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Kinetics of a Particle:

Force and Acceleration

F = ma


Newtons First Law:The law of inertia

An object at rest will remain its original

state of motion (rest or moving at
constant velocity) if the sum of force is
Newtons Second Law of Motion

If the sum of force is non-zero

Newtons Second Law of Motion
Second Law:
A particle acted upon
by an unbalanced
force F experiences an
acceleration a that has
the same direction as
the force and a
magnitude that is
directly proportional to Portrait of Sir Isaac
Newton at aged 46
the force.
Newtons Second Law of Motion
Mass is a property of matter
W mg
Mass of the body is specified in kilograms
Weight is the force applied to mass due to
Weight is calculated using the equation of
motion, F = ma
W = mg (N)
(g = 9.81 m/s2)

Equation of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates
Procedure for Analysis
1. Select inertial coordinate system:
rectangular or normal/tangential
2. Draw free body diagram (FBD) showing all
external forces applied to the particle.
Resolve forces into components

Procedure for Analysis
3. Draw kinetic diagram, showing particles
inertia force, ma. Resolve this vector into
its components.

4. Apply equation of motion (F = ma) in

their scalar component form
5. Identify the unknowns in the problem and
solve them
Equation of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates
Procedure for Analysis
It may be necessary to apply kinematic equations
to generate additional equations.
If acceleration is a function of time, use:
a = dv/dt v v0 act
v = ds/dt 1 2
s s0 v0t act
a ds= v dv 2
v 2 v02 2ac s s0

Equation of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates
When a particle is moving relative to an inertial x, y, z
frame of reference,
F = ma ;
Fxi + Fyj + Fzk = m(axi + ayj + azk)

The respective i, j, k components on the left side must

equal to the corresponding components on the right
side. Thus, the three scalar equations:
Solve up to 3 scalar unknowns
Fx max
Fy ma y
Fz maz 10
For 2D problem
Solve up to 2 scalar unknowns
System involving many
Example 1

The 50-kg crate rests on a horizontal plane

with the coefficient of kinetic friction is k =
0.3. If the crate is subjected to a 400-N
towing force, determine the velocity of the
crate at 3 s starting from rest.

Solution Example 1

Draw FBD

Solution Example 1
1. Free-Body Diagram
Weight of the crate is W = mg = 50 (9.81) = 490.5 N.
The frictional force is F = kNC and acts to the left,
There are 2 unknowns, NC and a.
2. Equations of Motion

Fx max ; 400 cos 30 0.3N C 50a

Fy ma y ; N C 490.5 400 sin 30 0

Solving we get N C 290.5 N , a 5.19m / s 2

Solution Example 1
3. Kinematics
Acceleration is constant.
Velocity of the crate in 3s is

v v0 act
0 5.19(3)
15.6m / s

Crates FBD and kinetic diagram

Example 2
The baggage truck A has a weight of 3600 N and
tows a 2200 N cart B and a 1300 N cart C. For a
short time the driving force developed at the
wheels is FA = (160t) N where t is in seconds. If the
truck starts from rest, determine its speed in 2
seconds. What is the horizontal force acting on the
coupling between the truck and cart B at this

Example 2
The baggage truck A has a weight of 3600 N and tows a
2200 N cart B and a 1300 N cart C.
FA = (160t) N where t is in seconds.


Example 2
1. Free-Body Diagram
We have to consider all 3 vehicles.
2. Equations of Motion
Only horizontal motion is considered.

F x max ;
3600 2200 1300
160t a
a 0.221t

Example 2
3. Kinematics
The velocity of the truck is obtained using a = dv/dt
with the initial condition that v0 = 0 at t = 0,
v 2 22
0 dv 0 (0.221t ) dt; v 0.1105t 0.442m / s

1. Free-Body Diagram The force acting on the coupling,T ?

2. Equations of Motion
When t = 2 s, then

F x max ;
160(2) T 0.221(2) T 157.8 N
Equations of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates
Equation of motion for the particle may be
written in the tangential and normal

Ft mat
Fn man
Fb 0

Equations of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Procedures for Analysis

1. Free-Body Diagram
Establish the inertial t and n coordinate system
at the particle and draw the particles FBD
Normal acceleration an, always acts in the
positive n direction
Tangential acceleration at is assume in the
positive t direction
Identify the unknowns in the problem

Equations of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

Procedures for Analysis

2. Equation of Motion
Apply the equations of motion,

F ma
t t , F n man

3. Kinematics
Formulate at = dv/dt or at = v dv/ds and an = v2/
If the path is defined as y = f(x),

1 dy / dx
2 3/ 2
/ d 2 y / dx2
Example 3
Determine the banking angle for the race track
so that the wheels of the racing cars will not have
to depend upon friction to prevent any car from
sliding up or down the track. Assume the cars
have negligible size a mass m, and travel around
the curve of radius with a speed v.

Example 3
1. Free-Body Diagrams
No frictional force acting on the car.
NC represents the resultant of the ground on all four
Unknown are NC and .

Example 3
2. Equations of Motion
Using the n and b axes,
Fn man ;
NC sin m

Fb 0; NC cos mg 0

Solving the 2 equations, eliminating NC and m,

v2 v 2
tan tan 1
g g
Example 4
Design of the ski requires knowing the type of
forces that will be exerted on the skier and his
approximate trajectory. In the case as shown,
determine the normal force and acceleration on
the 600-N skier the instant he arrives at the end of
jump, A, where his velocity is 9 m/s.

Example 4
1. Free-Body Diagrams
As path is curved, there are an and at
Unknowns are at and NA
2. Equations of Motions

600 9 2
Fn man ; N A 600
Ft mat ; 0 at

Example 4
2. Equations of Motions
1 2 dy 1 d2y 1
We have y x 15 x ; 2

60 dx 30 dx 30
At x = 0,

1 (dy / dx) 2 3/ 2
2 2
d y / dx
x 0

Thus NA = 765 N
3. Kinematics
With at = 0, an 2.7m / s 2 ; a A an 2.7m / s 2