod since the rod is not rotating.

d
LZ ,i m1v 0 y cm
2

y
vo d y
d/2 2 cm
ycm
x m1
top view: initial

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 18


Example 1...

The z component of angular momentum about the center of


mass after the collision is due to rotation about the center
of mass:

LZ,f Icm F
y
Icm

vF ycm
F
x
top view: final

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 19


Example 1...

We need to know the moment of inertia Icm about the center


of mass of the system.
2
m1d 2 m1 y cm m 2 y cm
1 d
Icm Irod Iblock 2
12 2

Irod (using || axis thm.) Iblock

m1 cm of rod
d/2 - ycm
d/2 cm of block-rod system
ycm
m2
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 20
Example 1...

Using conservation of angular momentum:


LZ ,f LZ ,i
d
Icm F m1v o y cm
2
And plugging in for Icm and ycm : m1v o d m1
F 1
2 Icm m1 m 2

Icm
y
vF ycm
F
x
top view: final
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 21
Example 1...

Suppose m1 = 2m2 = 2m

1 vo
Icm md 2 F
3 d

initial final

Icm
vo d
cm
F
m 2m

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 22


Angular momentum is a vector!
Demo: Turning the bike wheel.
A student sits on the rotatable stool holding a bicycle wheel
that is spinning in the horizontal plane. She flips the
rotation axis of the wheel 180o, and finds that she herself
starts to rotate.
Whats going on?

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 23


Turning the bike wheel...

Since there are no external torques acting on the student-


stool system, angular momentum is conserved.
Initially: LINI = LW,I
Finally: LFIN = LW,F + LS

LS

LW,I LW,I = LW,F + LS

LW,F

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 24


Lecture 23, Act 3
Rotations
A student is initially at rest on a rotatable chair, holding a
wheel spinning as shown in (1). He turns it over and starts
to rotate (2). If he keeps twisting, turning the wheel over
again (3), his rotation will:
(a) stop (b) double (c) stay the same
??

(1) (2) (3)

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 25


Lecture 23, Act 3
Solution

LNET LNET LNET

LW not
LW LS LW turning

[1] [2] [3]

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 26


Gyroscopic Motion:

Suppose you have a spinning gyroscope in the


configuration shown below:
If the left support is removed, what will happen??

support pivot

g

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 27


Gyroscopic Motion...

Suppose you have a spinning gyroscope in the


configuration shown below:
If the left support is removed, what will happen?
The gyroscope does not fall down!

pivot

g

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 28


Gyroscopic Motion...
Bicycle wheel
... instead it precesses around its pivot axis !
This rather odd phenomenon can be easily understood
using the simple relation between torque and angular
momentum we derived in Lecture 22.

pivot

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 29


Gyroscopic Motion...

The magnitude of the torque about the pivot is = mgd.


The direction of this torque at the instant shown is out of
the page (using the right hand rule).
The change in angular momentum at the instant shown
must also be out of the page!

d
dL

dt

L pivot

mg
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 30
Gyroscopic Motion...

Consider a view looking down on the gyroscope.


The magnitude of the change in angular momentum in a
time dt is dL = Ld.
dL d
So L L
dt dt
where is the precession frequency

L(t)

dL d pivot

L(t+dt)
top view
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 31
Gyroscopic Motion...
Toy Gyroscope
dL
So L
dt L

mgd
In this example, = mgd and L = I:
I

The direction of precession is given by applying the right


hand rule to find the direction of and hence of dL/dt.
d


L pivot

mg
Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 32
Aside (optional): Why we can write = I when
the CM is accelerating:

dL
We have shown that for any system EXT
dt
Express position and velocity in terms of the center of
mass:

ri = Rcm + ri* where ri* is the position


measured in the CM frame.

Write
i i

EXT ri Fi Rcm ri* Fi

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 33


Aside...

becomes: Rcm ri Fi LCM L


dL d
So EXT
* *

dt i dt

d d
Rcm Fi ri* Fi LCM L*
i i dt dt
But:
d
LCM
d
Rcm MnetVcm Rcm Mnet Acm Rcm Fnet Rcm i Fi
dt dt

d *
which leaves ri* Fi L
i dt

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 34


Aside...
d *
ri* Fi L
i dt
The sum on the left side is the total torque about the CM.

For a rigid, symmetric, solid object, L* Icmcm

so d d d
L* Icmcm Icm cm Icmcm
dt dt dt

Is always true, regardless of


cm I cm cm
the motion of the CM!

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 35


Recap of todays lecture
General expression for the angular momentum of a system
(Text: 10-2, 10-3)
Sliding beam example (Text: 10-4)

Vector considerations of angular momentum


(Text: 10-1, 10-3)
Bike wheel and rotating stool

Gyroscopic Motion (Text: 10-3)

Comments about moving rotation axis

Look at textbook problems Chapter 10: # 37, 61, 63, 65

Physics 111: Lecture 23, Pg 36