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Text books

1. Electronic Devices & Circuit Theory (10th Edition)


by Robert L. Boylestad Louis Nashelsky

2. Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits


by Ramakant A. Gayakwad
Course outline:
Low and high frequency response of amplifiers, frequency response
measurement techniques, Operational amplifiers, DC performance
like Bias, Offset and Drift, AC performance like Bandwidth, Slew-
rate and Noise, Operational amplifier circuits, non-inverting,
inverting, integrator, differentiator, summer and subtractor,
comparators, Schmitt trigger, precision rectifiers, precision clippers,
peak and zero-crossing detectors, voltage-to-current and current-
to-voltage converters, Instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, low-
pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject, higher order filters with
40- db/decade and 60-db/decade, oscillators, phase-shifters, Dual
Supply and Single-Supply operation of OPAMPs, OPAMP ICs,
LM741, LF351, LM324 and LM339, IC Timers, 555 Timer, operation
modes of 555, mono-stable, a-stable and bi-stable circuits, triangular,
saw-tooth and sine wave generators, class A, B and C power
amplifiers, voltage regulators, series and shunt regulators, switching
regulators, SCR and TRIAC.
What is a Signal?
Signal contains information about the variety of things and activities
in our physical world
A signal describes how some physical quantity varies over time
and/or space.
Signal is a time varying quantity represented by a graph.
Example includes:
1- Air pressure, Air temperature contains information about the
weather forecast.
2- News readers acoustic signal broadcasted on Radio or TV contains
information about world affairs.
3- Electrocardiogram: a record or display of a person's heart beat
produced by electrocardiography (ECG).
4- Air conditioner: Temperature sensor output contains information
about the temperature of the room based on which compressor in
ON or OFF.
What is a Signal ? Continued
Information content of the signal is
represented by the changes in its
magnitude as the time progress.
Information is contained in the Wiggles
What is Signal Processing?
Manipulating a signal to change its
characteristics or extract information

Performed by:
1- Computer
2-Special purpose integrated circuits
3-Analog electrical circuits
What are Sensors/Transducers?
In order to process a signal, the physical
quantity first needs to be converted into
an electrical signal.

The device that do this job is called a


sensor or a transducer.
Antenna

Sensor/ Transducers Types Electronic system

Speaker

There are many type of sensors including the following:


Thermistor and thermocouples (to measure temperature)
Phototransistors and photodiodes (to measure light)
Strain gauges and piezoelectric materials (to measure force)
Potentiometers, inductive sensors, and absolute position encoders
(to measure displacement)
Tachometers, accelerometers, and Doppler Effect sensors
(to measure motion)
Microphones (to measure sound)
Anemometer (to measure the wind speed)
Fourier Series of a signal
Frequency Spectrum
Digital Signal
A/D Converter
Amplifier
Linear Voltage Amplifier
Applications of electronic systems:

Few examples of electronics applications include


but not limited to:

Radio
Television
Telephony
Mobiles (smart phones/tablets/iPods-portable media
players/pocket computers)
Computers//Laptops
Calculators
Remote controls
Instrumentation and measurements (Oscilloscopes/function
Generators/DMMs/Power supplies etc.)
Examples of electrical Systems:

Few examples of electrical systems include but


not limited to:

Fans
Motors
Generators
Transformers
Air conditioners
Refrigerators
Light loads (Bulbs/tube lights/LED Lights)
Heating elements (Iron, Oven, electric heaters)
Washing machines
Grinder/Juicers
Domains of electronics:

Few domains of electronics include but not limited


to:
Communication
Control & Automation
Embedded
Industrial applications
Instrumentations
Robotics
Automobiles
Power electronics
Space/satellites
Military
Medicine
Weather
Entertainment
Electronic Toys
Domain of electronics Continued.

Steady progress in integrated-circuit technology over 40+ years has had dramatic
impact on the way people live, work, and play.

Military
Communications
Computers

Industrial Transportation Consumer Electronics


Functions of Electronics:

Electronics is used to perform few (but not limited


to) of the following functions which includes:

Amplification
Wave shaping
Multiplications/Mixing
Regulation
Filtering
Oscillators/Test Signal Generators
Integration/differentiation
History of Electronics:

1940s:Vacuum-tube era ENIAC-The first digital computer

Vacuum tubes were used for radios,


television, telephone equipment,
and computers
but they were expensive, bulky,
fragile, and energy-hungry

Invention of the point-contact transistor


Walter Brattain, John Bardeen,
and William Shockley, Bell Labs, 1947
Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
reproducibility was an issue, however
Invention of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
William Shockley, Bell Labs, 1950
more stable and reliable; easier and cheaper to make
History of Electronics
Beyond Very
Early 1990s
large Scale more then 109
Integrated
circuits

Very large Scale


Integrated 10 4 to 109
Early 1980s
circuits (VLSI)

Integrated Less then 100


Circuits (SSI/ Transistors
1958
MSI)

1947 Transistors Discrete

Early 1900s Vacuum Tubes

Generation of Microelectronic technology


Electronic systems

Antenna

Electronic system

Speaker

Radio Receiver

Temperature
Electronic system
Sensor

I-1

Display Instrument

Temperature Display Instrument


Block diagram of an Audio Amplifier
Example electronic system:

Audio amplifier
Block diagram of an Audio Amplifier Continued
Block diagram of Radio receiver

Antenna

Received Local
Signal Oscillator

RF RF IF
Mixer
Filter Amplifier Amplifier

Audio Peak IF
Amplifier detector FIlter

Speaker
Example electronic system:

cell phone Architecture


PCB Board Example:
PCB Design Example:
Curriculum Breakdown
Electrical
Engineering

Power
Engineering

Electronics/
Computer/
Telecom

Electricity & Sem-I


Magnetism

Digital Analog
Domain Domain
Sem-II
ECA-I

DLD

ED-I ECA-II Sem-III

Comp.
Arch.
ED-II Sem-IV

Sem-V
Embedded
system
Analog /
Digital

Power Sem-VII
electronics
Curriculum Breakdown Continued
Electrical
Engineering

Power
Engineering

Electronics/
Computer/
Telecom
Analog
Digital Domain
R, L, C &
Domain Their Electricity & Sem-I
Physical Magnetism
Aspects

Basic laws Sem-II


(Ohms Law, ECA-I
KVl, KCL)

Basic
components Basic
DLD
(Gates, FF, components
Registers) (Diodes, ED-I Sequel ECA-II Sem-III
Transistors) Course

Basic Modules
Comp.
(ALU, Control
Arch. Basic modules
unit etc.)
(Op-Amps, 555 ED-II Sem-IV
Timers etc.)

Analog /
Digital
Here you come across to
know How systems are Sem-V
build using modules as Embedded
basic building blocks system
(microcontrollers, FPGAs
etc)

Both analog and digital


processing is done at the
same time to interface Power Sem-VII
with the real world and to electronics
execute the analog loads
like Motors, speakers,
antennas etc.