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Protection Application Autoreclosing

Handbook
ABB Group - 1 -
15-Sep-17
ABB Group - 2 -
15-Sep-17

Autoreclosing
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing Cycle

OH-lines
High fault-rate
(80-90%)

Fast
simultaneous
Fault clearing
ABB Group - 3 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
AUTORECLOSING CYCLE

OH-lines
Intermittent faults
(80-90%)

Successful
AR-rate :
High (80-90%)
ABB Group - 4 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing principles

95% of faults are transient type


3 Ph autoreclosing synchrocheck is used
Helps verify phase angles are not out of phase e.g: due to
heavy power swing
1 Ph autoreclosing needs identification of faulty phase
Phase identification is difficult for high resistance faults
ABB Group - 5 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing principles
ABB Group - 6 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Autoreclosure in a Line
bay

AR- Autorecloser
BFR- Breaker failure
relay
COM- Communication
COND-CB condition
DLC SC-Dead line check
and synchronism check
LP- Line protection
MAN- Manual CB control
PD- Pole discordance
relay
ABB Group - 7 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing principles
Protections that start autoreclosing
Main 1 protection
Main 2 protection
Protections that block autoreclosing
CB fail detected by Breaker fail relay & Pole discrepancy relay
CB not ready
Delayed tripping ( Zone2 or3 of distance relay , Back up relay)
Manual CB operation
Communication fail
Direct transfer trip receive , BB protection , O/V protection, Reactor
protection
ABB Group - 8 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Circuit-breaker Contact Travel

Contact position

t2 t6
Closed Closed

Open Time

t1 t3 t4 t5
ABB Group - 9 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Dead time for Automatic Reclosing Equipment

A B

t t2A t
1A 6A
Closed
Contact position

Open A
t t
1B 2B Dead time
Closed
Open t B
6B
Interruption time

t Time
0
ABB Group - 10 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Single-pole Reclosing

Single-Pole Reclosing

A B C A B C
ABB Group - 11 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Temporal Description of Automatic Reclosing
HSR = High-Speed Automatic Reclosing
DR = Delayed Automatic Reclosing
R = Automatic Reclosing
SR = Slow Automatic Reclosing

DR

HSR

R SR
TD

0.1 3 s
ABB Group - 12 -

1 10 100
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Classical Three-pole Reclosing

A B

F
t
1A

t2A Dead time


Closed
Contact position

Open A
t
6A
Interruption time

Closed
t2B Open
t t B
1B 6B
ABB Group - 13 -

t Time
0
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Factors affecting extinction of Primary Arc
Fault current magnitude
Fault clearance time
Coupling from energized conductors
Closing or opening of resistors
Magnitude of reenergizing voltage
Point of wave for reenergizing
Magnetic forces on the fault current
Length of insulating string
Weather conditions
ABB Group - 14 -

Shape of grading ring


15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Minimum Dead Time (IEEE)

System Voltage Minimum deionization time [ms]


kV Based on Field and Based on Operating
Laboratory Tests Experience
23 110 180
46 120 200
69 130 210
115 150 230
132 160 240
230 210 280
345 260 340
400 280 370
500 330 420
ABB Group - 15 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Minimum Dead Time for Three-pole Reclosing
Minimum Dead Time
Three-Pole Reclosing
ms
500
Based on Opera-
400 ting Experience

300

200

100 Based on Field and


Laboratory Tests

100 200 300 400 500 600 kV


ABB Group - 16 -

System Voltage
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Double Fault on a Double-circuit Line

A B C A B C
L1

L R
L2
ABB Group - 17 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Capacitive Coupling and Single-pole Tripping

A B C C p
A B C

C p C p

L R

Ce Ce Ce
ABB Group - 18 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Secondary arc

Secondary arc is phasor sum of currents maintained by


capacitive and inductive coupling from the energised
phase conductors
ABB Group - 19 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Critical Line Lengths for Single-pole Reclosing

System Voltage Critical Line Length [miles]


kV Successful Range Doubtful Range
230 0-300 300-500
345 0-140 140-260
500 0-60 60-100
765 0-50 50-80
ABB Group - 20 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Artificial extinction of secondary arc

Where high-speed automatic reclosing is to be implemented,


secondary arcs must be artificially extinguished since they would
otherwise last too long.
There are several methods to extinguish artificially the secondary
arc:

Fixed Four-Reactor Scheme


Switched Four-Reactor Scheme
High speed Earthing Switch Scheme
ABB Group - 21 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Fixed Four-reactor Scheme

ABC ABC

L R

Lp Lp Lp

Ln
ABB Group - 22 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Secondary Arcing Time (Haubrich)

Secondary Arcing Time


s T sa Haubrich 1971

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5
Is
ABB Group - 23 -

50 100 150 A
15-Sep-17
ABB Group - 24 -
15-Sep-17

Autoreclosing
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing in one and a half breaker
system
ABB Group - 25 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Auto reclosing in one and a half breaker
system
ABB Group - 26 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
Special problems

Memory Circuit
Priority circuit
Autoreclosure out of service
ABB Group - 27 -
15-Sep-17
ABB Group - 28 -
15-Sep-17

Autoreclosing
Autoreclosing
Synchronism and Energizing check

UBus

FreqDiff < 50-300 mHz U Bus


ULine UBus o 1-ph
PhaseDiff < 5-75
UDiff < 5-50% Ur
U Line ULine
UHigh > 50-120% Ur 3-ph (or 1-ph)
ULow < 10-100% Ur
Fuse fail
SYNC-BLOCK
ABB Group - 29 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
DLC and SC at Auto reclosing
ABB Group - 30 -
15-Sep-17
CBIP manual on Protection
of Generators, generator Auto Reclosing
transformers and 220kV
and 400 kV networks
ABB Group - 31 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
1.0 GENERAL

The auto-reclosing of power lines has become a generally accepted


practice.

Reports from different parts of the world show that in


certain networks in region subject to a high lightening intensity only
about 5% of the faults are permanent.

Auto reclosing therefore provides significant advantages.

Outage times will be short compared to where station personnel


have to re-energize the lines after a fault.

In interconnected networks auto-reclosing helps in maintaining


system stability
ABB Group - 32 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
1.1 Recommendations for provisions of auto-reclosing

Presently 1 phase high speed auto-reclosure (HSAR) at 400kV and


220kV level is widely practised including on lines emanating from
Generating Stations and the same is recommended for adoption.

If 3-phase auto-reclosure is adopted in future the application of the


same on lines emanating from generating stations should be studied
and decision taken on case to case basis.
ABB Group - 33 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
2.0 SETTING CRITERIA

2.1 Dead Time

Auto- reclosing requires a dead time which exceeds the de-ionising


time

Time required for the de-ionising of the fault path depends on:- arcing
time, fault duration, wind conditions, circuit voltage, capacitive
coupling to adjacent conductors, etc.

Single phase dead time of 1.0 sec is recommended for both 400kV
and 220kV system.
ABB Group - 34 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
2.2 Reclaim Time

The time during which a new start of the auto-reclosing equipment is


blocked.

If reclosing shot has been carried out and the line is energized and a
new fault occurs before the reclaim time has elapsed, the auto-reclosing
equipment is blocked and a signal for definite tripping of the breaker is
obtained.

After the reclaim time has elapsed, the auto-reclosing equipment


returns to the starting position and a new reclosing sequence can occur.

The reclaim time must not be set to such a low value that the intended
operating cycle of the breaker is exceeded, when two faults incidents
occur close together.
ABB Group - 35 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
If the breaker is closed manually, the auto reclosing equipment is
blocked and cannot start again until the reclaim time has elapsed.

For the breaker to be used for auto-reclosing, it is essential that it


has the operating mechanism and breaking capacity necessary for
it to be able to perform the auto-reclosing sequences required.
ABB Group - 36 -
15-Sep-17
Autoreclosing
2.3 Circuit Breaker Requirement

According to IEC Publication 56.2, a breaker must be capable of


withstanding the following operating cycle with full rated breaking
current:
O + 0.3 s + CO + 3 min + CO

The recommended operating cycle at 400kV and 220kV is as per the


IEC standard.

Reclaim time of 25 sec is recommended.


ABB Group - 37 -
15-Sep-17
ABB Group - 38 -
15-Sep-17

Autoreclosing