Sei sulla pagina 1di 45

Free Radicals and Antioxidants

The Price for Living

Free Radical Generation and
Defense Mechanism
Ten Leading Causes of Death in
the United States (%)
1. Heart diseases (32)* 6. Pneumonia & Influenza (4)
2. Cancers (23)* 7. Diabetes Mellitus (3)*
3. Strokes (7)* 8. AIDS (2)
4. Lung Diseases (5) 9. Suicide (1)
5. Accidents (4) 10. Liver Disease (1)
indicates diet-related diseases (65%)
>90% of disease incidence involves free radical damage
Questions asked
What are free radicals?
Types of free radicals
Sources of free radicals
Oxygen metabolism
What are free radicals?
Any molecule containing
one or more unpaired
These unpaired electrons
readily form free radical
molecules which are
chemically reactive and
highly unstable.
Types of free radicals
1. Superoxide, O2-
2. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
3. Hydroxyl radical, OH-
4. Singlet oxygen, 1O2
5. Hydroperoxy radical, HOO-
6. Lipid peroxide radical, ROO-
7. Nitric oxide, NO-
8. peroxynitrite, ONOO-
e- e-, 2H+ e-, H+ e-, H+
O2 O2- H2O2 OH- H2O
Superoxide Hydrogen H2O Hydroxyl
peroxide radical
Properties of free radicals
1. Highly reactive
2. Very short half-life
3. Generate new radicals by chain reaction
4. Cause damage to biomolecules, cells and tissues

Most free radicals in biological systems are

derivatives of oxygen (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS),
but there are also derivatives of nitrogen (Reactive
Nitrogen Species, RNS), Reactive Metabolites or
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

Superoxide (O2.-)
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
Hydroxyl Radical (OH.)
Singlet oxygen, 1O2

Reactive Oxygen Species is used in a broad

sense to collectively free radicals (O2.-, OH.)
and non-free radicals (H2O2, 1O2, which are
extremely reactive) of the biological system.
Generation of Free Radical

1. Cellular metabolism
About 1-4% of oxygen taken up in the body is converted to
free radicals. They are constantly produced during the normal
oxidation of foodstuffs.
a) due to leaks in the electron transport chain in mitochondria.
b) Some enzymes such as xanthine oxidase and aldehyde
oxidase form superoxide anion radical or hydrogen peroxide.
c) Macrophage also produces NO from arginine by the enzyme
nitric oxide synthase. This is also an important anti-bacterial
Sources of oxygen free radicals
In mitochondria:
- generation of energy - ATP
- glucose, fatty acids, amino acids
- O2 2H2O
- leakage of O2-. (superoxide)
H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)
Generation of Free Radical

2. Environmental effects:
a) due to drug metabolism.
b) due to damages caused by UV or X-rays
c) cigarette or alcohol.

FORMATION Environmental pollution

Industrial pollution

Alcohol &

Pesticides & herbicides

High fat
Harmful effects of free radicals
A. Free Radical and biomolecules
1. Proteins
Cause oxidation of sulfhydryl groups, and modification
of AA. ROS may damage protein by fragmentation,
aggregation results in the loss of biological activity of
2. Lipids
The polyunsaturated lipid molecules of cell
membranes are particularly susceptible to damaging
free radicals process and contribute to the
uncontrolled chain reaction (lipid peroxidation).
Lipid peroxidation
Lipid peroxidation refers
to the oxidative
degradation of lipids.
It is the process whereby
free radicals "steal"
electrons from the lipids in
cell membranes, resulting
in cell damage.
This process proceeds by
a free radical chain
reaction mechanism. It
most often affects
polyunsaturated fatty
In addition, end products
of lipid peroxidation may
be mutagenic and
Harmful effects of free radicals
A. Free Radical and biomolecules

3. Carbohydrates
Glycation increases the susceptibility of proteins to
the attack by free radicals.

4. Nucleic acid
cause DNA strand breaks, fragmentation of bases
and deoxyribose results in cytotoxicity and
Oxidative Damage

Free Radicals

Proteins Lipids DNA/RNA

(-SH) (R-OO.) (-OH.)
Harmful effects of free radicals
B. Diseases
1. Cardiovascular diseases (CHD): ox-LDL, formed
by the action of free radicals, promote CHD and
atherosclerosis (AS).
2. Cancers: damage DNA and cause mutation and
cytotoxicity, play a key role in carcinogenesis.
3. Inflammatory diseases: damage on the extracellular
components such as collagen and hyaluronic acid, promote
glomerulonephritis and ulcerative colitis.
4. Respiratory diseases: destroy endothelium and
cause lung edema. Cigarette smoke contains free radicals
and promotes the production of more free radicals.
Macrophage take up oxidized LDL, when
overload with lipid, become foam cells.
Conglomerate of foam cells form fatty
streaks or yellow patches visible in the
arterial wall.
Dying foam cells release lipid that form
lipid pool within the arterial wall.
Harmful effects of free radicals
B. Free Radical and diseases
5. Diabetes mellitus: Destruction of islets results in
6. Cataract
7. Male infertility: reduce sperm motility and
8. Aging process
9. Others: such as Parkingsons disease, Alzheimers
disease, multiple sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, muscular
Severity of Oxidative Stress &
Biological Consequences
Severity of Biological
Oxidative Stress Consequences

A. Low level & gradual Aging

B. Medium level & rapid Mutagenesis

C. Large level & rapid Death, Stroke,

Trauma, Ionizing
Bacteria Anti-biotic

Free Radicals Anti-oxidants

The substance present in low concentrations
relative to the oxidizable substrate that
significantly delays or reduces oxidation of the
They reduce the effect of dangerous oxidants by
binding together with these harmful molecules,
decreasing their destructive power.
They can also help repair damage already sustained
by cells.
They may be considered as the scavengers of free
During this reaction the antioxidant sacrifices
itself by becoming oxidized.
However, antioxidant supply is not unlimited as
one antioxidant molecule can only react with a
single free radical. Therefore, there is a constant
need to replenish antioxidant resources.

Prevents the transfer of electron

from O2 to organic molecules
Stabilizes free radicals
Terminates free radical reactions
Classification of antioxidant
. According to their location
a) Plasma antioxidants:
ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), bilirubin, uric
acid, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, -carotene;
b) Cell membrane antioxidants:
-tocopherol (Vitamin E)
c) Intracellular antioxidants:
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase,
glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
Classification of antioxidant
. According to their nature and action
a) Enzymatic antioxidants:
SOD, catalase, GPx, glutathione reductase
b) Non-enzymatic antioxidants:
Nutrient antioxidants:
-carotene, -tocopherol, ascorbic acid,
Metabolic antioxidants:
bilirubin, uric acid, ceruloplasmin, ferritin,
transferrin, albumin, glutathione
Enzymatic antioxidant
1. superoxide dismutase (SOD)

2O2+ 2H+ SOD H2O2 + O2

SOD is present in essentially every cell in the body

which actually represented by a group of metalloenzymes
with various prosthetic groups. SOD appears in three
a) Cu-Zn SOD: in the cytoplasm with two subunits
b) Mn-SOD: in the mitochondrion
c) Cu-SOD: extracellular SOD
This is the first line of defence to protect cells
from the injurious effects of superoxide.
Enzymatic antioxidant
2. catalase, CAT

2H2O2 catalase 2H2O + O2

Catalase, iron dependent

enzyme, is present in all body
organs being especially
concentrated in the liver and
erythrocytes. The brain, heart
and skeletal muscle contains
only low amounts.
Enzymatic antioxidant
3. glutathione peroxidase, GPx

GPx is a selenium-dependent enzyme.

The entire process is driven by energy production at
the cellular level, which involves proper thyroid hormone
levels, healthy mitochondrial function, and an active
pentose-phosphate metabolic pathway.
Nutrient antioxidant
1. -tocopherol (vitamin E)

The most important lipid-soluble antioxidant

Present in all cellular membranes.
Protect against lipid peroxidation.
1. Vitamin E was shown to be stored in adipose
2. Vitamin E prevents the peroxidation of
membrane phospholipids and avoids cell
membrane damage through its antioxidant
Nutrient antioxidant
2. ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

+ 2O2 + 2H+ H2O2 +

Dehydroascorbate, DHA
It is a water-soluble, antioxidant present in citrus
fruits, potatoes, tomatoes and green leafy vegetables.
It is a chain breaking antioxidant as a reducing agent
or electron donor. It scavenges free radicals and inhibits
lipid peroxidation. It also promotes the regeneration of -
Nutrient antioxidant
3. carotenoids

Carotenoids consist of C40 chains with conjugated

double bonds, they show strong light absorption and often
are brightly colored (red, orange). They occur as pigments
in bacteria, algae and higher plants.
-carotene is the most important.
It is composed of two molecules of
vitamin A (retinol) joined together.
Dietary -carotene is converted to
retinol at the level of the intestinal
mucosa. It can quench singlet oxygen.
Quenching of singlet oxygen is
the basis for it's well known
therapeutic efficacy in
erythropoietic protoporphyria (a
photosensitivity disorder).
Lycopene is responsible for color
of certain fruits and vegetables like
tomato. It also possesses antioxidant
Nutrient antioxidant
4. -lipoic acids

It is vitamin-like compound, produced in the

body, besides the supply from plant and animal
It plays a key role in recycling other
important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, -
tocopherol and glutathione.
Other important nutrient antioxidants

Antioxidant Source
1.Coenzyme Q10 organ meats (best heart), beef, chicken
2. Selenium sea foods, meats, whole grains
3. Proanthocyanidins grape seeds
4. Catechins green tea
5. Quercetin onions, red wine, green tea
6. Ellagic acid berries, walnuts, pomegranates
Metabolic antioxidant
1. glutathione, GSH

In addition to its role as a substrate in GSH

redox cycle, GSH is also a scavenger of hydroxyl
radicals and singlet oxygen. GSH also has an
important role in xenobiotic metabolism.
Metabolic antioxidant

1. Uric acid scavenge singlet oxygen and hydroxy radical

2. Ceruloplasmin inhibit iron and copper dependent lipid peroxidation
3. Transferrin prevents iron-catalyzed radical formation
4. Albumin scavenge radicals on its surface
5. Bilirubin protects albumin bound FFA from peroxidation
6. Haptoglobin bind to free Hb and prevent the acceleration
of lipid peroxidation
Normally, cellular homeostasis is a delicate balance
between the production of free radicals and our
antioxidant defenses.
Chinese Saying --

Supplementation with drugs is never as
good as supplemention with foods.
Primarily consumed in China, Japan,
Middle East, North Africa & North America -
Rich in polyphenol an antioxidant

200 times more powerful than Vitamin E

Scavenges free radicals, high rate
Reduce the risk of heart diseases
Lowers LDL oxidation
Prevents Red blood Cell breakdown
Protects against digestive & respiratory
Prevents cancers of colon, pancreas &

What should you do?

Notice: Countering the Harmful
Effects of Free Radicals
Dont smoke if you do then make it a point to quit
Don't overdo your exposure to the sun
Dont over consume alcohol
Dont consume foods containing trans fats or
hydrogenated oils
Get your cardio exercise from sprinting or interval
Do consume antioxidant rich foods and use a good
antioxidant formula
Keep your stress levels down
The End

Terima Kasih